- Data Infographics
- Data Visualizations
- Data Tools
- Data Innovations
- All-Payer Claims Database
- Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP)
- Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS)
- AHRQ Quality Indicator Tools for Data Analytics
- State Snapshots
- United States Health Information Knowledgebase (USHIK)
- Data Sources Available from AHRQ
Search All Research Studies
AHRQ Research Studies Date
- Access to Care (3)
- Adverse Drug Events (ADE) (1)
- Adverse Events (7)
- Ambulatory Care and Surgery (2)
- Antibiotics (2)
- Antimicrobial Stewardship (1)
- Arthritis (1)
- Back Health and Pain (8)
- Blood Clots (2)
- Brain Injury (8)
- Cancer (61)
- Cancer: Breast Cancer (34)
- Cancer: Colorectal Cancer (3)
- Cancer: Lung Cancer (9)
- Cancer: Prostate Cancer (5)
- Cardiovascular Conditions (13)
- Case Study (2)
- Children/Adolescents (11)
- Chronic Conditions (3)
- Clinical Decision Support (CDS) (8)
- Clinician-Patient Communication (3)
- Communication (6)
- Community-Based Practice (1)
- Comparative Effectiveness (13)
- COVID-19 (3)
- Critical Care (1)
- Data (4)
- Decision Making (27)
- Dementia (2)
- Diabetes (1)
- Diagnostic Safety and Quality (97)
- Digestive Disease and Health (2)
- Disabilities (2)
- Disparities (4)
- Domestic Violence (1)
- Education: Continuing Medical Education (4)
- Elderly (8)
- Electronic Health Records (EHRs) (11)
- Emergency Department (44)
- Emergency Medical Services (EMS) (11)
- Evidence-Based Practice (18)
- Eye Disease and Health (1)
- Falls (1)
- Family Health and History (1)
- Genetics (1)
- Guidelines (13)
- Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) (1)
- Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) (1)
- Healthcare Costs (5)
- Healthcare Utilization (17)
- Health Information Technology (HIT) (22)
- Health Insurance (1)
- Health Services Research (HSR) (10)
- Heart Disease and Health (7)
- Hospital Discharge (1)
- Hospital Readmissions (1)
- Hospitals (4)
- (-) Imaging (229)
- Implementation (1)
- Infectious Diseases (1)
- Injuries and Wounds (4)
- Kidney Disease and Health (8)
- Low-Income (1)
- Medical Errors (5)
- Medicare (3)
- Medication (3)
- Men's Health (1)
- Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (1)
- Neurological Disorders (5)
- Newborns/Infants (2)
- Orthopedics (3)
- Outcomes (7)
- Pain (5)
- Patient-Centered Healthcare (2)
- Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (11)
- Patient Adherence/Compliance (3)
- Patient Safety (24)
- Payment (1)
- Policy (2)
- Practice Patterns (11)
- Prevention (20)
- Primary Care (6)
- Provider (2)
- Provider: Clinician (2)
- Provider: Health Personnel (1)
- Provider: Physician (2)
- Provider Performance (4)
- Quality Improvement (8)
- Quality Indicators (QIs) (2)
- Quality Measures (1)
- Quality of Care (13)
- Quality of Life (1)
- Racial and Ethnic Minorities (6)
- Registries (1)
- Research Methodologies (6)
- Respiratory Conditions (9)
- Risk (6)
- Rural Health (1)
- Screening (40)
- Sex Factors (1)
- Skin Conditions (1)
- Social Determinants of Health (1)
- Stroke (6)
- Surgery (7)
- Telehealth (1)
- Tools & Toolkits (1)
- Training (3)
- Transitions of Care (1)
- Trauma (3)
- Treatments (5)
- U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) (4)
- Urban Health (1)
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) (1)
- Value (3)
- Veterans (1)
- Vulnerable Populations (3)
- Web-Based (1)
- Women (33)
- Workflow (1)
AHRQ Research Studies
Sign up: AHRQ Research Studies Email updates
Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 229 Research Studies Displayed
Wahid KA, Lin D, Sahin O
Large scale crowdsourced radiotherapy segmentations across a variety of cancer anatomic sites.
This article describes a data process in which over 200 expert and non-expert clinician annotators manually generated segmentations for regions of interest (ROIs) on computed tomography images across a variety of cancer sites for the Contouring Collaborative for Consensus in Radiation Oncology challenge. The author converted the data into Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative format with standardized nomenclature for ease of use, and generated consensus segmentations using the Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation method. They conclude that these standardized, structured, and easily accessible data are a valuable resource for the systematic study of variability in segmentation applications, which is crucial for radiotherapy.
Citation: Wahid KA, Lin D, Sahin O . Large scale crowdsourced radiotherapy segmentations across a variety of cancer anatomic sites. Sci Data 2023 Mar 22;10(1):161. doi: 10.1038/s41597-023-02062-w.
Keywords: Cancer, Imaging
Ganguli I, Ying W, Shakley T
Cascade services and spending following low-value imaging for uncomplicated low back pain among commercially insured adults.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of low-value imaging on cascade services and spending in commercially-insured adults with uncomplicated acute low back pain. The researchers analyzed medical claims from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts members aged 18-50 years who received a 2018 diagnosis of uncomplicated low back pain, for which imaging was considered inappropriate according to the National Committee for Quality Assurance Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) criteria. In 2018, 30,892 members were eligible for low-value imaging. Of these, 6009 (19.5%) received low-value imaging: 5091 (16.5%) X-ray and 787 (2.5%) MRI. The study found that when compared to patients without low-value imaging, those with low-value X-ray or MRI had higher adjusted probabilities of receiving cascade services and greater adjusted total spending at 3, 6, and 12 months. These results were robust to falsification testing. Members with high deductible health plans (HDHP) had higher narrowly defined cascade-associated out-of-pocket spending than those in other plans. The most common sources of narrowly defined cascade-associated spending were physical therapy, office visits, radiology studies, laboratory studies, and surgery.
J Gen Intern Med 2023 Mar;38(4):1102-05. doi: 10.1007/s11606-022-07829-2
Citation: Ganguli I, Ying W, Shakley T . Cascade services and spending following low-value imaging for uncomplicated low back pain among commercially insured adults. .
Keywords: Imaging, Back Health and Pain, Pain, Healthcare Costs
Ho TH, Bissell MCS, Lee CI
Prioritizing screening mammograms for immediate interpretation and diagnostic evaluation on the basis of risk for recall.
The purpose of this study was to establish a prioritization method for immediate interpretation of screening mammograms and potential diagnostic assessment. A cohort based on the population, comprising screening mammograms conducted from 2012 to 2020 at 126 radiology centers from 7 Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries, was examined. Classification trees were used to identify combinations of clinical history (age, BI-RADS density, time elapsed since the previous mammogram, history of false-positive recall or biopsy outcome), screening technique (digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis), and facility features (profit status, location, screening volume, practice type, academic affiliation) that grouped screening mammograms by recall rate, with ≥12/100 classified as high and ≥16/100 as very high. The efficiency ratio was calculated as the percentage of recalls divided by the percentage of mammograms. The research cohort consisted of 2,674,051 screening mammograms in 925,777 women, with 235,569 recalls. The study found that the primary predictor of recall was the time interval since the last mammogram, followed by age, history of false-positive recall, breast density, history of benign biopsy, and screening method. Recall rates were extremely high for baseline mammograms and high for women with ≥5 years since their previous mammogram. The 9.2% of mammograms in subgroups with very high and high recall rates represented 19.2% of recalls, yielding an efficiency ratio of 2.1 compared to a random strategy. Including women under 50 with dense breasts accounted for 20.3% of mammograms and 33.9% of recalls (efficiency ratio = 1.7). Findings incorporating facility-level characteristics were analogous.
Citation: Ho TH, Bissell MCS, Lee CI . Prioritizing screening mammograms for immediate interpretation and diagnostic evaluation on the basis of risk for recall. J Am Coll Radiol 2023 Mar;20(3):299-310. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2022.09.030.
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Screening, Imaging, Women, Prevention, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Montgomery KB, Gillis A, Ramonell KM
Comparative utility of preoperative imaging in normocalcemic versus hypercalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism.
This retrospective review examined the utility of preoperative imaging in normocalcemic versus hypercalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. The review was conducted on all PHPT patients who underwent parathyroidectomy from 2001 to 2019. The cohort included 2218 patients, with 433 normocalcemic PHPT (19.5%) and 1785 hypercalcemic PHPT (80.5%). Among normocalcemic patients, there were no differences in cure rates in patients with preoperative imaging versus those without (100% vs 99%). There were no differences in postoperative complications except for a slight increase in transient hypocalcemia in patients without imaging. There were equivalent cure and complication rates for normocalcemic PHPT patients with or without preoperative imaging compared to hypercalcemic patients.
Citation: Montgomery KB, Gillis A, Ramonell KM . Comparative utility of preoperative imaging in normocalcemic versus hypercalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism. Am J Surg 2023 Feb;225(2):293-97. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2022.09.042.
Keywords: Imaging, Surgery
Holcomb J, Rajan SS, Ferguson GM
Implementation of an evidence-based intervention with safety net clinics to improve mammography appointment adherence among underserved women.
This study evaluated the implementation of an evidence-based intervention in safety-net clinics to improve mammography appointment adherence in underserved women called the Peace of Mind Program. The intervention was implemented in 19 Federally Qualified Health centers and charity care clinics within the Greater Houston area. Surveys were given prior to adoption and at eight weeks post implementation to assess Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research constructs. A total of 4402 women were surveyed (baseline period 2078, intervention period 2324). Women in the intervention period or who completed the intervention were more likely to attend or reschedule their mammography appointment than those who did not complete the intervention. A total of 15 clinics prior to adoption and eight clinics completed the survey post implementation.
Citation: Holcomb J, Rajan SS, Ferguson GM . Implementation of an evidence-based intervention with safety net clinics to improve mammography appointment adherence among underserved women. J Cancer Educ 2023 Feb; 38(1):309-18. doi: 10.1007/s13187-021-02116-w..
Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice, Screening, Patient Adherence/Compliance, Imaging, Vulnerable Populations, Ambulatory Care and Surgery
Peng L, Luo G, Walker A
Evaluation of federated learning variations for COVID-19 diagnosis using chest radiographs from 42 US and European hospitals.
The goals of this study were to compare a single-site, COVID-19 computer diagnosis system that used the Federated Averaging (FedAvg) algorithm with 3-client Federated learning (FL) models, and to evaluate the performance of the four FL variations. Researchers leveraged a FL healthcare collaborative that included data from five US and European healthcare systems encompassing 42 hospitals. They concluded that FedAvg could significantly improve generalization of the model in comparison with other personalization FL algorithms--FedProx, FedBN, and FedAMP--but at the cost of poor internal validity.
Citation: Peng L, Luo G, Walker A . Evaluation of federated learning variations for COVID-19 diagnosis using chest radiographs from 42 US and European hospitals. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2022 Dec 13;30(1):54-63. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocac188..
Keywords: COVID-19, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Imaging, Hospitals
Kim HS, Hernaez R, Sansgiry S
Comparative effectiveness of surveillance colonoscopy intervals on colorectal cancer outcomes in a national cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
The purpose of this study was to determine the comparative effectiveness of varying colonoscopy intervals on colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Data was from the National Veterans Health Administration. Findings showed that, in a national cohort of patients with CRC-IBD, colonoscopy within 3 years prior to CRC diagnosis was associated with early tumor stage at diagnosis, and colonoscopy within 1 year was associated with a reduced all-cause mortality compared with no colonoscopy, supporting colonoscopy intervals of 1 to 3 years in patients with IBD in order to reduce late-stage CRC and all-cause mortality.
Citation: Kim HS, Hernaez R, Sansgiry S . Comparative effectiveness of surveillance colonoscopy intervals on colorectal cancer outcomes in a national cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Dec;20(12):2848-57.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2022.02.048..
Keywords: Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Digestive Disease and Health, Imaging, Screening, Comparative Effectiveness, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Wu A, Wu JY, Lim M
Updates in intraoperative strategies for enhancing intra-axial brain tumor control.
This review looked at recent advances in intraoperative strategies for enhancing intra-axial brain tumor control. The authors looked at published research centered on different innovative tools and techniques, including fluorescence-guided surgery, new methods of drug delivery, and minimally invasive procedural options.
Citation: Wu A, Wu JY, Lim M . Updates in intraoperative strategies for enhancing intra-axial brain tumor control. Neuro Oncol 2022 Nov 2;24(suppl 6):S33-S41. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/noac170..
Keywords: Cancer, Surgery, Imaging
Marcaccio CL, Patel PB, de Guerre L
Disparities in 5-year outcomes and imaging surveillance following elective endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by sex, race, and ethnicity.
The purpose of this study was to identify variations in 5-year outcomes and imaging surveillance after elective endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) by sex, race, and ethnicity and to examine possible mechanisms contributing to these variations. The primary outcome was 5-year aneurysm rupture. Secondary outcomes were 5-year reintervention and mortality, and having no aortic imaging follow-up from 6 to 24 months after EVAR. The study found that among 16,040 patients, 73% were White males, 18% were White females, 2.6% were Black males, 1.1% were Black females, 0.9% were Asian males, 0.2% were Asian females, 1.7% were Hispanic males, and 0.4% were Hispanic females. At 5 years, Black females had the highest rupture rates at 6.4% and white males had the lowest at 2.3%. Compared with White males, rupture rates were higher in White females, Black females, and Asian females. Among other groups, Black males had higher reintervention and both Black and Hispanic males had higher rates of no imaging follow-up. In adjusted analyses, White, Black, and Asian females remained at significantly higher risk for 5-year rupture. The researchers concluded that Black females had higher 5-year aneurysm rupture, reintervention, and mortality rates after elective EVAR as compared with White male patients, whereas White females had higher rupture, mortality and loss-to-imaging-follow-up compared to White male patients. Black males had higher reintervention and no imaging follow-up, and Asian females had higher rupture rates.
Citation: Marcaccio CL, Patel PB, de Guerre L . Disparities in 5-year outcomes and imaging surveillance following elective endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by sex, race, and ethnicity. J Vasc Surg 2022 Nov;76(5):1205-15.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.03.886..
Keywords: Disparities, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Sex Factors, Outcomes, Imaging, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions
Luximon DC, Ritter T, Fields E
Development and interinstitutional validation of an automatic vertebral-body misalignment error detector for cone-beam CT-guided radiotherapy.
The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic error detection algorithm that uses a three-branch convolutional neural network error detection model (EDM) to detect off-by-one vertebral-body misalignments using planning computed tomography (CT) images and setup CBCT images. The researchers collected algorithm training and test data from 480 patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment at two radiotherapy clinics. One model (EDM(1) ) was trained solely on data from institution 1. EDM(1) was further trained on a dataset from institution 2 to produce a fine-tuned model, EDM(2) . Another model, EDM(3), was trained using a training dataset composed of data from both institutions. The study found that when applied to the combined test set, EDM(1) , EDM(2) , and EDM(3) resulted in an area under curve of 99.5%, 99.4%, and 99.5%, respectively. EDM(1) achieved a sensitivity of 96% and 88% on Institution 1 and Institution 2 test set, respectively. EDM(2) obtained a sensitivity of 95% on each institution's test set. EDM(3) achieved a sensitivity of 95% and 88% on Institution 1 and Institution 2 test set, respectively. The researchers concluded that in CBCT-guided radiotherapy, the proposed algorithm demonstrated accuracy in identifying off-by-one vertebral-body misalignments that was sufficiently high enough to justify implementation in practice.
Citation: Luximon DC, Ritter T, Fields E . Development and interinstitutional validation of an automatic vertebral-body misalignment error detector for cone-beam CT-guided radiotherapy. Med Phys 2022 Oct;49(10):6410-23. doi: 10.1002/mp.15927..
Keywords: Imaging, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Medical Errors, Patient Safety
Ross RL, Rubio K, Rodriguez HP
Mammography and decision aid use for breast cancer screening in older women.
This study examines the association between practice-level decision-aid use and mammography use among older women. Physician practice responses to the 2017/2018 National Survey of Healthcare Organizations and Systems were linked to 2016-17 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiary data from eligible beneficiaries aged 65-74 years. Findings showed that health information technology-enabled automation of mammography reminders and other advanced health information technology functions may support mammography, whereas breast cancer decision aids may reduce patients' propensities to be screened through the alignment of their preferences and screening decision.
AHRQ-funded; HS022241; HS024075.
Citation: Ross RL, Rubio K, Rodriguez HP . Mammography and decision aid use for breast cancer screening in older women. Am J Prev Med 2022 Oct;63(4):630-35. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2022.04.014..
Keywords: Imaging, Screening, Decision Making, Cancer: Breast Cancer, Women, Prevention, Cancer, Elderly
Holcomb J, Ferguson GM, Sun J
Stakeholder engagement in adoption, implementation, and sustainment of an evidence-based intervention to increase mammography adherence among low-income women.
The purpose of this document review study was to create a conceptual framework to guide stakeholder engagement in an evidence-based intervention to increase mammography appointment adherence in underserved and low-income women. The document review results were aligned with the constructs of the conceptual framework and an application of stakeholder engagement in an evidence-based mammography intervention. The researchers concluded that both the conceptual framework constructs and the stakeholder engagement strategies can be utilized across a range of organizations, programs, and settings.
Citation: Holcomb J, Ferguson GM, Sun J . Stakeholder engagement in adoption, implementation, and sustainment of an evidence-based intervention to increase mammography adherence among low-income women. J Cancer Educ 2022 Oct;37(5):1486-95. doi: 10.1007/s13187-021-01988-2..
Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice, Screening, Imaging, Women, Low-Income, Patient Adherence/Compliance
Mattioli DD, Thomas GW, Long SA
Minimally trained analysts can perform fast, objective assessment of orthopedic technical skill from fluoroscopic images.
The purpose of this study was to test a new system designed to facilitate rapid, inexpensive, repeatable, and precise analysis of intraoperative fluoroscopic images by minimally trained analysts as a means of objectively assessing orthopedic surgical skills. The study included 4 expert and 4 novice analysts who independently measured one objective metric for skill using both the custom analysis software and a commercial alternative. The study found that in comparison to the expert analysts utilizing the commercial software, the novice analysts were able to measure the objective metric three times faster when utilizing the custom software, and without a practical difference in accuracy.
Citation: Mattioli DD, Thomas GW, Long SA . Minimally trained analysts can perform fast, objective assessment of orthopedic technical skill from fluoroscopic images. IISE Trans Healthc Syst Eng 2022;12(3):212-20. doi: 10.1080/24725579.2022.2035022..
Keywords: Orthopedics, Imaging
Odeh Couvertier V, Patterson Patterson, Zayas-Cabán G
Association between advanced image ordered in the emergency department on subsequent imaging for abdominal pain patients.
The purpose of this retrospective, observational study was to evaluate abdominal pain patients discharged from the ED to determine the association between advanced emergency department (ED) imaging on subsequent outpatient imaging and on revisits. The researchers utilized the electronic health records of Medicare patients who presented with a complaint of abdominal pain at a United States academic emergency department. The study found that participants who were not imaged at the ED had significantly higher adjusted odds of being imaged outside of the ED within 7, 14, and 28 days of being discharged, and had a significantly higher adjusted odds of returning to the study ED and visiting any ED within 30 days of being discharged. The study concluded that receiving abdominal imaging services in the ED was related with significantly lower imaging use after discharge.
Citation: Odeh Couvertier V, Patterson Patterson, Zayas-Cabán G . Association between advanced image ordered in the emergency department on subsequent imaging for abdominal pain patients. Acad Emerg Med 2022 Sep;29(9):1078-83. doi: 10.1111/acem.14541..
Keywords: Imaging, Emergency Department, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Hospital Readmissions
Golmakani MK, Hubbard RA, Miglioretti DL
Nonhomogeneous Markov chain for estimating the cumulative risk of multiple false positive screening tests.
This study addressed the general challenge of estimating the cumulative risk of multiple false positive test results. The authors proposed a nonhomogeneous multistate model to describe the screening process including competing events and developed alternative approaches for estimating the cumulative risk of multiple false positive results using this multistate model based on existing estimators for the cumulative risk of a single false positive. The multistate model was based on existing estimators for the cumulative risk of a single false positive. They compared the performance of the newly proposed models through simulation studies and illustrated model performance using data on screening mammography from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. They found that in the context of screening mammography that the cumulative risk of multiple false positive results is high. For a high-risk individual, the cumulative probability of at least two false positive mammography results after 10 rounds of annual screening is 40.4.
Citation: Golmakani MK, Hubbard RA, Miglioretti DL . Nonhomogeneous Markov chain for estimating the cumulative risk of multiple false positive screening tests. Biometrics 2022 Sep;78(3):1244-56. doi: 10.1111/biom.13484..
Keywords: Research Methodologies, Screening, Imaging, Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer
Williams JP, Nathanson R, LoPresti CM
Current use, training, and barriers in point-of-care ultrasound in hospital medicine: a national survey of VA hospitals.
This study aimed to characterize current point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) use, training needs, and barriers to use among hospital medicine groups (HMGs). This prospective observation study looked at all Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers from August 2019 to March 2020 using a web-based survey sent to all chiefs of HMGs. There was a 90% response rate from 117 HMGs. Procedural POCUS use decreased by 19% from 2015 to 2020 but increased for diagnostic use for cardiac (8%), pulmonary (7%), and abdominal (8%) applications. The most common barrier to POCUS use was lack of training (89%), with only 34% of HMGs having access to POCUS training. Access to ultrasound equipment was the least common barrier at 57%, however with the proportion of HMGs with ≥1 ultrasound machine increasing from 29% to 71% from 2015 to 2020. In 2020 an average of 3.6 ultrasound devices per HMG was available, and 45% were handheld devices.
Citation: Williams JP, Nathanson R, LoPresti CM . Current use, training, and barriers in point-of-care ultrasound in hospital medicine: a national survey of VA hospitals. J Hosp Med 2022 Aug;17(8):601-08. doi: 10.1002/jhm.12911..
Keywords: Imaging, Training, Hospitals, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Provider: Clinician
Sun J, Peng L, Li T
Performance of a chest radiograph AI diagnostic tool for COVID-19: a prospective observational study.
The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate the real-time performance of an interpretable artificial intelligence (AI) model to detect COVID-19 on chest radiographs. The researchers utilized 95,363 chest radiographs for model training, external validation, and real-time validation. There were 5,335 real-time predictions and a COVID-19 prevalence of 4.8%. The study found that participants positive for COVID-19 had higher COVID-19 diagnostic scores than participants negative for COVID-19. Real-time model performance remained the same during the 19 weeks of implementation. Model sensitivity was higher in men than in women, but model specificity was higher in women. Sensitivity was higher for Asian and Black participants compared with White participants. The COVID-19 AI diagnostic system had worse accuracy compared with radiologist predictions. The researchers concluded that AI tools underperform when compared with radiologist results.
Citation: Sun J, Peng L, Li T . Performance of a chest radiograph AI diagnostic tool for COVID-19: a prospective observational study. Radiol Artif Intell 2022 Jul;4(4):e210217. doi: 10.1148/ryai.210217..
Keywords: COVID-19, Imaging, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Kerlikowske K, Su YR, Sprague BL
Association of screening with digital breast tomosynthesis vs digital mammography with risk of interval invasive and advanced breast cancer.
The purpose of this study was to compare digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) with digital mammography to determine whether DBT was correlated with lower rates of internal invasive cancer and advanced breast cancer, taking into consideration breast density and breast cancer risk. From 2011 through 2018, the researchers studied a cohort of 504,427 women between the ages of 40 and 79 who underwent 375,189 screening DBT exams and 1,003,900 screening digital mammography exams, and who were then followed up for cancer diagnoses between 2011 and 2019 after being identified via linkage to state or regional cancer registries. The median age at the time of screening was 58 years (IQR 50-65 years) and the diagnostic screenings took place at 44 Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) facilities in the United States. The study found that among women at low to average risk, or at high risk with almost entirely fatty, scattered fibroglandular densities, or heterogeneously dense breasts, advanced cancer rates were not significantly different for DBT vs digital mammography. There was no significant difference between DBT and digital mammography for interval cancer rates per 1000 exams. Interval invasive cancer rates were also not significantly different among the 413,061 examinations with BCSC 5-year risk of 1.67% or higher (high risk) across breast density categories, or among all the 836,250 examinations with BCSC 5-year risk less than 1.67% (low to average-risk). For the 3.6% of women with extremely dense breasts and at high risk of breast cancer (13,291 examinations in the DBT group and 31,300 in the digital mammography group) advanced cancer rates per 1000 examinations were significantly lower for DBT vs digital mammography, but not for women at low to average risk (10,611 examinations in the DBT group and 37,796 in the digital mammography group). The researchers reported that there was no significant difference in the 96.4% of women with extremely dense breasts not at high risk, heterogeneously dense breasts, or nondense breasts, and concluded that screening with DBT vs digital mammography was associated with a significantly lower risk of advanced breast cancer among the 3.6% of women with extremely dense breasts and at high risk of breast cancer, and was not associated with a significant difference in risk of interval invasive cancer.
Citation: Kerlikowske K, Su YR, Sprague BL . Association of screening with digital breast tomosynthesis vs digital mammography with risk of interval invasive and advanced breast cancer. JAMA 2022 Jun 14;327(22):2220-30. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.7672..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Screening, Women, Imaging, Risk
Lacson R, Khorasani R, Fiumara K
Collaborative case review: a systems-based approach to patient safety event investigation and analysis.
The objectives of this study were to assess a system-based approach to event investigation and analysis--collaborative case reviews (CCRs)--and to measure impact of clinical specialty on strength of action items prescribed. The institutional review board-approved study describes the program, including a percentage of CCR from an institutional Electronic Safety Reporting System. Findings showed that an integrated multispecialty CCR co-led by the radiology department and an institutional patient safety program was associated with a higher proportion of CCR, stronger action items, and higher action item completion rate versus other hospital departments.
Citation: Lacson R, Khorasani R, Fiumara K . Collaborative case review: a systems-based approach to patient safety event investigation and analysis. J Patient Saf 2022 Mar 1;18(2):e522-e27. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000857..
Keywords: Patient Safety, Adverse Events, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Imaging
Tice JA, Gard CC, Miglioretti DL
Comparing mammographic density assessed by digital breast tomosynthesis or digital mammography: the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium.
This study’s purpose was to assess the consistency of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density reporting comparing digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) with digital mammography (DM) and to evaluate density as a breast cancer risk factor when assessed using DM versus DBT. A secondary analysis of data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium was used from 342,149 women aged 40-79 years who underwent at least two screening mammography examinations less than 36 months apart. There were no significant differences in breast density assessment in pairs consisting of one DM and one DBT examination (57,516 of 74,729 [77%]), two DM examinations (238,678 of 301,743 [79%]), and two DBT examinations (20,763 of 26,854). Results were similar when pair analysis was restricted to readings by the same radiologist. The breast cancer hazard ratios (HRs) for breast density were similar for DM and DBT. The HRs for density acquired using DM and DBT, respectively, were 0.55 and 0.37 for almost entirely fat, 1.47 and 1.36 for heterogeneously dense, and 1.72 and 2.05 for extremely dense breasts.
Citation: Tice JA, Gard CC, Miglioretti DL . Comparing mammographic density assessed by digital breast tomosynthesis or digital mammography: the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Radiology 2022 Feb; 302(2):286-92. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2021204579..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Women, Imaging, Screening, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Holcomb J, Ferguson G, Roth I
Adoption of an evidence-based intervention for mammography screening adherence in safety net clinics.
This paper describes an evidence-based intervention that was created to reduce mammography appointment no-show rates in underserved women at safety net clinics. An academic-community partnership was used to implement four strategies to improve the adoption and scale-up of the interventions with Federally Qualified Health Centers and charity care clinics. The interventions implemented were: (1) an outreach email blast targeting the community partner member clinics to increase program awareness, (2) an adoption video encouraging enrollment in the program, (3) an outreach webinar educating the community partner member clinics about the program, encouraging enrollment and outlining adoption steps, and (4) an adoption survey adapted from Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research constructs from the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network for cancer control interventions with Federally Qualified Health Centers.
Citation: Holcomb J, Ferguson G, Roth I . Adoption of an evidence-based intervention for mammography screening adherence in safety net clinics. Front Public Health 2021 Nov 4;9:748361. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.748361..
Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice, Imaging, Screening, Women, Community-Based Practice
Zou WY, Enchakalody BE, Zhang P
Automated measurements of body composition in abdominal CT scans using artificial intelligence can predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis.
Body composition measures derived from already available electronic medical records (computed tomography [CT] scans) can have significant value, but automation of measurements is needed for clinical implementation. I this study, the investigators sought to use artificial intelligence to develop an automated method to measure body composition and test the algorithm on a clinical cohort to predict mortality.
Citation: Zou WY, Enchakalody BE, Zhang P . Automated measurements of body composition in abdominal CT scans using artificial intelligence can predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatol Commun 2021 Nov;5(11):1901-10. doi: 10.1002/hep4.1768..
Keywords: Imaging, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Moazzezi M, Rose B, Kisling K
Prospects for daily online adaptive radiotherapy via ethos for prostate cancer patients without nodal involvement using unedited CBCT auto-segmentation.
This study’s objective was to assess the new online adaptive radiation therapy technology called Ethos for treating prostate cancer. Twenty-five prostate patients previously treated at the author’s clinic were re-planed using an Ethos emulator. Clinical margins of 3 mm posterior, 5 mm left/right/anterior, and 7 mm superior/inferior were used. Dose metrics were compared to unadapted plans to evaluate clinical target volumes (CTV) and online adaptive radiation (OAR) dose changes. Overall, 96% of fractions required auto-segmentation edits, although they were mostly minor. Adaptation improved CTV 98% for the 24 patients with minor auto-segmentation corrections. However, for one in 25 patients, large contour edits were required.
Citation: Moazzezi M, Rose B, Kisling K . Prospects for daily online adaptive radiotherapy via ethos for prostate cancer patients without nodal involvement using unedited CBCT auto-segmentation. J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Oct;22(10):82-93. doi: 10.1002/acm2.13399..
Keywords: Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Cancer, Treatments, Imaging
Marin JR, Rodean J, Mannix RC
Association of clinical guidelines and decision support with CT use in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury.
The objective of this study was to examine whether the presence of clinical guidelines and clinical decision support (CDS) for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were associated with lower head computed tomography (CT) use. The investigators concluded that clinical guidelines for mTBI, and particularly CDS, were associated with lower rates of head CT use without adverse clinical outcomes.
Citation: Marin JR, Rodean J, Mannix RC . Association of clinical guidelines and decision support with CT use in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury. J Pediatr 2021 Aug;235:178-83.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.04.026..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Decision Making, Health Information Technology (HIT), Brain Injury, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice, Imaging
Patterson BW, Johnson J, Ward MD
Effect of a split-flow physician in triage model on abdominal CT ordering rate and yield.
The objective of this study was to compare the rate and clinical yield of computed tomography (CT) imaging between patients presenting with abdominal pain initially seen by a physician in triage (PIT) versus those seen only by physicians working in the main emergency department (ED). For patients with abdominal pain, the investigators found no significant differences in rates of CT ordering or CT yield for patients seen in a PIT vs. traditional models.
Citation: Patterson BW, Johnson J, Ward MD . Effect of a split-flow physician in triage model on abdominal CT ordering rate and yield. Am J Emerg Med 2021 Aug;46:160-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2020.05.119..
Keywords: Imaging, Emergency Department, Practice Patterns, Diagnostic Safety and Quality