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AHRQ Research Studies
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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 709 Research Studies Displayed
Kuzma N, Khan A, Rickey L
Effect of Patient and Family Centered I-PASS on adverse event rates in hospitalized children with complex chronic conditions.
This study’s objective was to compare the effect of the intervention Patient and Family Centered (PFC)I-PASS on adverse events (AE) rates in children with and without complex chronic conditions (CCCs). A cohort of 3106 hospitalized children from seven North American pediatric hospitals between December 2014 and January 2017 were included. An effect modification analysis did not show difference in the intervention on children with and without CCCs. There was no statistically significant change in AEs for children with or without CCCs.
Citation: Kuzma N, Khan A, Rickey L . Effect of Patient and Family Centered I-PASS on adverse event rates in hospitalized children with complex chronic conditions. J Hosp Med 2023 Apr;18(4):316-20. doi: 10.1002/jhm.13065.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Chronic Conditions, Adverse Events, Inpatient Care, Transitions of Care
Wong CI, Vannatta K, Gilleland Marchak J
Preventable harm because of outpatient medication errors among children with leukemia and lymphoma: a multisite longitudinal assessment.
The goal of this longitudinal study was to characterize rates and types of medication errors and harm to outpatient children with leukemia and lymphoma over seven months of treatment. The study included children taking medications at home for leukemia or lymphoma from three pediatric cancer centers. Ten percent experienced adverse drug events because of outpatient medication errors. Twenty-six percent of caregivers reported miscommunication leading to missed doses or overdoses. The authors concluded that improvements addressing communication with and among caregivers should be based on human-factors engineering and codeveloped with families.
Citation: Wong CI, Vannatta K, Gilleland Marchak J . Preventable harm because of outpatient medication errors among children with leukemia and lymphoma: a multisite longitudinal assessment. Cancer 2023 Apr 1;129(7):1064-74. doi: 10.1002/cncr.34651.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Cancer, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Medical Errors, Ambulatory Care and Surgery, Medication: Safety, Patient Safety
Gamyroulas EM, Jones AE, Saunders JA
Trends in antiplatelet strategies 12-months following coronary stent placement in anticoagulated patients.
The guidelines for antithrombotic management in individuals undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) who also necessitate anticoagulant treatment are continually developing. The purpose of this study is to examine adjustments to antithrombotic regimens and correlated outcomes within a year following PCI in patients needing continued anticoagulation therapy. Data from patients discovered through electronic medical record searches were manually assessed to validate alterations in antithrombotic treatment from discharge up to one year post-PCI, as well as episodes of significant bleeding, clinically relevant non-major bleeding (CRNMB), major adverse cardiovascular or neurological events (MACNE), and all-cause mortality outcomes during an extra six-month follow-up period. The study found that one year after PCI, patients (n = 120) undergoing anticoagulation treatment were categorized based on their antiplatelet therapy status: no antiplatelet therapy (n = 16), single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) (n = 85), or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) (n = 19). Between 12 and 18 months post-PCI, there were two significant bleeds, seven CRNMB events, six MACNE incidents, two venous thromboembolisms, and five fatalities. All but one bleeding occurrence transpired in the SAPT group. The likelihood of maintaining DAPT at 12 months was elevated in patients who underwent PCI for acute coronary syndrome and those who experienced MACNE within one year post-PCI; however, these associations did not reach statistical significance.
Citation: Gamyroulas EM, Jones AE, Saunders JA . Trends in antiplatelet strategies 12-months following coronary stent placement in anticoagulated patients. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2023 Mar 8;23(1):117. doi: 10.1186/s12872-023-03161-7.
Keywords: Blood Thinners, Medication, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Hansten PD, Tan MS, Horn JR
Colchicine drug interaction errors and misunderstandings: recommendations for improved evidence-based management.
Colchicine serves as an effective therapy for the management and prevention of gout and various other medical conditions. As a substrate for CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), its simultaneous use with CYP3A4/P-gp inhibitors can lead to critical drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that may result in pancytopenia, multiorgan dysfunction, and cardiac irregularities. Additionally, colchicine's potential for myotoxicity could elevate the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis when combined with other myotoxic medications. Numerous sources of DDI information, encompassing journal articles, product labels, and online resources, contain inaccuracies or vague statements regarding colchicine's interactions with other drugs and subpar guidance on managing DDIs to minimize patient harm. Moreover, assessments of the clinical significance of specific colchicine DDIs can differ substantially between sources. The purpose of this study was to present an evidence-based analysis of drugs that are likely to interact with colchicine, as well as those that have been cited to interact but are improbable to do so. Based on these assessments, the researchers proposes strategies to mitigate the risk of severe adverse consequences from colchicine DDIs. The frequent recommendation to decrease colchicine dosage when administered with CYP3A4/P-gp inhibitors may, in some cases, lead to colchicine toxicity or therapeutic failure. An exhaustive evaluation of nearly 100 documented instances of colchicine DDIs is provided in a table within the electronic supplementary material. While colchicine is a beneficial medication, enhancements to the available information on colchicine DDIs are necessary to reduce the risk of serious adverse events.
Citation: Hansten PD, Tan MS, Horn JR . Colchicine drug interaction errors and misunderstandings: recommendations for improved evidence-based management. Drug Saf 2023 Mar;46(3):223-42. doi: 10.1007/s40264-022-01265-1.
Keywords: Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Medical Errors, Evidence-Based Practice
Griffey RT, Schneider RM, Todorov AA
Near-miss events detected using the emergency department trigger tool.
The purpose of this study was to explore near misses and their significance for quality and safety in the emergency department (ED). This study presents a secondary analysis of data from a retrospective investigation of the ED Trigger Tool (EDTT) at an urban, academic ED. The EDTT, a computerized query for triggers, was applied to 13 months of ED visit data, and 5582 selected records were reviewed using a two-tiered approach. Events were categorized by occurrence (ED vs. present on arrival [POA]), severity, omission/commission, and type, employing a taxonomy featuring categories, subcategories, and cross-cutting modifiers. The researchers identified 1458 ED near misses in 1269 of the 5582 records and 80 near misses that were POA. Patient care events constituted the majority of ED near misses, including diagnostic delays, treatment delays, and monitoring failures, primarily influenced by ED boarding and overcrowding. Medication events ranked second in frequency (17%), with 80 medication administration errors identified. Among the 80 POA events, 42% were linked to overanticoagulation. It was estimated that 19.3% of all ED visits involved a near miss.
AHRQ-funded; HS027811; HS025052.
Citation: Griffey RT, Schneider RM, Todorov AA . Near-miss events detected using the emergency department trigger tool. J Patient Saf 2023 Mar 1; 19(2):59-66. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000001092..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Patient Safety, Adverse Events, Medical Errors
Stone CA, Jr., Robinson LB, Li L
Clinical phenotypes of immediate first-dose reactions to mRNA COVID-19: a multicenter latent class analysis.
The objectives of this retrospective study were to define distinct clinical phenotypes of immediate reactions after dose 1 of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, and to assess the relation of clinical phenotype to mRNA COVID-19 vaccine second dose tolerance. Researchers identified 265 patients who experienced dose-1 immediate reactions with 3 phenotype clusters: limited or predominantly cutaneous, sensory, or systemic. Of these, 223 patients received a second dose and 200 tolerated the second dose; sensory cluster (numbness or tingling) was associated with a higher likelihood of second dose intolerance, but this finding did not persist when accounting for objective signs.
Citation: Stone CA, Jr., Robinson LB, Li L . Clinical phenotypes of immediate first-dose reactions to mRNA COVID-19: a multicenter latent class analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2023 Feb;11(2):458-65.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2022.08.048.
Keywords: COVID-19, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Infectious Diseases, Vaccination
Difazio RL, Shore BJ, Melvin P
Pneumonia after hip surgery in children with neurological complex chronic conditions.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to estimate rates of postoperative pneumonia in children with neurological complex chronic conditions (CCC) undergoing hip surgery, to determine the effect of pneumonia on postoperative hospital resource use, and to identify predictors. Researchers used data from the Pediatric Health Information System for children 4 years and older with a neurological CCC who had undergone hip surgery from 2016 to 2018 in U.S. children's hospitals. Findings indicate that postoperative pneumonia in children with a neurological CCC was associated with longer length-of-stay, readmissions, and higher costs. Children who had undergone pelvic osteotomies and who had multimorbidity needed additional clinical support to prevent postoperative pneumonia and to decrease resource utilization.
Citation: Difazio RL, Shore BJ, Melvin P . Pneumonia after hip surgery in children with neurological complex chronic conditions. Dev Med Child Neurol 2023 Feb; 65(2):232-42. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15339..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Surgery, Neurological Disorders, Pneumonia, Respiratory Conditions, Hospital Readmissions, Adverse Events
Ehmann MR, Mitchell J, Levin S
Renal outcomes following intravenous contrast administration in patients with acute kidney injury: a multi-site retrospective propensity-adjusted analysis.
The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between intravenous contrast media (CM) administration and persistent acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with pre-existing AKI. The researchers used propensity-weighted and entropy-balanced observational cohort analysis of consecutive hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older who met the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) creatinine-based criteria for AKI upon arrival at one of three emergency departments between 7/ 2017 and 6/2021. Patients either received or did not receive intravenous CM. The analysis included 14,449 patient encounters, with 12.8% admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The study found that CM was administered in 18.4% of all encounters. AKI resolved before hospital discharge in 69.1% of cases. No association between intravenous CM administration and persistent AKI was found after unadjusted multivariable logistic regression modeling, propensity weighting, and entropy balancing. Similar results were obtained from sub-group analysis of patients admitted to the ICU. Initiation of dialysis within 180 days occurred in 5.4% of the cohort, with no observed association between CM administration and increased risk of dialysis within this timeframe.
AHRQ-funded; HS027793; HS02664002.
Citation: Ehmann MR, Mitchell J, Levin S . Renal outcomes following intravenous contrast administration in patients with acute kidney injury: a multi-site retrospective propensity-adjusted analysis. Intensive Care Med 2023 Feb; 49(2):205-15. doi: 10.1007/s00134-022-06966-w..
Keywords: Kidney Disease and Health, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Outcomes
Ervin JN, Vitous CA, Wells EE
Rescue Improvement Conference: a novel tool for addressing failure to rescue.
The objective of this study was to understand the effectiveness of the Rescue Improvement Conference, a forum that addresses failure to rescue (FTR). FTR is the phenomenon where delayed recognition or response to surgical complications leads to a progressive cascade of adverse events culminating in patient death. The authors used 5 indicators of effectiveness: educational value, conference takeaways, discussion time, changes to surgical practice, and opportunities for improvement and conducted semi-structured interviews. The results showed that conference felt that the Rescue Improvement Conference was effective in all five indicators. The authors concluded that the conference has the potential to support other surgical departments in developing system-level strategies to recognize and manage postoperative complications that contribute to FTR.
AHRQ-funded; HS024403; HS023621.
Citation: Ervin JN, Vitous CA, Wells EE . Rescue Improvement Conference: a novel tool for addressing failure to rescue. Ann Surg 2023 Feb; 277(2):233-37. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000004832..
Keywords: Surgery, Adverse Events, Patient Safety, Quality of Care, Quality Improvement
Napolitano N, Polikoff L, Edwards L
Effect of apneic oxygenation with intubation to reduce severe desaturation and adverse tracheal intubation-associated events in critically ill children.
This study’s goal was to determine if apneic oxygenation (AO) delivered via nasal cannula during the apneic phase of tracheal intubation (TI) reduces adverse TI-associated events (TIAEs) in children. AO was implemented at 14 pediatric intensive care units as a quality improvement intervention from 2016 through 2020. Implementation consisted of an intubation safety checklist, leadership endorsement, use of a local champion, and data feedback to frontline clinicians. Of 6549 TIs during the study period, 2554 occurred during the pre-implementation phase and 3995 during post-implementation phase. AO utilization increased from 23 to 68%. It was utilized less often when intubating infants, those with a primary cardiac diagnosis or difficult airway features, and patients intubated due to respiratory or neurological failure or shock. Conversely, it was used more often in TIs done for procedures or those associated by video laryngoscopy. AO utilization was associated with a lower incidence of adverse TIAEs (AO 10.5% vs. without AO 13.5%). However, after further adjusting for patient and provider characteristics (secondary analysis), AO utilization was not independently associated with the occurrence of adverse TIAEs, and the occurrence of hypoxemia was not different (AO 14.2% versus without AO 15.2%).
Citation: Napolitano N, Polikoff L, Edwards L . Effect of apneic oxygenation with intubation to reduce severe desaturation and adverse tracheal intubation-associated events in critically ill children. Crit Care 2023 Jan 17; 27(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s13054-023-04304-0..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Critical Care, Adverse Events, Respiratory Conditions
Encinosa W, Moon K, Figueroa J
AHRQ Author: Encinosa W
Complications, adverse drug events, high costs, and disparities in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children vs COVID-19.
This cross-sectional study’s goal was to determine outcomes from multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) after COVID-19. Outcomes examined were 50 complications, adverse medication events, costs, and the Social Vulnerability Index. An analysis was conducted using data from the 2021 HCUP in individuals younger than 21 years from 31 states. There were 4107 individuals hospitalized with MIS-C (median age 9 years, 59.5% male, 38.1% White) and 23,686 hospitalizations for COVID-19 without MIS-C (median age 15 years, 54.5% female, 44.1% White). Hospitalization rate for MIS-C was 1.48 per 100,000 children, ranging from 0.97 hospitalizations per 100 for White and 1.99 hospitalizations per 100 for Black children. Outcomes were worse when organ dysfunction increased from 2 to 8 organs, with deaths increasing from less than 1% to 5.8% for MIS-C, and 1% to 17.2% for COVID-19. Median length of stay increased from 4 to 8 days for MIS-C, and 3 to 16 days for COVID-19. Median costs for MIS-C increased from $16,225 to $53 359 and from $6474 to $98,643 for COVID-19. The percentage of MIS-C cases in Black children doubled from 16.2% to 31.7% as organ dysfunction increased, remaining unchanged with COVID-19.
Citation: Encinosa W, Moon K, Figueroa J . Complications, adverse drug events, high costs, and disparities in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children vs COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open 2023 Jan;6(1):e2244975. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.44975..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Healthcare Costs, Disparities, Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Likosky DS, Strobel RJ, Wu X
Interhospital failure to rescue after coronary artery bypass grafting.
Researchers conducted an observational study to evaluate whether interhospital variation in mortality rates for coronary artery bypass grafting was driven by complications and failure to rescue. Subjects were patients undergoing grafting surgery across 90 hospitals between 2011 and 2017. Results indicated the predicted mortality risk was similar across hospital observed:expected mortality terciles. Observed and expected failure to rescue rates were positively correlated among patients with major and overall complications. The researchers concluded that interhospital variability in successful rescue after coronary artery bypass grafting supports the importance of identifying best practices at high-performing hospitals; this includes early recognition and management of complications.
Citation: Likosky DS, Strobel RJ, Wu X . Interhospital failure to rescue after coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2023 Jan;165(1):134-43.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2021.01.064..
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Surgery, Hospitals, Adverse Events
Kravchenko OV, Boyce RD, Gomez-Lumbreras A
Drug-drug interaction between dexamethasone and direct-acting oral anticoagulants: a nested case-control study in the national COVID cohort collaborative (N3C).
This study examined whether there is an association between thromboembolotic events (TEEs) and concomitant use of dexamethasone with either apixaban or rivaroxaban (both direct oral anticoagulants or DOACs) during treatment for COVID-19. The authors used data from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) to conduct a nested case-control study. Eligible participants were adults over 18 years who were exposed to a DOAC for 10 or more consecutive days and exposure to dexamethasone at least 5 or more consecutive days. The study did not find a discernible association of TEE in patients concomitantly exposed to dexamethasone and a DOAC.
Citation: Kravchenko OV, Boyce RD, Gomez-Lumbreras A . Drug-drug interaction between dexamethasone and direct-acting oral anticoagulants: a nested case-control study in the national COVID cohort collaborative (N3C). BMJ Open 2022 Dec 29; 12(12):e066846. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-066846..
Keywords: COVID-19, Blood Thinners, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Cardiovascular Conditions, Medication: Safety, Patient Safety
Tan MS, Gomez-Lumbreras A, Villa-Zapata L
Colchicine and macrolides: a cohort study of the risk of adverse outcomes associated with concomitant exposure.
The authors conducted a cohort study using electronic health records comparing encounters with colchicine plus a macrolide and colchicine with an antibiotic non-macrolide, then assessed the relationship between the two groups. They found that heart failure was more frequent in the colchicine plus a macrolide cohort and that there was also a higher mortality rate. As there is a significant increase in the risk of hepatic failure and mortality when colchicine is concomitantly administered with a macrolide, they concluded that colchicine should not be used concomitantly with these antibiotics or should be temporarily discontinued to avoid toxic levels of colchicine.
Citation: Tan MS, Gomez-Lumbreras A, Villa-Zapata L . Colchicine and macrolides: a cohort study of the risk of adverse outcomes associated with concomitant exposure. Rheumatol Int 2022 Dec;42(12):2253-59. doi: 10.1007/s00296-022-05201-5..
Keywords: Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Medication, Risk, Antibiotics, Medication: Safety, Patient Safety
Giardina TD, Hunte H, Hill MA
Defining diagnostic error: a scoping review to assess the impact of the National Academies' report improving diagnosis in Health Care.
This study looked at peer-reviewed published literature to explore how researchers operationalize the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine’s (NASEM) definition of diagnostic error that was defined in their 2015 publication “Improving Diagnosis in Health Care”. Published literature was identified from October 2015 to February 2021. The authors also conducted subject matter expert interviews. Of the 34 studies identified, 16 were analyzed and abstracted to determine how diagnostic error was operationalized and measured. Studies were grouped by four themes: epidemiology, patient focus, measurement/surveillance, and clinician focus. Nine studies identified used the NASM definition. Five of those studies also operationalized with existing definitions proposed before the NASEM report, four operationalized the components of the NASEM definition, and three studies operationalized error using existing definitions only. Subject matter experts concluded that the NASEM definition functions as a foundation for researchers to conceptualize diagnostic error.
AHRQ-funded; 233201500022I; HS027280; HS025474; HS027363.
Citation: Giardina TD, Hunte H, Hill MA . Defining diagnostic error: a scoping review to assess the impact of the National Academies' report improving diagnosis in Health Care. J Patient Saf 2022 Dec 1;18(8):770-78. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000999..
Keywords: Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Quality of Care, Medical Errors, Adverse Events, Healthcare Delivery
Govindan S, O'Malley ME, Flanders SA
The MI-PICC Score: a risk-Prediction Model for PICC-associated Complications in the ICU.
The authors examined predictive factors for adverse events in critically ill patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). They found that PICC-related complications in the ICU were significantly associated with history of deep vein thrombosis, active diagnosis of cancer, presence of a second central venous catheter, blood transfusion through the PICC, and PICC dwell time.
Citation: Govindan S, O'Malley ME, Flanders SA . The MI-PICC Score: a risk-Prediction Model for PICC-associated Complications in the ICU. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Nov 15;206(10):1286-89. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202204-0760LE..
Keywords: Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI), Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Risk, Adverse Events
Pineles BL, Harris AD, Goodman KE
Adverse maternal and delivery outcomes in children and very young (age ≤13 years) US adolescents compared with older adolescents and adults.
This study compared adverse maternal and delivery outcomes of pregnant 10- to 13-year-olds vs 14- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 19-year-olds. This cross-sectional study looked at all patients aged 10 to 19 years who delivered at hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database from January 2019 through May 2021. The study included 90,876 deliveries across 655 US hospitals. Controlling for patient race and ethnicity, insurance type, and obesity status: 10- to 13-year-olds had significantly higher risks of preterm delivery and cesarean delivery compared with 14- to 17-year-olds. The risk of preeclampsia was not higher for 10- to 13-year-olds compared to 14- to 17-year-olds. There was a higher risk of preterm delivery for 10- to 13-year-olds compared to 18- to 19-year-olds, but not significantly different for cesarean delivery and preeclampsia.
Citation: Pineles BL, Harris AD, Goodman KE . Adverse maternal and delivery outcomes in children and very young (age ≤13 years) US adolescents compared with older adolescents and adults. JAMA 2022 Nov 1;328(17):1766-68. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.18340..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery, Women, Outcomes, Adverse Events, Maternal Care
Gibbons RD, Hur K, Lavigne JE
Association between folic acid prescription fills and suicide attempts and intentional self-harm among privately insured US adults.
This paper describes a large-scale pharmacoepidemiologic study of folic acid prescription fills to determine if there is a decreased risk of suicide attempt. Data were collected from a pharmacoepidemiologic database of US medical claims (MarketScan) for 866,586 patients with private health insurance who filled a folic acid prescription from 2012 to 2017. In the cohort 81.3% were female, and 10.42% were 60 years and older. Overall, there were 261 suicidal events during covered by a folic acid prescription for a rate of 4.73 per 100,000 person-months, compared with 895 suicidal events during months without folic acid for a rate of 10.61 per 100,000 person-months. Adjusting for age and sex, diagnoses related to suicidal behavior, diagnoses related to folic acid deficiency, folate-reducing medications, history of folate-reducing medications, and history of suicidal events, the hazard ratio (HR) for folic acid for suicide events was 0.56, with similar results for the modal dosage of 1 mg of folic acid per day and women of childbearing age. The same association with the negative control cyanocobalamin found no association with suicide attempt.
Citation: Gibbons RD, Hur K, Lavigne JE . Association between folic acid prescription fills and suicide attempts and intentional self-harm among privately insured US adults. JAMA Psychiatry 2022 Nov;79(11):118-1123. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2022.2990..
Keywords: Medication, Behavioral Health, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Ostrovsky D, Novack V, Smulowitz PB
Perspectives of emergency clinicians about medical errors resulting in patient harm or malpractice litigation.
This cross-sectional study examined survey responses about medical error outcomes completed by emergency department attending physicians and advanced practice clinicians regarding what might be considered excessive testing. The authors surveyed 1222 clinicians and the mean score was greater for fear of harm to patients than fear of a malpractice suit. This finding was true regardless of clinician subtype, experience, or sex.
Citation: Ostrovsky D, Novack V, Smulowitz PB . Perspectives of emergency clinicians about medical errors resulting in patient harm or malpractice litigation. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Nov;5(11):e2241461. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.41461..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Medical Errors, Adverse Events, Patient Safety
Assimon MM, Pun PH, Al-Khatib SM
The modifying effect of the serum-to-dialysate potassium gradient on the cardiovascular safety of SSRIs in the hemodialysis population: a pharmacoepidemiologic study.
This study’s objective was to examine if higher QT-prolonging selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) causes more cardiac risks to hemodialysis (HD) patients than lower serum-to-dialysate potassium gradient medications. The authors compared 1-year sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk among HD patients newly treated with higher (citalopram, escitalopram) versus lower (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline) QT-prolonging potential SSRIs, overall and stratified by baseline potassium gradient. The study included 25,099 patients, with 44.3% newly prescribed higher QT-prolonging potential SSRIs and 55.7% lower QT-prolonging potential SSRIs. Overall, higher versus lower QT-prolonging potential SSRI use was not associated with SCD. However, a greater risk of SCD was associated with higher versus lower QT-prolonging potential SSRI use among patients with baseline potassium gradients ≥4 mEq/l but not among those with gradients <4 mEq/l versus 0.95.
Citation: Assimon MM, Pun PH, Al-Khatib SM . The modifying effect of the serum-to-dialysate potassium gradient on the cardiovascular safety of SSRIs in the hemodialysis population: a pharmacoepidemiologic study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2022 Oct 19;37(11):2241-52. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfac214..
Keywords: Medication, Medication: Safety, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Blike GT, Perreard IM, McGovern KM
A pragmatic method for measuring inpatient complications and complication-specific mortality.
This study’s objective was to develop hospital-level metrics of major complications associated with mortality that allows for the identification of opportunities for improvement and to improve upon current metrics for failure to rescue (i.e., death from serious but treatable complications.). The authors used AHRQ metrics as the basis for identifying specific complications related to major organ system morbidity associated with death. Using component ICD, 10th Revision codes, complication-specific occurrence rates, observed mortality, and risk-adjusted mortality indices were calculated for the study institution and 182 peer organizations. Statistically significant differences in the study hospital occurrence rates and associated mortality rates compared with peer institutions were shown with the complication-specific method. Use of a monthly control-chart presentation of these metrics provides assessment of hospital-level interventions to prevent complications and/or reduce failure to rescue deaths.
Citation: Blike GT, Perreard IM, McGovern KM . A pragmatic method for measuring inpatient complications and complication-specific mortality. J Patient Saf 2022 Oct 1;18(7):659-66. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000984..
Keywords: Inpatient Care, Adverse Events, Patient Safety
Li RD, Joung RH, BC BC
Comprehensive evaluation of the trends in length of stay and post-discharge complications after colon surgery in the USA.
The purpose of this study focusing on colon surgery was to 1) describe temporal changes in length of stay (LOS) and post-discharge complications and 2) assess risk factors related with post-discharge complications. The study found that of the 98,136 patients who underwent colon resection between 2012 and 2018, the median LOS decreased from 5 days in 2012 to 4 days in 2018. Overall, the 30-day complication rate was 21.5%, which decreased during the study period. Of the 13 individual complications evaluated, 4 demonstrated a significant increase in the proportion of post-discharge events including overall SSI, superficial SSI, wound disruption, and UTI. Factors associated with the development of any post-discharge complication included female sex, ASA III/IV/V, dependent functional status, and higher BMI. Intraoperative factors included wound class, operation time, and approach. The study concluded that LOS and 30-day complications decreased over time, however the percentage of incidents taking place post-discharge increased for a number of complications.
AHRQ-funded; HS024516; HS026385
Citation: Li RD, Joung RH, BC BC . Comprehensive evaluation of the trends in length of stay and post-discharge complications after colon surgery in the USA. J Gastrointest Surg 2022 Oct;26(10):2184-92. doi: 10.1007/s11605-022-05391-0..
Keywords: Surgery, Adverse Events, Hospital Discharge
Shafer GJ, Singh H, Thomas EJ
Frequency of diagnostic errors in the neonatal intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study.
The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and etiology of diagnostic errors during the first 7 days of admission for inborn neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. The "Safer Dx NICU Instrument" was used to review electronic health records. The reviewers discovered that the frequency of diagnostic error in inborn NICU patients during the first 7 days of admission was 6.2%.
Citation: Shafer GJ, Singh H, Thomas EJ . Frequency of diagnostic errors in the neonatal intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study. J Perinatol 2022 Oct;42(10):1312-18. doi: 10.1038/s41372-022-01359-9..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Medical Errors, Adverse Events, Patient Safety, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)
Lusk C, Catchpole K, Neyens DM
Improving safety in the operating room: medication icon labels increase visibility and discrimination.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the addition of icons to medication labels in an operating room setting would improve visibility and reduce medication administration errors. The multi-disciplinary team of researchers added icons to medication labels applied to vasoactive medication infusions, and the study found that participants were 1.12 times more likely to correctly identify medications with icons from farther away. In addition, when icons were present on the labels, participants were 2.16 times more likely to be more confident in their identifications.
Citation: Lusk C, Catchpole K, Neyens DM . Improving safety in the operating room: medication icon labels increase visibility and discrimination. Appl Ergon 2022 Oct;104:103831. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2022.103831..
Keywords: Medication: Safety, Medication, Patient Safety, Medical Errors, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Jiang Y, Mason M, Cho Y
Tolerance to oral anticancer agent treatment in older adults with cancer: a secondary analysis of data from electronic health records and a pilot study of patient-reported outcomes.
The purpose of this study was to explore the tolerance of capecitabine oral chemotherapy among older adults with cancer and investigate factors associated with related side effects and treatment changes. The researchers combined data from electronic health records and a pilot study of patient-reported outcomes, and found that older adults were more likely to experience fatigue and experienced more severe fatigue and hand-foot syndrome (HFS) than younger adults. The severity of fatigue and HFS were associated with the number of outpatient medications and the duration of treatment respectively. Female sex, breast cancer diagnosis, capecitabine monotherapy, and severe HFS were found to be associated with subsequent dose reductions. The study concluded that older adults were less likely to tolerate capecitabine treatment and had different co-occurring side effects compared to younger adults.
Citation: Jiang Y, Mason M, Cho Y . Tolerance to oral anticancer agent treatment in older adults with cancer: a secondary analysis of data from electronic health records and a pilot study of patient-reported outcomes. BMC Cancer 2022 Sep 3;22(1):950. doi: 10.1186/s12885-022-10026-3..
Keywords: Elderly, Cancer, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)