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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 25 of 1640 Research Studies Displayed
Gómez-Lumbreras A, Boyce RD, Villa-Zapata L
Drugs that interact with colchicine via inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein: a signal detection analysis using a database of spontaneously reported adverse events (FAERS).
The objective of this study was to examine clinical outcomes associated with colchicine drug interactions. Researchers conducted a disproportionality analysis using the spontaneous reports of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). The study’s results identified numerous safety signals for colchicine and CYP3A4/P-gp inhibitor drugs. The authors concluded that avoiding interactions or monitoring for toxicity in patients when co-prescribing colchicine and these agents is highly recommended.
Citation: Gómez-Lumbreras A, Boyce RD, Villa-Zapata L . Drugs that interact with colchicine via inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein: a signal detection analysis using a database of spontaneously reported adverse events (FAERS). Ann Pharmacother 2023 Oct; 57(10):1137-46. doi: 10.1177/10600280221148031..
Keywords: Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Patient Safety
Yan CH, Hubbard CC, Lee TA
Impact of hydrocodone rescheduling on dental prescribing of opioids.
In 2014, the United States Drug Enforcement Administration rescheduled hydrocodone’s controlled substance schedule from III to II, introducing increasing regulations in prescribing and dispensing. In the U.S., dentists often prescribe hydrocodone, and these changes in scheduling may have altered dental prescribing of opioids. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the hydrocodone rescheduling on dental prescribing of opioids in the United States. Across the 49-month study period, dentists prescribed 50,412,942 opioid prescriptions. Hydrocodone was the most prescribed opioid, followed by codeine, oxycodone, and tramadol. At index, hydrocodone prescribing immediately decreased by -834.8 Rx/1,000 dentists with increased prescribing of codeine, oxycodone, and tramadol. The mean MME increased at index for all opioids except for hydrocodone, and dosages subsequently decreased during the postindex period.
Citation: Yan CH, Hubbard CC, Lee TA . Impact of hydrocodone rescheduling on dental prescribing of opioids. JDR Clin Trans Res 2023 Oct; 8(4):402-12. doi: 10.1177/23800844221102830..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Dental and Oral Health, Practice Patterns
Herzig SJ, Anderson TS, Urman RD
Risk factors for opioid-related adverse drug events among older adults after hospitalization for major orthopedic procedures.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to identify risk factors for opioid-related adverse drug events (ORADEs) after hospital discharge following orthopedic procedures. The participants of this study included a national sample of Medicare beneficiaries who underwent major orthopedic surgery during hospitalization in 2016 and had an opioid prescription filled within 2 days of discharge. The study found that among 30,514 hospitalizations with a major orthopedic procedure and an opioid claim, a potential ORADE requiring hospital revisit occurred in 2.5%. After adjustment for patient characteristics, prior opioid use, co-prescribed sedating medications, and opioid prescription characteristics were not related with ORADEs. Independent risk factors did include age of 80 years or older, female sex, and clinical conditions, including heart failure, respiratory illness, kidney disease, dementia/delirium, anxiety disorder, and musculoskeletal/nervous system injuries.
Citation: Herzig SJ, Anderson TS, Urman RD . Risk factors for opioid-related adverse drug events among older adults after hospitalization for major orthopedic procedures. J Patient Saf 2023 Oct 1; 19(6):379-85. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000001144..
Keywords: Elderly, Opioids, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Hospitalization, Orthopedics, Surgery, Medication, Risk, Medication: Safety, Patient Safety
Langlieb ME, Sharma P, Hocevar M
The additional cost of perioperative medication errors.
The aim of this study was to calculate the additional annual cost to the U.S. healthcare system attributable to preventable medication errors (MEs) in the operating room. The ME types were grouped into 13 categories by their related harm (or potential harm), and researchers calculated the incidence of operations involving each ME category: 1) delayed or missed required perioperative antibiotic; 2) prolonged hemodynamic swings; 3) untreated postoperative pain; 4) residual neuromuscular blockade; 5) oxygen saturation <90% due to ME; 6) delayed emergence; 7) untreated new onset intraoperative cardiac arrhythmia; 8) medication documentation errors; 9) syringe swaps; 10) presumed hypotension with inability to obtain a blood pressure reading; 11) potential for bacterial contamination due to expired medication syringes; 12) untreated bradycardia <40 beats/min; and 13) other. Through a PubMed search, the researchers established the possibility that the ME category would cause downstream patient harm such as surgical site infection or acute kidney injury, and the additional fully allocated cost of care for each potential downstream patient harm event. The cost of the MEs across the U.S. healthcare system was then calculated by scaling the number of MEs to the total number of annual operations in the United States. The total additional fully allocated annual cost of care due to perioperative MEs was estimated to be $5.33 billion U.S. dollars.
Citation: Langlieb ME, Sharma P, Hocevar M . The additional cost of perioperative medication errors. J Patient Saf 2023 Oct 1; 19(6):375-78. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000001136..
Keywords: Medication: Safety, Medication, Medical Errors, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Surgery, Patient Safety
Sikora A, Jeong H, Yu M
Cluster analysis driven by unsupervised latent feature learning of medications to identify novel pharmacophenotypes of critically ill patients.
This study used a machine learning approach (Restricted Boltzmann Machine) to perform an unsupervised analysis of 991 medication profiles of patients managed in the intensive care unit (ICU) to explore pharmacophenotypes that correlated with ICU complications (e.g., mechanical ventilation) and patient-centered outcomes (e.g., length of stay, mortality). The authors observed six unique pharmacophenotypes, with unique medication profiles and clinically relevant differences in ICU complications and patient-centered outcomes. While pharmacophenotypes 2 and 4 had no statistically significant difference in ICU length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or duration of vasopressor use, their mortality differed significantly (9.0% vs. 21.9%). All but pharmacophenotype 4 had a mortality rate ranging from 2.5 to 9%. This approach has shown promise in classifying the heterogenous syndromes of critical illness to predict treatment response and guide clinical decision support systems but have never included comprehensive medication information.
Citation: Sikora A, Jeong H, Yu M . Cluster analysis driven by unsupervised latent feature learning of medications to identify novel pharmacophenotypes of critically ill patients. Sci Rep 2023 Sep 20; 13(1):15562. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-42657-2..
Keywords: Medication, Critical Care
Deshpande A, Walker R, Schulte R
Reducing antimicrobial overuse through targeted therapy for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a study protocol for a cluster-randomized factorial controlled trial (CARE-CAP).
The authors described a planned cluster-randomized controlled trial in 12 hospitals in the Cleveland Clinic Health System to test two approaches to reducing the use of extended-spectrum antibiotics (ESA) in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): rapid diagnostic assays that provide accurate results within hours, and de-escalation after negative bacterial cultures in clinically stable patients. The purpose will be to establish whether the identification of an etiological agent early and pharmacist-led de-escalation can safely reduce the use of ESA in patients with CAP. The findings may also inform clinical guidelines on the management of CAP.
Citation: Deshpande A, Walker R, Schulte R . Reducing antimicrobial overuse through targeted therapy for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a study protocol for a cluster-randomized factorial controlled trial (CARE-CAP). Trials 2023 Sep 16; 24(1):595. doi: 10.1186/s13063-023-07615-3..
Keywords: Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Stewardship, Medication, Community-Acquired Infections, Pneumonia, Respiratory Conditions
Laytner LA, Olmeda K, Salinas J
Acculturation and subjective norms impact non-prescription antibiotic use among Hispanic patients in the United States.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of acculturation and subjective norms on Hispanic individuals' intentions to use antibiotics without a prescription from the following sources: 1) United States markets (not legal), 2) other countries, 3) leftovers from previous prescriptions, and 4) friends/relatives. The study found that of the 263 patients surveyed, 47% reported previous non-prescription use, and 54% expressed intention to use non-prescription antibiotics if feeling sick. Individuals with lower acculturation (Spanish-speaking preferences) expressed greater intentions to utilize antibiotics from abroad and from any source. Individuals with more friends/relatives who obtain antibiotics abroad were over 2.5 times more likely to intend to utilize non-prescription antibiotics from friends/relatives. Other predictors of intention to utilize non-prescription antibiotics included high costs of doctor visits and perceived language barriers in the clinic.
Citation: Laytner LA, Olmeda K, Salinas J . Acculturation and subjective norms impact non-prescription antibiotic use among Hispanic patients in the United States. Antibiotics 2023 Sep 8; 12(9). doi: 10.3390/antibiotics12091419..
Keywords: Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Antibiotics, Medication, Antimicrobial Stewardship
Hughes PM, Carda-Auten J, DiRosa EA
"You can get a couple of ramen noodle packs for a Buspar(Ⓡ)": a qualitative examination of medication access, policy, and procedures in southern jails.
Over10 million people are being incarcerated every year in the US, and jails are required to provide health care to them, a substantial percentage of whom require medications. However, not much is known about the medication prescription, acquisition, and administration process for incarcerated persons in jails. The purpose of this study was to characterize access to medication and related medication policies and procedures in jails. The researchers administered semi-structured interviews with administrators and health workers from 34 jails (of 125 contacted) across 5 states in the southeastern US. The qualitative interview guide encompassed all facets of healthcare in jails from entry to release, but the current study focused only on medications. The study found that 4 processes characterized medication utilization from intake to release: 1) jail entry and health screening, 2) pharmacy and medication protocols, 3) protocols specific to medication dispensing and administration, and 4) medications upon release. Many jails had processes for utilizing medications brought to the jail from home, although some jails did not agree to use those medications. Researchers discovered that contracted healthcare providers were the primary medication decision-makers in jails, and most medications were obtained from contract pharmacies. The study also found almost all jails banned narcotics, but other medication restrictions varied by jail. Most jails charged a copay for medications. Study participants shared a variety of privacy practices related to the distribution of medication, as well as approaches to the prevention of diversion of medications away from intended recipients and into the prison population. Transition planning for pre-release medication management processes ranged from no planning to sending additional prescriptions to the patient's pharmacy.
Citation: Hughes PM, Carda-Auten J, DiRosa EA . "You can get a couple of ramen noodle packs for a Buspar(Ⓡ)": a qualitative examination of medication access, policy, and procedures in southern jails. Res Social Adm Pharm 2023 Sep; 19(9):1298-306. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2023.05.013..
Keywords: Medication, Vulnerable Populations, Access to Care
Smith MW, Carrel M, Goto M
County-level spatiotemporal distribution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in outpatient settings of the Veterans' Health Administration, 2000-2017.
This study’s goal was to describe the spatial distribution of fluoroquinolone resistance against Enterobacteriaceae and its chronological change between 2000 and 2017 in the nationwide Veterans' Health Administration system. Primary outcome was the county-level fluoroquinolone resistance rate, calculated as the proportion of number of unique patients with at least 1 positive fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae clinical culture divided by the total number of unique patients with at least one positive Enterobacteriaceae culture in the county for each calendar year. The authors found spatially concentrated increasing prevalence in the 2000s, followed by spatial dispersion in the 2010s. Of the 107 million patient years of care in the VHA from 2000 to 2017, 1,621,762 patient years included at least 1 positive culture for Enterobacteriaceae, with 2,545,430 unique culture specimens. The resistance rate among all Enterobacteriaceae was 8% in the year 2000, with resistance peaking at 22% in 2011. This rate plateaued during 2011 to 2017. Initial resistance rates were higher in portions of the South region and southern California, with higher rates becoming widespread nationally during 2012 to 2017.
Citation: Smith MW, Carrel M, Goto M . County-level spatiotemporal distribution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in outpatient settings of the Veterans' Health Administration, 2000-2017. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2023 Sep; 44(9):1497-99. doi: 10.1017/ice.2022.291..
Keywords: Medication, Antibiotics
Anderson KE, DiStefano MJ, Liu A
Incorporating added therapeutic benefit and domestic reference pricing into Medicare payment for expensive part B drugs.
The objective of this retrospective analysis was to identify expensive Part B drugs and to consider the evidence for each drug's added benefit in order to model a reimbursement policy for Medicare that integrates added benefit assessment and domestic reference pricing. Data were taken from a nationally representative sample of traditional Medicare Part B claims. The analysis showed that more than one-third of the expensive Part B drugs prescribed in 2019 offered low added benefit. The authors concluded that reference pricing based on added benefit assessment could be used to address the launch prices for expensive Part B drugs with low added benefit.
Citation: Anderson KE, DiStefano MJ, Liu A . Incorporating added therapeutic benefit and domestic reference pricing into Medicare payment for expensive part B drugs. Value Health 2023 Sep; 26(9):1381-88. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2023.05.018..
Keywords: Medicare, Payment, Medication, Healthcare Costs
Troy AL, Herzig SJ, Trivedi S
Initiation of oral anticoagulation in US older adults newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation during hospitalization.
This study investigated prevalence of oral anticoagulant initiation for newly diagnosed US older adults with atrial fibrillation within 7 days of hospital discharge. The authors used a 20% national sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, identifying patients aged 65 years or older newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation while hospitalized in 2016. Among 38,379 older adults newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation while hospitalized (mean age 78.2; 51.8% female; 83.3% white), 36,633 (95.4%) had an indication for anticoagulation and 24.6% (9011) of those initiated an oral anticoagulant following discharge. Higher CHA(2) DS(2) -VASc score was associated with a small increase in oral anticoagulant initiation (predicted probability 20.5% for scores <2 and 24.9% for ≥4). Elevated HAS-BLED score was associated with a small decrease in probability of anticoagulant initiation (25.4% for score <2 and 23.1% for ≥3). Frailty was associated with decreased likelihood of oral anticoagulant initiation (24.7% for non-frail and 18.1% for moderately-severely frail). Anticoagulant initiation varied by primary reason for hospitalization, with predicted probability highest among patients with a primary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (46.1%) and lowest among those with non-cardiovascular conditions (13.8%) and bleeds (3.6%).
Citation: Troy AL, Herzig SJ, Trivedi S . Initiation of oral anticoagulation in US older adults newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation during hospitalization. J Am Geriatr Soc 2023 Sep; 71(9):2748-58. doi: 10.1111/jgs.18375..
Keywords: Elderly, Blood Thinners, Medication, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Stroke
Sankar A, Everhart AO, Jena AB
Longitudinal patterns in testosterone prescribing after US FDA safety communication in 2014.
This study described changes in testosterone prescribing following a 2014 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety communication and how changes varied by physician characteristics. The authors extracted data from a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service administrative claims data from 2011 through 2019. This unique sample included 1,544,604 unique male beneficiaries who received evaluation and management (E&M) services from 58,819 unique physicians that prescribed testosterone between 2011 and 2013. Patients were classified by presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and non-age-related hypogonadism. Physician characteristics included specialty and affiliations with teaching hospitals, for-profit hospitals, hospitals in integrated delivery networks, and hospitals in the top decile of case mix index. Among 65,089,560 physician-patient-quarter-year observations, mean (standard deviation) age ranged from 72.16 (5.84 SD) years for observations without CAD or non-age-related hypogonadism to 75.73 (6.92 SD) years with CAD and without non-age-related hypogonadism. Following the safety communication, immediate changes in off-label testosterone prescription levels fell by 0.22 percentage points (pp) for patients with CAD and by -0.16 pp for patients without CAD, with a similar change in on-label prescribing levels. The off-label testosterone prescription quarterly trend increased for patients with CAD and without CAD; on-label testosterone prescription trends declined for both groups. Primary care physicians had larger declines in off-label prescribing then non-primary care physicians, and physicians affiliated with teaching compared to nonteaching hospitals. On-label prescribing found no changes associated with physician and organizational characteristics.
Citation: Sankar A, Everhart AO, Jena AB . Longitudinal patterns in testosterone prescribing after US FDA safety communication in 2014. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2023 Sep; 49(9):458-66. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2023.05.003..
Keywords: Communication, Medication, Practice Patterns
Somohano VC, Smith CL, Saha S
Patient-provider shared decision-making, trust, and opioid misuse among US veterans prescribed long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain.
This article examined the role that trust in a prescribing provider has on shared decision-making and opioid misuse in opioid-specific pain management. A secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study was conducted of US Veterans (N = 1273) prescribed long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) for chronic non-cancer pain. Patient-provider shared decision-making had a total significant effect on opioid misuse, in the absence of the mediator, such that higher levels of shared decision-making were associated with lower levels of reported opioid misuse. When trust in provider was added to the mediation model, the indirect effect of shared decision-making on opioid misuse through trust in provider remained significant.
Citation: Somohano VC, Smith CL, Saha S . Patient-provider shared decision-making, trust, and opioid misuse among US veterans prescribed long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain. J Gen Intern Med 2023 Sep; 38(12):2755-60. doi: 10.1007/s11606-023-08212-5..
Keywords: Decision Making, Opioids, Medication, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Pain, Chronic Conditions
Grigoryan L, Paasche-Orlow MK, Alquicira O
Antibiotic use without a prescription: a multi-site survey of patient, health system, and encounter characteristics.
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of factors of patient, health system, and clinical encounters on intention to utilize antibiotics without a prescription. Use cases included antibiotics that were 1) bought in the United States, 2) provided by relatives or friends, 3) purchased in another country, or 4) from any of these sources. Between January 2020 through June 2021, a survey was administered in 6 publicly funded primary care clinics and 2 private emergency departments in Texas, United States. Study participants included adult patients visiting 1 of the clinical settings. The study found that of the 564 survey respondents 43.6% reported previous use of antibiotics without a prescription, and 31.4% reported intent to take antibiotics without a prescription. Survey respondents reported they would take antibiotics obtained from relatives or friends (22.3%), bought in the United States without a prescription (19.1%), or purchased in another country without a prescription (17.9%). Perceived high cost of doctor visits, lack of health insurance, and younger age were all predictors of intended use of nonprescription antibiotics from any of the sources. Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, being interviewed in Spanish, language barrier to medical care, and lack of transportation for medical appointments.
Citation: Grigoryan L, Paasche-Orlow MK, Alquicira O . Antibiotic use without a prescription: a multi-site survey of patient, health system, and encounter characteristics. Clin Infect Dis 2023 Aug 22; 77(4):510-17. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciad241..
Keywords: Antibiotics, Medication, Antimicrobial Stewardship
Chou R, Spencer H, Bougatsos C
Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
This article updates research used in the 2019 US Preventive Services Task Force final recommendation on use of oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV in adults at increased risk. The summary includes newer PrEP regimens that were not available for the 2019 final recommendation. A literature review was conducted that included randomized clinical trials of PrEP vs placebo or no PrEP or newer vs older PrEP regimens and diagnostic accuracy studies of instruments for predicting incident HIV infection. Thirty-two studies were included in the review (20 randomized clinical trials [n = 36,543] and 12 studies of diagnostic accuracy [n = 5,544,500]). Eleven trials in the 2019 review found oral PrEP associated with decreased HIV infection risk vs placebo or no PrEP. One new trial (n = 5335) found oral tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine (TAF/FTC) to be noninferior to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in men who have sex with men. Two new trials found long-acting injectable cabotegravir associated with decreased risk of HIV infection vs oral TDF/FTC in cisgender men who have sex with men and transgender women [n = 4490] and RR, 0.11 in cisgender women [n = 3178]). Discrimination of instruments for predicting incident HIV infection was found to be moderate in men who have sex with men (5 studies; n = 25,488) and moderate to high in general populations of persons without HIV (2 studies; n = 5,477,291).
Citation: Chou R, Spencer H, Bougatsos C . Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2023 Aug 22; 330(8):746-63. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.9865..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Prevention, Medication, Evidence-Based Practice
Bongiovanni T, Pletcher MJ, Lau C
A behavioral intervention to promote use of multimodal pain medication for hospitalized patients: a randomized controlled trial.
Administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has become a foundational strategy to decrease the use of opioids, but data is lacking to describe recommending utilization when admitting patients using electronic health record systems. The purpose of this study was to assess an electronic health record system to increase ordering of NSAIDs for hospitalized adults. The researchers conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of clinicians admitting adult patients to a health system over a period of 9-months. Clinicians in the intervention arm were required to actively order or decline NSAIDs; the control arm was provided the same order but without a required response. A total of 20,085 hospitalizations were included. The study found that among the hospitalizations, 52% were admitted by a clinician randomized to the intervention arm. NSAIDs were ordered in 22% of the interventions and 22% of the control admissions. There were no statistically significant differences in NSAID administration, pain scores, or opioid prescribing. There were no differences in clinical harms, with average pain scores of 3.36 in the control group and 3.39 in the intervention group, on a scale of 0-5.
Citation: Bongiovanni T, Pletcher MJ, Lau C . A behavioral intervention to promote use of multimodal pain medication for hospitalized patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Hosp Med 2023 Aug; 18(8):685-92. doi: 10.1002/jhm.13153..
Keywords: Pain, Opioids, Medication, Behavioral Health, Practice Patterns
Rolfzen ML, Wick A, Mascha EJ
Best Practice Alerts Informed by Inpatient Opioid Intake to Reduce Opioid Prescribing after Surgery (PRIOR): a cluster randomized multiple crossover trial.
This study tested the hypothesis that a decision-support tool embedded in electronic health records (EHRs) leads clinicians to prescribe fewer opioids at discharge after inpatient surgery. Over 21,000 surgical inpatient discharges in a cluster randomized multiple crossover trial in four Colorado hospitals were included. The results indicated that within the context of vigorous opioid education and awareness efforts a decision-support tool incorporated into EHRs did not reduce discharge opioid prescribing for postoperative patients. The authors concluded that opioid prescribing alerts might be valuable in other contexts.
Citation: Rolfzen ML, Wick A, Mascha EJ . Best Practice Alerts Informed by Inpatient Opioid Intake to Reduce Opioid Prescribing after Surgery (PRIOR): a cluster randomized multiple crossover trial. Anesthesiology 2023 Aug 1; 139(2):186-96. doi: 10.1097/aln.0000000000004607..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Surgery, Inpatient Care, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Health Information Technology (HIT)
Miller-Rosales C, Busch SH, Meara ER
Internal and environmental predictors of physician practice use of screening and medications for opioid use disorders.
This study examined the extent of screening for opioid use and availability of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in a national cross-section of multi-physician primary care and multispecialty practices. The authors found that a total of 26.2% of practices offered MOUD, while 69.4% of practices screened for opioid use. Offering of MOUD in a practice was associated with having advanced HIT functionality, while access to on-site behavioral clinicians was positively associated with offering MOUD in adjusted models.
Citation: Miller-Rosales C, Busch SH, Meara ER . Internal and environmental predictors of physician practice use of screening and medications for opioid use disorders. Med Care Res Rev 2023 Aug; 80(4):410-22. doi: 10.1177/10775587231162681..
Keywords: Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Screening, Medication, Practice Patterns
Niederdeppe J, Avery RJ, Liu J
Is exposure to pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer advertising for heart disease and diabetes associated with physical activity and dietary behavior?
This study examined associations between estimated exposure to direct consumer-to-advertising (DTCA) for drugs focused on heart disease/cholesterol and diabetes and self-reported exercise and consumption of a variety of unhealthy foods (candy, sugary drinks, alcohol, and fast food). The authors estimated exposure to DTCA by combining data from Kantar Media Intelligence (Kantar) on televised pharmaceutical DTCA airings in the U.S. from January 2003 to August 2016 (n = 7,696,851 airings) with thirteen years of data from the Simmons National Consumer Survey (Simmons), a mailed survey on television viewing patterns. They estimated associations between exposure to advertising (both overall and for advertisements with specific content) and self-reported physical activity and dietary behavior using Simmons data from January 2004 to December 2016 (n = 288,483 respondents from n = 157,621 unique households in the U.S.). They found that higher estimated exposure to DTCA for heart disease and diabetes drugs were not consistently associated with meaningful differences in the frequency of engaging in regular physical activity. However, greater estimated exposure to DTCA for both diseases were linked to small but consistently higher volume of consumption of candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, alcohol, and fast food.
Citation: Niederdeppe J, Avery RJ, Liu J . Is exposure to pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer advertising for heart disease and diabetes associated with physical activity and dietary behavior? Soc Sci Med 2023 Aug; 330:116062. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2023.116062..
Keywords: Communication, Diabetes, Heart Disease and Health, Medication
Gunning R, Chu C, Nakhla N
Major shifts in acid suppression drug utilization after the 2019 ranitidine recalls in Canada and United States.
Citation: Gunning R, Chu C, Nakhla N . Major shifts in acid suppression drug utilization after the 2019 ranitidine recalls in Canada and United States. Dig Dis Sci 2023 Aug; 68(8):3259-67. doi: 10.1007/s10620-023-07958-6..
Schnipper JL, Reyes Nieva H, Yoon C
What works in medication reconciliation: an on-treatment and site analysis of the MARQUIS2 study.
The objective of this study was to assess the association of patient exposure to system-level intervention and receipt based on the results of the second Multicenter Medication Reconciliation Quality Improvement Study, which demonstrated a marked reduction in medication discrepancies per patient. Researchers conducted an on-treatment analysis of system-level interventions at 17 North American hospitals. The patient-level interventions most associated with discrepancy reductions were receipt of a best-possible medication history of admitted patients in the ED and admission and discharge medication reconciliation by a trained clinician. System-level interventions were also associated with a minor reduction in discrepancies for the average patient. The researchers concluded that these findings might be used to help hospitals and health systems prioritize interventions to improve medication safety during care transitions.
Citation: Schnipper JL, Reyes Nieva H, Yoon C . What works in medication reconciliation: an on-treatment and site analysis of the MARQUIS2 study. BMJ Qual Saf 2023 Aug; 32(8):457-69. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2022-014806..
Keywords: Medication, Medication: Safety, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Patient Safety, Hospital Discharge
Deshpande A, Klompas M, Guo N
Intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy among patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to examine clinical practice guidelines which recommend switching from intravenous (IV) to oral antibiotics once patients are clinically stable. The researchers conducted a study of adults admitted with CAP from 2010 through 2015 and initially treated with IV antibiotics at 642 US hospitals. Switching was defined as discontinuation of IV and initiation of oral antibiotics without interrupting therapy. Patients switched by hospital day 3 were considered early switchers. The study found that of 78,041 CAP patients, 6% were switched early, most frequently to fluoroquinolones. Patients switched early had fewer days on IV antibiotics, shorter duration of inpatient antibiotic treatment, shorter LOS, and lower hospitalization costs, but no significant excesses in 14-day in-hospital mortality or late ICU admission. Patients at a greater mortality risk were less likely to be switched. However, even in hospitals with relatively high switch rates, less than 15% of very low-risk patients were switched early.
AHRQ-funded; HS029477; HS025026.
Citation: Deshpande A, Klompas M, Guo N . Intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy among patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 2023 Jul 26; 77(2):174-85. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciad196..
Keywords: Antibiotics, Community-Acquired Infections, Pneumonia, Respiratory Conditions, Medication
Sikora A, Devlin JW, Yu M
Evaluation of medication regimen complexity as a predictor for mortality.
This single-center, observational cohort study of adult intensive care units (ICUs) sought to evaluate the benefit of adding medication regimen complexity-ICU scores to illness severity-based hospital mortality prediction models. While medication regimen complexity was associated with increased hospital mortality, the authors concluded from their findings that a prediction model that included medication regimen complexity only modestly improved mortality prediction.
AHRQ-funded; HS029009; HS028485.
Citation: Sikora A, Devlin JW, Yu M . Evaluation of medication regimen complexity as a predictor for mortality. Sci Rep 2023 Jul 4; 13(1):10784. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-37908-1..
Keywords: Medication, Mortality
Levander XA, Carmody T, Cook RR
A gender-based secondary analysis of the ADAPT-2 combination naltrexone and bupropion treatment for methamphetamine use disorder trial.
This study’s objective was to determine if there were gender-based differences in treatment for methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) in general comparing treatment with placebo and due to use of a hormonal method of contraception (HMC). This research was a secondary analysis of ADAPT-2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, two-stage sequential parallel comparison design trial. This cohort study comprised 126 women (403 total participants); average age of 40.1 years with moderate to severe MUD. At baseline, women used methamphetamine intravenously fewer days than men [15.4 versus 23.1% days] and more women than men had anxiety (59.5 versus 47.6%). Of the 113 women capable of becoming pregnant, 31 used HMC. Treatment response for women was 29% in Stage 1 and 5.6% in Stage 2 compared with 3.2% and 0% on placebo, respectively. A treatment effect was found independently for females and males; with no between-gender treatment effect (0.144 females versus 0.100 males). Treatment effect did not differ by HMC use (0.156 HMC versus 0.128 none).
Citation: Levander XA, Carmody T, Cook RR . A gender-based secondary analysis of the ADAPT-2 combination naltrexone and bupropion treatment for methamphetamine use disorder trial. Addiction 2023 Jul; 118(7):1320-28. doi: 10.1111/add.16163..
Keywords: Substance Abuse, Medication, Behavioral Health, Sex Factors
Bushnell G, Lloyd J, Olfson M
Antipsychotic medication use in Medicaid-insured children decreased substantially between 2008 And 2016.
In the early 2000s there was a rapid growth of pediatric antipsychotic prescribing, especially in the Medicaid population, and concerns grew about the safety and appropriateness of such prescribing. Numerous states implemented policy and educational programs focused on safer and more stringent utilization of antipsychotics. Antipsychotic utilization leveled off toward the end of the 2000s, but no recent national trend estimates of antipsychotic utilization in children enrolled in Medicaid exist. The authors of this study report a substantial decrease in antipsychotic use among children ages 2-17 between 2008 and 2016. Declines existed across foster care status, age, sex, and racial and ethnic groups studied. The rate of children with an antipsychotic prescription who received any diagnosis related to a pediatric indication that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration increased from 38 percent in 2008 to 45 percent in 2016.
Citation: Bushnell G, Lloyd J, Olfson M . Antipsychotic medication use in Medicaid-insured children decreased substantially between 2008 And 2016. Health Aff 2023 Jul; 42(7):973-80. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2022.01625..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Medication, Medicaid, Behavioral Health