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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 25 of 65 Research Studies Displayed
Levander XA, Carmody T, Cook RR
A gender-based secondary analysis of the ADAPT-2 combination naltrexone and bupropion treatment for methamphetamine use disorder trial.
This study’s objective was to determine if there were gender-based differences in treatment for methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) in general comparing treatment with placebo and due to use of a hormonal method of contraception (HMC). This research was a secondary analysis of ADAPT-2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, two-stage sequential parallel comparison design trial. This cohort study comprised 126 women (403 total participants); average age of 40.1 years with moderate to severe MUD. At baseline, women used methamphetamine intravenously fewer days than men [15.4 versus 23.1% days] and more women than men had anxiety (59.5 versus 47.6%). Of the 113 women capable of becoming pregnant, 31 used HMC. Treatment response for women was 29% in Stage 1 and 5.6% in Stage 2 compared with 3.2% and 0% on placebo, respectively. A treatment effect was found independently for females and males; with no between-gender treatment effect (0.144 females versus 0.100 males). Treatment effect did not differ by HMC use (0.156 HMC versus 0.128 none).
Citation: Levander XA, Carmody T, Cook RR . A gender-based secondary analysis of the ADAPT-2 combination naltrexone and bupropion treatment for methamphetamine use disorder trial. Addiction 2023 Jul; 118(7):1320-28. doi: 10.1111/add.16163..
Keywords: Substance Abuse, Medication, Behavioral Health, Sex Factors
Goodsmith N, Cohen AN, Pedersen ER
Predictors of functioning and recovery among men and women veterans with schizophrenia.
This study examined predictors of functioning and recovery among men and women veterans with schizophrenia in treatment at Veterans Affairs medical centers using participant surveys at baseline and one year later. The cohort included 734 men and 67 women at baseline and 604 men and 58 women one year later. They were surveyed on quality of life and functioning. Men and women did not differ significantly in baseline social support, psychiatric symptoms, or recovery. Being female predicted higher occupational functioning, while social functioning in men was inversely related to baseline symptom severity. Marriage predicted higher quality of life for women, but not for men.
Citation: Goodsmith N, Cohen AN, Pedersen ER . Predictors of functioning and recovery among men and women veterans with schizophrenia. Community Ment Health J 2023 Jan; 59(1):110-21. doi: 10.1007/s10597-022-00979-x..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Sex Factors
McQuillan J, Andersen JA, Berdahl TA
AHRQ Author: Berdahl TA
Associations of rheumatoid arthritis and depressive symptoms over time: are there differences by education, race/ethnicity, and gender?
The objective of this study was to examine associations between changes in Rheumatoid Arthritis symptoms and depressive symptoms and to test if these associations differed by education, or gender, or race/ethnicity. Data was taken from the National Rheumatoid Arthritis Study, 1988-98. The results indicated that people with Rheumatoid Arthritis experienced increases in depressive symptoms as well as pain, functional disability, and household work disability over the study period. There was no difference noted in the rate of change in depressive symptoms by education, gender, nor race/ethnicity, but the association of functional disability with depressive symptoms was stronger for men than women. The researchers concluded that it is important to monitor and treat both mental and physical health symptoms, and that future research should focus on the collection of data that reflects the educational, gender, and racial/ethnic diversity of people with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Citation: McQuillan J, Andersen JA, Berdahl TA . Associations of rheumatoid arthritis and depressive symptoms over time: are there differences by education, race/ethnicity, and gender? Arthritis Care Res 2022 Dec;74(12):2050-58. doi: 10.1002/acr.24730..
Keywords: Arthritis, Depression, Behavioral Health, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Sex Factors, Chronic Conditions
Marcaccio CL, Patel PB, de Guerre L
Disparities in 5-year outcomes and imaging surveillance following elective endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by sex, race, and ethnicity.
The purpose of this study was to identify variations in 5-year outcomes and imaging surveillance after elective endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) by sex, race, and ethnicity and to examine possible mechanisms contributing to these variations. The primary outcome was 5-year aneurysm rupture. Secondary outcomes were 5-year reintervention and mortality, and having no aortic imaging follow-up from 6 to 24 months after EVAR. The study found that among 16,040 patients, 73% were White males, 18% were White females, 2.6% were Black males, 1.1% were Black females, 0.9% were Asian males, 0.2% were Asian females, 1.7% were Hispanic males, and 0.4% were Hispanic females. At 5 years, Black females had the highest rupture rates at 6.4% and white males had the lowest at 2.3%. Compared with White males, rupture rates were higher in White females, Black females, and Asian females. Among other groups, Black males had higher reintervention and both Black and Hispanic males had higher rates of no imaging follow-up. In adjusted analyses, White, Black, and Asian females remained at significantly higher risk for 5-year rupture. The researchers concluded that Black females had higher 5-year aneurysm rupture, reintervention, and mortality rates after elective EVAR as compared with White male patients, whereas White females had higher rupture, mortality and loss-to-imaging-follow-up compared to White male patients. Black males had higher reintervention and no imaging follow-up, and Asian females had higher rupture rates.
Citation: Marcaccio CL, Patel PB, de Guerre L . Disparities in 5-year outcomes and imaging surveillance following elective endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by sex, race, and ethnicity. J Vasc Surg 2022 Nov;76(5):1205-15.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.03.886..
Keywords: Disparities, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Sex Factors, Outcomes, Imaging, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions
Marcaccio CL, O'Donnell TFX, Dansey KD
Disparities in reporting and representation by sex, race, and ethnicity in endovascular aortic device trials.
The purpose of this study was to examine the demographics of patients enrolled in critical U.S. endovascular aortic device trials to explore the representation of vulnerable populations, including women and racial and ethnic minorities. The primary outcomes included the percentage of trials reporting participant sex, race, and ethnicity and the percentage of participants across sex, racial, and ethnic groups. The study found that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provided 29 approvals from 29 trials of 24 devices with a total of 4046 patients: 52% (15) were EVAR devices, 41% (12) were TEVAR devices, and 3.4% (1) was a FEVAR device, with 1 dissection stent (3.4%). Fifty-two percent of the trials reported the three most common racial groups (White, Black, Asian), and 48% reported Hispanic ethnicity. The TEVAR trials were the most likely to report all three racial groups and Hispanic ethnicity (92% and 75%, respectively), while the EVAR trials had the lowest reporting rates (13% and 20%, respectively). The median female enrollment was 21%, with the EVAR trials having the lowest female enrollment compared with 41% in the TEVAR trials, 21% in the FEVAR trial, and 34% in the dissection stent trial. The study concluded that in critical aortic device trials that led to FDA approval, female patients were underrepresented, especially for EVAR, and racial and ethnic minority groups were under-represented and underreported.
Citation: Marcaccio CL, O'Donnell TFX, Dansey KD . Disparities in reporting and representation by sex, race, and ethnicity in endovascular aortic device trials. J Vasc Surg 2022 Nov;76(5):1244-52.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.05.003..
Keywords: Disparities, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Medical Devices, Sex Factors
Rich KM, Zubiago J, Murphy M
The association of gender with receptive and distributive needle sharing among individuals who inject drugs.
The authors sought to assess the relationship between gender and needle sharing with injection drug use. Using data from the 2010-2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) datasets, they found that women were more likely in comparison with men to share needles both through receptive and distributive means. They concluded that expansion of interventions, including syringe service programs, to increase access to sterile injection equipment, is of great importance.
Citation: Rich KM, Zubiago J, Murphy M . The association of gender with receptive and distributive needle sharing among individuals who inject drugs. Harm Reduct J 2022 Sep 30;19(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s12954-022-00689-3..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Sex Factors
Windgassen SS, Sutherland S, Finn MTM
Gender differences in the experience of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.
This study assessed gender differences in a debilitating urologic pain condition, interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Findings indicated that women reported greater pain intensity and extent, but not significantly greater impairment from pain. The duration between time of pain symptom onset and time to diagnosis was significantly greater for women than men. Men emphasized needing more physiological treatment options whilst women emphasized needing more social and emotional support. While men reported feeling supported and involved in treatment decisions, women reported feeling dismissed and disbelieved.
Citation: Windgassen SS, Sutherland S, Finn MTM . Gender differences in the experience of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Front Pain Res 2022 Aug 11;3:954967. doi: 10.3389/fpain.2022.954967..
Keywords: Pain, Sex Factors, Women
Patel PB, De Guerre L, Marcaccio CL
Sex-specific criteria for repair should be utilized in patients undergoing aortic aneurysm repair.
This study’s goal was determine if identifying inherent anatomic differences between sexes, aortic size index (ASI) and aortic height index (AHI) may provide an additional method for guiding treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery. Females are more likely to undergo repair at smaller aortic diameter compared with male patients. The authors identified all patients who underwent AAA repair between 2003 and 2019 in the Vascular Quality Initiative database. The Dubois and Dubois formula was used to calculate body surface area; aortic diameter was divided by body surface area to calculate ASI, and aortic diameter was divided by height to calculate AHI. They identified 55,647 patients, of whom 12,664 were female (20%). For both types of repairs (intact and rupture), female patients were older, less likely to undergo endovascular aneurysm repair, and more likely to have comorbid conditions. Female patients underwent repair at smaller median aortic diameter compared with male patients for intact (5.4 vs 5.5 cm) and rupture repair (6.7 vs 7.7 cm). When they analyzed the cumulative distribution of rupture repair in male patients, they found that 12% of rupture repairs were performed at an aortic diameter below 5.5 cm, but to achieve the same proportion of rupture repair in female patients, the repair diameter was only 4.9 cm. When both ASI and AHI were used, female and male patients both reached 12% of rupture repair at an ASI of 2.7 cm/m(2) and an AHI of 3.0 cm/m.
Citation: Patel PB, De Guerre L, Marcaccio CL . Sex-specific criteria for repair should be utilized in patients undergoing aortic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg 2022 Feb; 75(2):515-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2021.08.060..
Keywords: Sex Factors, Cardiovascular Conditions, Surgery
McCoy RG, Van Houten HK, Dunlay SM
Race and sex differences in the initiation of diabetes drugs by privately insured US adults.
The authors examined the differences in the use of three glucose-lowering medications as a function of both sex and race. They found that, compared to white men, GLP-1RA were 43% more likely to be started by White women, 12% more likely to be started by non-White men, and 21% less likely to be started by non-White women. SGLT2i were at least 10% less likely to be started by all groups compared to White men, and DPP4i were used more often by non-White than White patients of both sexes.
Citation: McCoy RG, Van Houten HK, Dunlay SM . Race and sex differences in the initiation of diabetes drugs by privately insured US adults. Race and sex differences in the initiation of diabetes drugs by privately insured US adults..
Keywords: Diabetes, Chronic Conditions, Medication, Sex Factors, Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Mody P, Pandey A, Slutsky AS
AHRQ Author: Bierman AS
Gender-based differences in outcomes among resuscitated patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
In this study, the investigators examined gender based differences in outcomes among resuscitated patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Studies examining gender-based differences in outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients have demonstrated that despite a higher likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation, women do not have higher survival. The investigators concluded that among resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, discharge to survival was significantly lower in women compared with men especially among patients considered to have a favorable prognosis.
Citation: Mody P, Pandey A, Slutsky AS . Gender-based differences in outcomes among resuscitated patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 2021 Feb 16;143(7):641-49. doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.120.050427..
Keywords: Sex Factors, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Outcomes
Stakeholder experiences with gender identity data capture in electronic health records: implementation effectiveness and a visibility paradox.
Advocates have endorsed transgender visibility via gender identity (GI) data capture with the advent of the Affordable Care Act and electronic health record (EHR) requirements. Visibility in data in order to enumerate a population contrasts with ways in which other LGBT and public health scholars have deployed these concepts. This article aims to assess the effectiveness of GI data capture in EHRs and implications for trans health care quality improvements and research.
Citation: Thompson HM . Stakeholder experiences with gender identity data capture in electronic health records: implementation effectiveness and a visibility paradox. Health Educ Behav 2021 Feb;48(1):93-101. doi: 10.1177/1090198120963102.
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Health Services Research (HSR), Vulnerable Populations, Sex Factors
Khodneva Y, Richman J, Kertesz S
Gender differences in association of prescription opioid use and mortality: a propensity-matched analysis from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) prospective cohort.
Prescription opioids (PO) have been widely used for chronic non-cancer pain, with commensurate concerns for overdose. The long-term effect of these medications on non-overdose mortality in the general population remains poorly understood. This study's objective was to examine the association of prescription opioid use and mortality in a large cohort, accounting for gender differences and concurrent benzodiazepine use, and using propensity score matching.
Citation: Khodneva Y, Richman J, Kertesz S . Gender differences in association of prescription opioid use and mortality: a propensity-matched analysis from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) prospective cohort. Subst Abus 2021;42(1):94-103. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2019.1702609..
Keywords: Stroke, Cardiovascular Conditions, Sex Factors, Opioids, Medication, Mortality
Baik D, Liu J, Cho H
Factors related to biological sex differences in engagement with healthcare providers in persons living with HIV.
Investigators conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from four projects focused on improving health outcomes in persons living with HIV (PLWH). They found that male patients displayed negative association between depression and engagement with healthcare providers and positive association between engagement with healthcare providers and medication adherence, while female patients showed no association between any of these factors. Anxiety and stigma were not significantly associated with medication adherence. They concluded that adherence interventions for PLWH should be tailored by biological sex.
Citation: Baik D, Liu J, Cho H . Factors related to biological sex differences in engagement with healthcare providers in persons living with HIV. AIDS Behav 2020 Sep;24(9):2656-65. doi: 10.1007/s10461-020-02823-3..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Sex Factors, Patient and Family Engagement, Patient Adherence/Compliance, Depression, Behavioral Health, Medication
Aronson BD, Sittner KJ, Walls ML
The mediating role of diabetes distress and depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes medication adherence gender differences.
Medication adherence is negatively related to both diabetes distress (DD) and depressive symptoms (DS). Past research suggests gender differences in adherence, DD, and DS. A gap exists in determining if gender differences in adherence are mediated by DD and DS, or if gender moderates differences in adherence by DD/DS. Aims. This study investigated the relationship between gender, DD, DS, and medication adherence and tested for mediating and moderating effects on medication adherence among American Indian adults with type 2 diabetes.
Citation: Aronson BD, Sittner KJ, Walls ML . The mediating role of diabetes distress and depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes medication adherence gender differences. Health Educ Behav 2020 Jun;47(3):474-82. doi: 10.1177/1090198119885416..
Keywords: Medication, Diabetes, Patient Adherence/Compliance, Chronic Conditions, Sex Factors
Hay CC, Graham JE, Pappadis MR
The impact of one's sex and social living situation on rehabilitation outcomes after a stroke.
The goal of this retrospective observational study was to investigate sex differences and the impact of social living situation on individual functional independence measure outcomes after stroke rehabilitation. Subjects were Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries discharged from inpatient rehabilitation facilities after a stroke. Results showed that when sociodemographic and clinical factors were controlled, females were more likely to discharge from inpatient rehabilitation at a supervision level or better for most functional independence measure items. Individuals who lived alone before their stroke had higher odds of discharging at a supervision level or better.
Citation: Hay CC, Graham JE, Pappadis MR . The impact of one's sex and social living situation on rehabilitation outcomes after a stroke. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2020 Jan;99(1):48-55. doi: 10.1097/phm.0000000000001276..
Keywords: Stroke, Rehabilitation, Elderly, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Sex Factors, Cardiovascular Conditions, Outcomes
Adediran T, Drumheller BC, McCunn M
Sex differences in in-hospital complications among older adults after traumatic brain injury.
This study examined sex differences in in-hospital complications among older adults after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous evidence has suggested that women have better outcomes than men after TBI. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of adults aged 65 years and older treated for moderate to severe TBI at R. Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center from 1996 to 2012. The investigators identified TBI using ICD-9 CM codes and inclusion in the study required an abbreviated injury scale head score of 3 or greater, abbreviated injury scale scores for other body regions of 2 or greater, and a blunt injury mechanism. Out of 2511 patients, 51.1% were men, and 25.1% developed an in-hospital complication. Men had a complication rate of 28.1% versus 22.0% for women.
Citation: Adediran T, Drumheller BC, McCunn M . Sex differences in in-hospital complications among older adults after traumatic brain injury. J Surg Res 2019 Nov;243:427-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2019.05.053..
Keywords: Elderly, Sex Factors, Adverse Events, Hospitalization, Brain Injury
Hansen M, Schoonover A, Skarica B
Implicit gender bias among US resident physicians.
The purpose of this study was to characterize implicit gender bias among residents in US Emergency Medicine and OB/GYN residencies. The investigators found that gender bias was present among US residents favoring men in leadership positions, this bias differed between male and female residents, and was associated with discipline. Implicit bias did not differ across training years, and was associated with explicit bias.
Citation: Hansen M, Schoonover A, Skarica B . Implicit gender bias among US resident physicians. BMC Med Educ 2019 Oct 29;19(1):396. doi: 10.1186/s12909-019-1818-1..
Keywords: Provider, Provider: Physician, Sex Factors
Brescia AA, Wu X, Paone G
Effect of sex on nadir hematocrit and rates of acute kidney injury in coronary artery bypass.
Researchers explored whether there a sex-related difference on nadir hematocrit and rates of acute kidney injury in coronary artery bypass. A prospective, observational study was conducted of 17,363 patients not on dialysis undergoing the procedure between 2011 and 2016 across 41 institutions from the Perfusion Measure and Outcomes registry. There was no sex-related differences found for nadir hematocrit or rates of acute kidney injury.
AHRQ-funded; HS026003; HS022535.
Citation: Brescia AA, Wu X, Paone G . Effect of sex on nadir hematocrit and rates of acute kidney injury in coronary artery bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2019 Oct;158(4):1073-80.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2019.03.042..
Keywords: Injuries and Wounds, Sex Factors, Kidney Disease and Health, Adverse Events, Surgery, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions
Purnell TS, Luo X, Crews DC
Neighborhood poverty and sex differences in live donor kidney transplant outcomes in the United States.
Neighborhood poverty has been associated with worse outcomes after live donor kidney transplantation (LDKT), and prior work suggests that women with kidney disease may be more susceptible to the negative influence of poverty than men. As such, our goal was to examine whether poverty differentially affects women in influencing LDKT outcomes. The investigators concluded that given their findings that poverty was more strongly associated with graft loss in women, targeted efforts are needed to specifically address mechanisms driving these disparities in LDKT outcomes.
Citation: Purnell TS, Luo X, Crews DC . Neighborhood poverty and sex differences in live donor kidney transplant outcomes in the United States. Transplantation 2019 Oct;103(10):2183-89. doi: 10.1097/tp.0000000000002654.
Keywords: Transplantation, Kidney Disease and Health, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Disparities, Women, Sex Factors, Low-Income, Outcomes
Jarman MP, Pollack Porter K, Curriero FC
Factors mediating demographic determinants of injury mortality.
The authors investigated the role of injury characteristics and access to trauma care as mediators of the relationships between race, ethnicity, sex, and injury mortality. They found that distance, injury characteristics, and insurance mediate the effects of demographic characteristics on injury mortality and appear to contribute to disparities in injury mortality.
Citation: Jarman MP, Pollack Porter K, Curriero FC . Factors mediating demographic determinants of injury mortality. Ann Epidemiol 2019 Jun;34:58-64.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2019.03.013..
Keywords: Access to Care, Disparities, Injuries and Wounds, Mortality, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Sex Factors, Social Determinants of Health, Trauma
Knutsen J, Crossman M, Perrin J
Sex differences in restricted repetitive behaviors and interests in children with autism spectrum disorder: an Autism Treatment Network study.
Researchers examined sex differences in clinically identified (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) restricted and repetitive behavior symptoms of age-matched and intelligence quotient-matched female and male children with autism spectrum disorder. Their findings identified key restricted and repetitive behavior similarities and differences among young females and males with autism spectrum disorder and emphasized the need for a deeper understanding of the female autism phenotype.
AHRQ-funded; HS022986; HS000063.
Citation: Knutsen J, Crossman M, Perrin J . Sex differences in restricted repetitive behaviors and interests in children with autism spectrum disorder: an Autism Treatment Network study. Autism 2019 May;23(4):858-68. doi: 10.1177/1362361318786490..
Keywords: Autism, Behavioral Health, Children/Adolescents, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Sex Factors
Khan NNS, Kelly-Blake K, Luo Z
Sex differences in statin prescribing in diabetic and heart disease patients in FQHCs: a comparison of the ATPIII and 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines.
The study’s purpose was to determine differences in the rate of statin prescribing by sex based on the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III and 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC/American Heart Association) cholesterol guidelines in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). The study also wanted to determine adherence to those guidelines based on the 2013 recommendations. Two FQHCs were used and patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus (DM) were recruited. There was no difference between men and women in statin prescribing under ATPIII; however there was underprescribing for both men and women with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).
Citation: Khan NNS, Kelly-Blake K, Luo Z . Sex differences in statin prescribing in diabetic and heart disease patients in FQHCs: a comparison of the ATPIII and 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines. Health Serv Res Manag Epidemiol 2019 Mar 5;6:2333392818825414. doi: 10.1177/2333392818825414..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Diabetes, Medication, Practice Patterns, Sex Factors
Marcolini EG, Albrecht JS, Sethuraman KN
Gender disparities in trauma care: how sex determines treatment, behavior, and outcome.
This study used US and European trauma database statistics, including the National Trauma Databank, to examine sex disparities in trauma care. Their findings indicate that sex differences in risk-taking behaviors that lead to traumatic injury have been associated with males, with female menstrual cycle timing, and with cortisol levels. Differences in access to services at trauma centers, including triage or transfer and level of medical attention are associated with sex as well race, rural or urban location, and insurance status. Outcomes, such as in-hospital mortality, multiple organ failure, pneumonia, and sepsis are associated with sex disparities in the general trauma patient; outcomes after general trauma and specifically traumatic brain injury show mixed results.
Citation: Marcolini EG, Albrecht JS, Sethuraman KN . Gender disparities in trauma care: how sex determines treatment, behavior, and outcome. Anesthesiol Clin 2019 Mar;37(1):107-17. doi: 10.1016/j.anclin.2018.09.007..
Keywords: Access to Care, Disparities, Injuries and Wounds, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Risk, Sex Factors, Trauma
Lee T, Qian J, Thamer M
Gender disparities in vascular access surgical outcomes in elderly hemodialysis patients.
In this study, the investigators assessed clinically relevant arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) and arteriovenous grafts (AVG) surgical outcomes in elderly male and female patients initiating hemodialysis with a central venous catheter (CVC). The investigators concluded that while AVFs should be considered the preferred vascular access in most circumstances, clinical AVF surgical outcomes were uniformly worse in females. They suggest that clinicians should also consider AVGs as a viable alternative in elderly female patients initiating hemodialysis with a CVC to avoid extended CVC dependence.
AHRQ-funded; HS022931; HS021229.
Citation: Lee T, Qian J, Thamer M . Gender disparities in vascular access surgical outcomes in elderly hemodialysis patients. Am J Nephrol 2019;49(1):11-19. doi: 10.1159/000495261..
Keywords: Elderly, Sex Factors, Surgery, Kidney Disease and Health, Disparities, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Sutherland S, Brunwasser SM
Sex differences in vulnerability to prenatal stress: a review of the recent literature.
This review evaluates the degree to which recent studies provide evidence that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) has a varying effect on child health outcomes depending on the child's biological sex. “Stress” includes negative life events, psychological stress, and established stress biomarkers. A review of 50 peer-reviewed articles revealed that most found evidence of either sex-specific associations or significant PNMS (x) stress interactions for at least one outcome. Sex-dependent effects were strongest in the group of studies that evaluated child neural/nervous system development and temperament.
Citation: Sutherland S, Brunwasser SM . Sex differences in vulnerability to prenatal stress: a review of the recent literature. Sex differences in vulnerability to prenatal stress: a review of the recent literature.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Newborns/Infants, Outcomes, Pregnancy, Sex Factors, Stress