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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 25 of 211 Research Studies Displayed
Sikora A, Jeong H, Yu M
Cluster analysis driven by unsupervised latent feature learning of medications to identify novel pharmacophenotypes of critically ill patients.
This study used a machine learning approach (Restricted Boltzmann Machine) to perform an unsupervised analysis of 991 medication profiles of patients managed in the intensive care unit (ICU) to explore pharmacophenotypes that correlated with ICU complications (e.g., mechanical ventilation) and patient-centered outcomes (e.g., length of stay, mortality). The authors observed six unique pharmacophenotypes, with unique medication profiles and clinically relevant differences in ICU complications and patient-centered outcomes. While pharmacophenotypes 2 and 4 had no statistically significant difference in ICU length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or duration of vasopressor use, their mortality differed significantly (9.0% vs. 21.9%). All but pharmacophenotype 4 had a mortality rate ranging from 2.5 to 9%. This approach has shown promise in classifying the heterogenous syndromes of critical illness to predict treatment response and guide clinical decision support systems but have never included comprehensive medication information.
Citation: Sikora A, Jeong H, Yu M . Cluster analysis driven by unsupervised latent feature learning of medications to identify novel pharmacophenotypes of critically ill patients. Sci Rep 2023 Sep 20; 13(1):15562. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-42657-2..
Keywords: Medication, Critical Care
Karvonen KL, Anunwah E, Chambers Butcher BD
Structural racism operationalized via adverse social events in a single-center neonatal intensive care unit.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to assess structural racism in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) by establishing whether variations in adverse social events occur by racialized groups. The study included 3,290 infants hospitalized in a single center NICU in the Racial and Ethnic Justice in Outcomes in Neonatal Intensive Care (REJOICE) study, and researchers included demographics and adverse social events including infant urine toxicology screening, child protective services (CPS) referrals, behavioral contracts, and security emergency response calls were collected from electronic medical records. The study found that 6.2% of families experienced an adverse social event. Black families had a greater likelihood of having experienced a CPS referral and a urine toxicology screen. American Indian and Alaskan Native families also had a greater likelihood of experiencing CPS referrals and urine toxicology screens. Black families had a greater likelihood of experiencing behavioral contracts and security emergency response calls. Latinx families had a similar risk of adverse events, and Asian families were less likely to experience adverse events.
AHRQ-funded; HS028473; HS026383.
Citation: Karvonen KL, Anunwah E, Chambers Butcher BD . Structural racism operationalized via adverse social events in a single-center neonatal intensive care unit. J Pediatr 2023 Sep; 260:113499. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2023.113499..
Keywords: Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Newborns/Infants, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care
Lenz KB, Nishisaki A, Lindell RB
Peri-intubation adverse events in the critically ill child after hematopoietic cell transplant.
The goal of this study was to investigate whether adverse peri-intubation associated events occur at increased frequency in pediatric patients with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) compared with non-HCT oncologic or other pediatric ICU (PICU) patients and therefore might contribute to increased mortality. This retrospective cohort study of critically ill children who underwent tracheal intubation (TI) was conducted between 2014 and 2019. Data was merged from local airway management quality databases and Virtual Pediatric Systems. Data was supplemented with a retrospective chart review for HCT-related data, including HCT indication, transplant-related comorbidity status, and patient condition at the time of TI procedure. There was a total of 1,931 children identified who underwent TI, of which 92 (4.8%) were post-HCT, while 319 (16.5%) had history of malignancy without HCT, and 1,520 (78.7%) had neither HCT nor malignancy. Children post-HCT were older, more often had respiratory failure, use of catecholamine infusions peri-intubation, and use of noninvasive ventilation prior to intubation. There was no difference in hemodynamic tracheal intubation-associated adverse events (TIAEs) or peri-intubation hypoxemia across three groups (HCT 16%, non-HCT with malignancy 10%, other 15%). The authors did not find an association between HCT status and the adverse TI outcome after adjusting for age, difficulty airway feature, provider type, device, apneic oxygenation use, and indication for intubation.
Citation: Lenz KB, Nishisaki A, Lindell RB . Peri-intubation adverse events in the critically ill child after hematopoietic cell transplant. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2023 Jul; 24(7):584-93. doi: 10.1097/pcc.0000000000003243..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Adverse Events
Herrick HM, O'Reilly M, Lee S
Providing Oxygen during Intubation in the NICU Trial (POINT): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in the neonatal intensive care unit in the USA.
This article is a study protocol describing a pilot randomized controlled trial called Providing Oxygen during Intubation in the NICU Trial or POINT. This study’s objective will be to determine among infants ≥28 weeks' corrected gestational age (cGA) who undergo intubation in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) whether apnoeic oxygenation with a regular low-flow nasal cannula (NC), compared with standard of care (no additional respiratory support), reduces the magnitude of SpO(2) decline during intubation. This severe desaturation occurs in nearly half of neonatal intubations. This multicenter, prospective, unblinded, pilot randomized controlled trial recruited 120 infants, 10 in the run-in phase, and 110 in the randomization phase at two tertiary care hospitals in Pennsylvania. Patients will be randomized to 6 L NC 100% oxygen versus standard of care (no respiratory support) at time of intubation, with primary outcome the magnitude of oxygen desaturation during intubation. Secondary outcomes will include additional efficacy, safety, and feasibility outcomes.
Citation: Herrick HM, O'Reilly M, Lee S . Providing Oxygen during Intubation in the NICU Trial (POINT): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in the neonatal intensive care unit in the USA. BMJ Open 2023 Apr 13; 13(4):e073400. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-073400..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care
Kempker JA, Stearns E, Peterson EN
U.S. adult critical care beds per capita: a 2021 county-level cross-sectional study.
This study used November 2021 hospital data from the Department of Health and Human Services' Protect Public Data Hub to describe the per capita distribution of staffed adult critical care beds across the US. There was a high percentage of hospitals reporting (98.6%). A total of 4,846 adult hospitals accounted for 79,876 adult critical care beds in the US and its’ territories. The authors crudely aggregated the data at the national-level to 0.31 adult critical care beds per 1,000 adults. The median crude per capita density of adult critical care beds per 1,000 adults across U.S. counties was 0.00 per 1,000 adults. Spatially smoothed county-level estimates were obtained using Empirical Bayes and Spatial Empirical Bayes approaches, resulting in an estimated 0.18 adult critical care beds per 1,000 adults. Counties in the upper quartile had higher average adult population counts (mean 159,000 vs 32,000 adults per county) compared to counties in the lower quartile of adult critical care bed density.
Citation: Kempker JA, Stearns E, Peterson EN . U.S. adult critical care beds per capita: a 2021 county-level cross-sectional study. Crit Care Explor 2023 Mar;5(3):e0868. doi: 10.1097/cce.0000000000000868.
Keywords: Critical Care, Public Health
Napolitano N, Polikoff L, Edwards L
Effect of apneic oxygenation with intubation to reduce severe desaturation and adverse tracheal intubation-associated events in critically ill children.
This study’s goal was to determine if apneic oxygenation (AO) delivered via nasal cannula during the apneic phase of tracheal intubation (TI) reduces adverse TI-associated events (TIAEs) in children. AO was implemented at 14 pediatric intensive care units as a quality improvement intervention from 2016 through 2020. Implementation consisted of an intubation safety checklist, leadership endorsement, use of a local champion, and data feedback to frontline clinicians. Of 6549 TIs during the study period, 2554 occurred during the pre-implementation phase and 3995 during post-implementation phase. AO utilization increased from 23 to 68%. It was utilized less often when intubating infants, those with a primary cardiac diagnosis or difficult airway features, and patients intubated due to respiratory or neurological failure or shock. Conversely, it was used more often in TIs done for procedures or those associated by video laryngoscopy. AO utilization was associated with a lower incidence of adverse TIAEs (AO 10.5% vs. without AO 13.5%). However, after further adjusting for patient and provider characteristics (secondary analysis), AO utilization was not independently associated with the occurrence of adverse TIAEs, and the occurrence of hypoxemia was not different (AO 14.2% versus without AO 15.2%).
Citation: Napolitano N, Polikoff L, Edwards L . Effect of apneic oxygenation with intubation to reduce severe desaturation and adverse tracheal intubation-associated events in critically ill children. Crit Care 2023 Jan 17; 27(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s13054-023-04304-0..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Critical Care, Adverse Events, Respiratory Conditions
Doherty JR, Schaefer A, Goodman DC
Texas hospital's perspectives about NICU performance measures: a mixed-methods study.
This exploratory mixed-methods study was conducted to determine Texas hospital leaders’ perspectives about neonatal intensive care (NICU) performance measures. First a survey was sent along with a copy of the Dartmouth Atlas of Neonatal Intensive Care to clinical and administrative leaders of 150 NICUs in Texas. The authors asked respondents to review the chapter that reported Texas-specific results and respond to a variety of open and closed-ended questions about the overall usefulness of the report. Secondly, they conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with a subset of survey respondents to better understand their perspectives. There was a 50% survey response rate. Respondents generally found the report to be interesting and useful, and 87.7% of all respondents reported being in favor of receiving future reports with their own hospital's data benchmarked against other anonymous NICU peers. All measures in the Atlas were considered favorably. The respondents also felt that a report with performance data would serve as a mechanism to drive change by identifying opportunities for improvement.
Citation: Doherty JR, Schaefer A, Goodman DC . Texas hospital's perspectives about NICU performance measures: a mixed-methods study. Qual Manag Health Care 2023 Jan-Mar;32(1):8-15. doi: 10.1097/qmh.0000000000000347..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Provider Performance, Hospitals
Rosen A, Carter D, Applebaum JR
Critical care clinicians' experiences of patient safety during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The purpose of this mixed methods, multi-institutional study was to explore how the COVID-19 pandemic worsened preexisting issues of patient safety and created new challenges for patient safety within United States intensive care units (ICU.) The researchers conducted a national survey of critical care clinicians to assess their experiences related to patient safety during the pandemic. The survey instrument was distributed via email through the Society of Critical Care Medicine listserv, with results reported as percentages while free-text responses were analyzed and coded for themes. The study found that of the 355 survey responses received, 61% believed that conditions during the pandemic were more hazardous when compared with the period prior to the pandemic. When compared with providers who cared for mostly non-COVID-19 or no COVID-19 patients, the professionals who cared for primarily COVID-19 patients had an increased likelihood of perceiving that care was more hazardous. In the coded free-text responses, providers identified themes in patient safety risks including ventilator-related lung injury, medication and diagnostic errors, oversedation, oxygen device removal, and falls. The study concluded that higher levels of COVID-19 case burden were significantly related with perceptions of a less safe patient care environment by frontline ICU clinicians, and further identified specific hazards in intensive care units.
Citation: Rosen A, Carter D, Applebaum JR . Critical care clinicians' experiences of patient safety during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Patient Saf 2022 Dec 1;18(8):e1219-e25. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000001060..
Keywords: COVID-19, Patient Safety, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Levinson Z, Cantor J, Williams MV
The association of strained ICU capacity with hospital patient racial and ethnic composition and federal relief during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Investigators sought to identify the association between strained intensive care unit (ICU) capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic and hospital racial and ethnic patient composition, federal pandemic relief, and other hospital characteristics. They found that hospitals with large Black patient shares experienced greater strain during the pandemic. These hospitals received more federal relief; however, funding was not targeted overall toward hospitals with high ICU occupancy rates.
Citation: Levinson Z, Cantor J, Williams MV . The association of strained ICU capacity with hospital patient racial and ethnic composition and federal relief during the COVID-19 pandemic. Health Serv Res 2022 Dec;57(Suppl 2):279-90. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.14028..
Keywords: COVID-19, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Hospitals
Govindan S, O'Malley ME, Flanders SA
The MI-PICC Score: a risk-Prediction Model for PICC-associated Complications in the ICU.
The authors examined predictive factors for adverse events in critically ill patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). They found that PICC-related complications in the ICU were significantly associated with history of deep vein thrombosis, active diagnosis of cancer, presence of a second central venous catheter, blood transfusion through the PICC, and PICC dwell time.
Citation: Govindan S, O'Malley ME, Flanders SA . The MI-PICC Score: a risk-Prediction Model for PICC-associated Complications in the ICU. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Nov 15;206(10):1286-89. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202204-0760LE..
Keywords: Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI), Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Risk, Adverse Events
Kang D, Charlton P, Applebury DE
Utilizing eye tracking to assess electronic health record use by pharmacists in the intensive care unit.
The authors conducted a study using high-fidelity electronic health record (EHR)-based simulations with incorporated eye tracking to understand the workflow of critical care pharmacists within the EHR, with specific attention to the data elements most frequently viewed. They found that, in addition to medication information, laboratory data and clinical notes are key focuses of intensive care unit pharmacist review of patient records and that navigation to multiple screens is required in order to view these data with the EHR.
Citation: Kang D, Charlton P, Applebury DE . Utilizing eye tracking to assess electronic health record use by pharmacists in the intensive care unit. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2022 Nov 7;79(22):2018-25. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/zxac158..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Provider: Pharmacist
Klawetter S, Cetin N, Ilea P
"All these people saved her life, but she needs me too": understanding and responding to parental mental health in the NICU.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the mental health needs of parents of infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and the challenges and solutions to meeting those needs. Through interviews with 15 parents and staff at a level IV NICU in the United States, the study found: the relationship between staff and parents filter protect from trauma and distress; information needs and mental health needs change over time, a lack of continuity of care affects response to mental health concerns, and NICU plays a critical role in addressing the mental health of parents. The researchers concluded that mental health support should be integrated into and customized to the entire NICU trajectory, with emphasis on parents living in rural locations and non-English-speaking parents.
Citation: Klawetter S, Cetin N, Ilea P . "All these people saved her life, but she needs me too": understanding and responding to parental mental health in the NICU. J Perinatol 2022 Nov;42(11):1496-503. doi: 10.1038/s41372-022-01426-1..
Keywords: Caregiving, Newborns/Infants, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Behavioral Health
Sullivan BA, Panda A, Wallman-Stokes A
Antibiotic spectrum index: a new tool comparing antibiotic use in three NICUs.
This study looked at a new tool called the antibiotic spectrum index (ASI) which quantifies antibiotic exposure by relative antimicrobial activity, adding information to exposure measured by days of therapy (DOT). This index was tested with very low-birth-weight infants (VLBW, <1500g) in 3 level-4 NICUs for 2 years at 2 sites and for 1 year at a third site. The authors calculated the ASI per antibiotic days and DOT per patient days for all admitted VLBW infants <32 weeks gestational age. The site with the highest DOT per patient days was found to have the lowest ASI per antibiotic days and the site with the highest mortality and infection rates were found to have the highest ASI per antibiotic days. Antibiotic utilization varied by center.
Citation: Sullivan BA, Panda A, Wallman-Stokes A . Antibiotic spectrum index: a new tool comparing antibiotic use in three NICUs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2022 Nov;43(11):1553-57. doi: 10.1017/ice.2021.467..
Keywords: Antibiotics, Medication, Newborns/Infants, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Antimicrobial Stewardship
Sikora A, Martin GS
Critical care pharmacists: improving care by increasing access to medication expertise.
This article discusses the shortage and need for critical care pharmacists in ICUs to improve care and prevent medication errors. There is a gap in critical care pharmacists with both low supply and low demand. Identifying the optimal patient:pharmacist ratio in the ICU is a key question. The authors discuss ways to reduce the gap by increasing the number of critical care pharmacy residency programs and including critical care pharmacists more in multidisciplinary rounds. The authors developed a toolkit for increasing critical care pharmacy services in five actionable steps and provide an annotated bibliography of key references.
Citation: Sikora A, Martin GS . Critical care pharmacists: improving care by increasing access to medication expertise. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2022 Nov;19(11):1796-98. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202206-502VP..
Keywords: Provider: Pharmacist, Medication, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Critical Care
Krauss DM, Molefe A, Hung L
AHRQ Author: Henderson S, Miller M
Emergent themes from a quality improvement programme for CLABSI/CAUTI prevention in ICUs amid the COVID-19 pandemic.
In this study, researchers summarized themes for maintaining infection prevention activities learned from the implementation of a quality improvement (QI) program during the COVID-19 pandemic. They concluded that future shocks such as the pandemic must be anticipated, and the healthcare system must be resilient to the resulting disruptions to healthcare-associated infection prevention activities. Their study encountered four themes for successful maintenance of infection prevention activities during the current pandemic: the value of a pre-existing infection prevention infrastructure; a flexibility in approach; broad buy-in for maintaining QI programs; and the facilitation of idea-sharing.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 233201500016I.
Citation: Krauss DM, Molefe A, Hung L . Emergent themes from a quality improvement programme for CLABSI/CAUTI prevention in ICUs amid the COVID-19 pandemic. BMJ Open Qual 2022 Nov;11(4):e001926. doi: 10.1136/bmjoq-2022-001926..
Keywords: COVID-19, Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI), Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI), Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Prevention, Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Infectious Diseases
Wu W, Bhatraju PK, Cobb N
Radiographic findings and association with clinical severity and outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19.
Investigators sought to describe evolution and severity of radiographic findings and to assess association with disease severity and outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients. They found that evolution of radiographic features indicates rapid disease progression and correlates with requirement for invasive MV or vasopressors but not mortality, which suggests potential non-pulmonary pathways to death in COVID-19.
Citation: Wu W, Bhatraju PK, Cobb N . Radiographic findings and association with clinical severity and outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2022 Nov-Dec;51(6):884-91. doi: 10.1067/j.cpradiol.2022.04.002..
Keywords: COVID-19, Critical Care, Outcomes
Shafer GJ, Singh H, Thomas EJ
Frequency of diagnostic errors in the neonatal intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study.
The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and etiology of diagnostic errors during the first 7 days of admission for inborn neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. The "Safer Dx NICU Instrument" was used to review electronic health records. The reviewers discovered that the frequency of diagnostic error in inborn NICU patients during the first 7 days of admission was 6.2%.
Citation: Shafer GJ, Singh H, Thomas EJ . Frequency of diagnostic errors in the neonatal intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study. J Perinatol 2022 Oct;42(10):1312-18. doi: 10.1038/s41372-022-01359-9..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Medical Errors, Adverse Events, Patient Safety, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)
Laverriere EK, Fiadjoe JE, McGowan N
A prospective observational study of video laryngoscopy-guided coaching in the pediatric intensive care unit.
The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether implementation of video laryngoscopy-guided coaching for tracheal intubation in pediatric patients is feasible with a high level of compliance and associated with a reduction in adverse tracheal intubation-associated events. Findings showed that implementation of video laryngoscopy as a supervising device with standardized coaching language was feasible with a high level of adherence, yet was not associated with an increased occurrence of any adverse tracheal intubation-associated events and oxygen desaturation.
AHRQ-funded; HS024511; HS021583; HS022464.
Citation: Laverriere EK, Fiadjoe JE, McGowan N . A prospective observational study of video laryngoscopy-guided coaching in the pediatric intensive care unit. Paediatr Anaesth 2022 Sep;32(9):1015-23. doi: 10.1111/pan.14505..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Education: Continuing Medical Education
Miano TA, Hennessy S, Yang W
Association of vancomycin plus piperacillin-tazobactam with early changes in creatinine versus cystatin C in critically ill adults: a prospective cohort study.
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the association between vancomycin + piperacillin-tazobactam and increased acute kidney injury (AKI) risk by contrasting changes in creatinine concentration after antibiotic initiation with changes in cystatin C concentration. The researchers included patients enrolled in the Molecular Epidemiology of SepsiS in the ICU (MESSI) prospective cohort who were treated for greater than or equal to 48 h with vancomycin + piperacillin-tazobactam or vancomycin + cefepime. The kidney function biomarkers of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and cystatin C were measured before antibiotic treatment and again on day two after initiation. Creatinine-defined AKI and dialysis were evaluated through day14, and mortality was assessed through day 30. The study found that in the 739 patients vancomycin + piperacillin-tazobactam was associated with a higher percentage increase of creatinine at day-two and a higher incidence of creatinine-defined AKI: rate ratio. Vancomycin + piperacillin-tazobactam was not associated with change in alternative biomarkers. The researchers concluded that the study supports the hypothesis that vancomycin + piperacillin-tazobactam effects on creatinine represent pseudotoxicity.
Citation: Miano TA, Hennessy S, Yang W . Association of vancomycin plus piperacillin-tazobactam with early changes in creatinine versus cystatin C in critically ill adults: a prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Med 2022 Sep;48(9):1144-55. doi: 10.1007/s00134-022-06811-0..
Keywords: Critical Care, Medication, Kidney Disease and Health, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Ramesh S, Ayres B, Eyck PT
Impact of subspecialty consultations on diagnosis in the pediatric intensive care unit.
This retrospective study used chart reviews of critically ill children in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) to determine the impact of subspecialty consultations on diagnosis. The majority of patients (87 of 101) were provided subspecialty consultations at the request of the PICU clinician. The consultations were equally for diagnosis (65%) and treatment (66%). There was a change in diagnosis for 21% of patients with consultants from PICU admission to discharge, with 61% attributed to subspecialty input. Forty-five percent of patients with consultations had additional imaging and/or laboratory testing and 55% had a medication change and/or a procedure performed immediately after consultation.
Citation: Ramesh S, Ayres B, Eyck PT . Impact of subspecialty consultations on diagnosis in the pediatric intensive care unit. Diagnosis 2022 Aug;9(3):379-84. doi: 10.1515/dx-2021-0137..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Ofoma UR, Drewry AM, Maddox TM
Outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest among hospitals with and without telemedicine critical care.
This study compared survival rates for inpatients who suffered in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) who had access to Telemedicine Critical Care (TCC) during nights and weekends (off-hours) compared to those who did not. The authors identified 44,585 adults at 280 U.S. hospitals in the Get With The Guidelines® - Resuscitation registry who suffered IHCA in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or hospital ward between July 2017 and December 2019. The majority (60.6%) of IHCAs occurred in an ICU, and 32.2% participants suffered IHCA at hospitals with TCC. No difference was found in acute resuscitation survival rates or survival to discharge rates for either IHCA between TCC and non-TCC hospitals. Timing of cardiac arrest did not modify the association between TCC availability and acute resuscitation survival or survival to discharge.
Citation: Ofoma UR, Drewry AM, Maddox TM . Outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest among hospitals with and without telemedicine critical care. Resuscitation 2022 Aug;177:7-15. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2022.06.008..
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Outcomes, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Woods-Hill CZ, Colantuoni EA, Koontz DW
Association of diagnostic stewardship for blood cultures in critically ill children with culture rates, antibiotic use, and patient outcomes: results of the Bright STAR Collaborative.
The purpose of this AHRQ-funded prospective study was to assess the relationship between a 14-site PICU blood culture collaborative, the Bright STAR (Testing Stewardship for Antibiotic Reduction) collaborative, and culture rates, antibiotic use, and patient outcomes. The researchers collected data from each participating PICU across the United States and from the Children’s Hospital Association Pediatric Health Information System. The main outcome was blood culture rates, with secondary outcomes including: broad-spectrum antibiotic use and PICU rates of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), Clostridioides difficile infection, readmission, length of stay, sepsis, severe sepsis/septic shock, and mortality. The study found that the blood culture rate preimplementation across the 14 PICUs was 149.4 per 1000 patient days per month, and the rate postimplementation was 100.5 for a 33% relative reduction postimplementation. For those same periods, the rate of antibiotic use decreased from 506 days per 1000 patient-days per month preimplementation to 440 days per 1000 patient-days per month postimplementation, which reflects a 13% relative reduction. Rates of CLABSI decreased from 1.8 to 1.1 per 1000 central venous line days per month, a 36% relative reduction. The variables of length of stay, readmission, sepsis, severe sepsis/septic shock, and mortality were similar before and after implementation. The researchers concluded that collaborative interventions can reduce blood culture and antibiotic use in the PICU.
Citation: Woods-Hill CZ, Colantuoni EA, Koontz DW . Association of diagnostic stewardship for blood cultures in critically ill children with culture rates, antibiotic use, and patient outcomes: results of the Bright STAR Collaborative. JAMA Pediatr 2022 Jul;176(7):690-98. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.1024..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Sepsis, Critical Care, Antibiotics, Medication, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Antimicrobial Stewardship
Lindell RB, Fitzgerald JC, Rowan CM
The use and duration of preintubation respiratory support is associated with increased mortality in immunocompromised children with acute respiratory failure.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to examine the relationship between preintubation respiratory support and outcomes in pediatric patients with acute respiratory failure and to evaluate the impact of immunocompromised (IC) diagnoses on outcomes. The study utilized data from the Virtual Pediatric Systems database which included 82 centers, and focused on patients intubated in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) ranging in age from 1 month old to 17 years of age who received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for more than or equal to 24 hours. Of the 5,348 PICU intubations across 82 centers, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) or both were used before intubation in 34% (1,825) of patients. Fifty percent of the patients had no IC diagnosis. The researchers found that exposure to HFNC was associated with greater odds of PICU mortality when compared with patients intubated without prior support. When analyzing subgroups of IC status, preintubation support was related to higher odds of PICU mortality in IC patients and HCT patients when compared with IC/ HCT patients intubated without prior respiratory support. A duration of HFNC/NIPPV of more than 6 hours was associated with increased mortality in IC HCT patients. Rates of preintubation HFNC/NIPPV use and PICU mortality varied between the 82 centers. The researchers concluded that greater duration of exposure to HFNC/NIPPV prior to IMV is associated with increased mortality in HCT patients, and preintubation exposure to HFNC and/or NIPPV in IC pediatric patients is associated with increased odds of PICU mortality, independent of the severity of the illness.
Citation: Lindell RB, Fitzgerald JC, Rowan CM . The use and duration of preintubation respiratory support is associated with increased mortality in immunocompromised children with acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med 2022 Jul;50(7):1127-37. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000005535..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Respiratory Conditions, Mortality, Critical Care
Wayne MT, Seelye S, Molling D
Variation in U.S. hospital practices for bronchoscopy in the intensive care unit.
The authors sought to measure bronchoscopy rates among mechanically ventilated ICU patients and to assess for variation across hospitals. In this cohort of over 150 diverse hospitals across the United States, they found that nearly 4% of mechanically ventilated ICU patients underwent bronchoscopy, representing a more than 20-fold variation in its use, which was only minimally attenuated after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. They recommended future studies to understand the drivers and impact of this variation on patient outcomes.
Citation: Wayne MT, Seelye S, Molling D . Variation in U.S. hospital practices for bronchoscopy in the intensive care unit. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2022 Jun;19(6):1061-65. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202110-1141RL..
Keywords: Hospitals, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Respiratory Conditions
Viglianti EM, Ervin JN, Newton CA
Time-limited trials in the ICU: a mixed-methods sequential explanatory study of intensivists at two academic centres.
Investigators sought to understand intensivist perceptions of the appropriateness of time-limited trials (TLTs), a strategy to align life-sustaining care with patient goals and values in the midst of clinical uncertainty. They conducted semi-structured interviews with intensivists, revealing that having clarity about patient goals and clinical endpoints facilitated successful TLTs while lack of an evidenced-based framework was a barrier. More than half of the physicians who responded had conducted or participated in a TLT.
Citation: Viglianti EM, Ervin JN, Newton CA . Time-limited trials in the ICU: a mixed-methods sequential explanatory study of intensivists at two academic centres. BMJ Open 2022 Apr 4;12(4):e059325. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-059325..
Keywords: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Decision Making