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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 25 of 406 Research Studies Displayed
Vear KR, Esbrook E, Padley E
"Time and money and support": adolescents and young adults' perceived social and logistical support needs for safe abortion care.
This study’s objective was to understand what support adolescents and young adults need to access abortion amidst the changing legal landscape. A diverse nationwide sample of individuals aged 14-24 responded to a text message survey in July 2022 about the social and logistical support they would need for safe abortion access. Out of the sample of 638, there was a 78% response rate. Primary sources of social support from parents and friends were named by the respondents for potential abortion decisions. The respondents frequently cited money and transportation as logistical support needs for out-of-state abortion care.
Citation: Vear KR, Esbrook E, Padley E . "Time and money and support": adolescents and young adults' perceived social and logistical support needs for safe abortion care. Contraception 2023 Oct; 126:110128. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2023.110128..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Young Adults, Maternal Care, Patient Safety, Access to Care
Hughes PM, Carda-Auten J, DiRosa EA
"You can get a couple of ramen noodle packs for a Buspar(Ⓡ)": a qualitative examination of medication access, policy, and procedures in southern jails.
Over10 million people are being incarcerated every year in the US, and jails are required to provide health care to them, a substantial percentage of whom require medications. However, not much is known about the medication prescription, acquisition, and administration process for incarcerated persons in jails. The purpose of this study was to characterize access to medication and related medication policies and procedures in jails. The researchers administered semi-structured interviews with administrators and health workers from 34 jails (of 125 contacted) across 5 states in the southeastern US. The qualitative interview guide encompassed all facets of healthcare in jails from entry to release, but the current study focused only on medications. The study found that 4 processes characterized medication utilization from intake to release: 1) jail entry and health screening, 2) pharmacy and medication protocols, 3) protocols specific to medication dispensing and administration, and 4) medications upon release. Many jails had processes for utilizing medications brought to the jail from home, although some jails did not agree to use those medications. Researchers discovered that contracted healthcare providers were the primary medication decision-makers in jails, and most medications were obtained from contract pharmacies. The study also found almost all jails banned narcotics, but other medication restrictions varied by jail. Most jails charged a copay for medications. Study participants shared a variety of privacy practices related to the distribution of medication, as well as approaches to the prevention of diversion of medications away from intended recipients and into the prison population. Transition planning for pre-release medication management processes ranged from no planning to sending additional prescriptions to the patient's pharmacy.
Citation: Hughes PM, Carda-Auten J, DiRosa EA . "You can get a couple of ramen noodle packs for a Buspar(Ⓡ)": a qualitative examination of medication access, policy, and procedures in southern jails. Res Social Adm Pharm 2023 Sep; 19(9):1298-306. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2023.05.013..
Keywords: Medication, Vulnerable Populations, Access to Care
Ramadan OI, Kelz RR, Sharpe JE
Impact of Medicaid expansion on outcomes after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
Researchers sought to assess the association between Medicaid expansion and outcomes after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using HCUP State Inpatient Databases data from 14 states. They examined data on 8995 adult patients under age 65 from both non-expansion states and Medicaid expansion states. The results indicated that Medicaid expansion was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair among all patients, particularly among patients who were either on Medicaid or were uninsured. The researchers concluded that these results provided support for improved access to care for patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair through Medicaid expansion.
Citation: Ramadan OI, Kelz RR, Sharpe JE . Impact of Medicaid expansion on outcomes after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg 2023 Sep; 78(3):648-56.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2023.04.029..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Medicaid, Outcomes, Access to Care
MacDougall H, Hanson S, Interrante JD
Rural-urban differences in health care unaffordability during the postpartum period.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore health care unaffordability for rural and urban residents and by postpartum status. The study found that postpartum people reported statistically significantly higher rates of inability to pay medical bills when compared with non-postpartum people. Rural residents also reported higher rates of inability to pay their medical bills and having problems paying medical bills as compared with urban residents. In adjusted models, the predicted probability of being unable to pay medical bills among postpartum respondents was 12.8%, which was higher than among non-postpartum respondents. Similarly, postpartum respondents had higher predicted probabilities of reporting problems paying medical bills (18.4%) than compared with non-postpartum respondents. IN adjusted models, residency in a rural area was not significantly related with the health care unaffordability outcome measures.
Citation: MacDougall H, Hanson S, Interrante JD . Rural-urban differences in health care unaffordability during the postpartum period. Med Care 2023 Sep; 61(9):595-600. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001888..
Keywords: Rural Health, Urban Health, Rural/Inner-City Residents, Maternal Care, Healthcare Costs, Women, Access to Care
Putnam KE, Biel FM, Hoopes M
Landscape of pregnancy care in US community health centers.
This retrospective cohort study utilized EHR data from the Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network (ADVANCE) to describe clinic and patient characteristics associated with longitudinal prenatal care delivery in community health centers (CHCs). Results showed that 41% of CHCs provided longitudinal prenatal care, and these CHCs were more likely to be larger, have multidisciplinary teams, and serve higher proportions of nonwhite or non-English speaking patients. Patients who received longitudinal prenatal care at CHCs were racially and ethnically diverse and many had comorbidities. The authors concluded that CHCs provided critical access to care for vulnerable populations and will be important in addressing inequities in maternal morbidity and mortality.
Citation: Putnam KE, Biel FM, Hoopes M . Landscape of pregnancy care in US community health centers. J Am Board Fam Med 2023 Aug 9; 36(4):574-82. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2023.230025R1..
Keywords: Maternal Care, Community-Based Practice, Women, Access to Care
Sequeira GM, Kahn NF, Ricklefs C
Barriers pediatric PCP's identify to providing gender-affirming care for adolescents.
The purpose of this study was to explore pediatric primary care providers’ (PCPs) perspectives on barriers experienced in providing gender-affirming care to transgender and gender diverse (TGD) youth. Pediatric PCPs who had sought support from the Seattle Children's Gender Clinic were recruited to participate in semi-structured, one-hour interviews. They identified both health system and community-level barriers to providing gender-affirming care. The authors concluded that these barriers must be overcome in the pediatric primary care setting to ensure that TGD youth receive timely, effective, and more equitable gender-affirming care.
Citation: Sequeira GM, Kahn NF, Ricklefs C . Barriers pediatric PCP's identify to providing gender-affirming care for adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2023 Aug; 73(2):367-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2023.04.007..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Primary Care, Access to Care
Cheng TL, Mistry KB
AHRQ Author: Mistry KB
Clarity on disparity: who, what, when, where, why, and how.
This purpose of this article was to explain a comprehensive framework of health disparities descriptors that can offer a systematic approach to advance the understanding of causes of health disparities and facilitate action steps to ensure health equity.
Citation: Cheng TL, Mistry KB . Clarity on disparity: who, what, when, where, why, and how. Pediatr Clin North Am 2023 Aug; 70(4):639-50. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2023.03.003..
Keywords: Disparities, Social Determinants of Health, Newborns/Infants, Mortality, Health Status, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Access to Care
Decker S, Dworsky M, Gibson TB
AHRQ Author: Decker S
The Impact of the Affordable Care Act Insurance Expansions on Opioid-Related Emergency Department Visits.
The authors leveraged ACA coverage expansions, including Medicaid expansion and Marketplaces, to study the impact of health insurance on opioid-related emergency department (ED) visits. They used ZIP-code–level ED utilization data from HCUP’s State Inpatient Databases (SID) and State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) for 29 states. They found evidence of a dose-response relationship between pre-ACA uninsured and changes in ED visit rates in both expansion and non-expansion states: areas with higher uninsured rates prior to ACA saw larger reductions in opioid-related ED visits after the ACA took effect. The authors concluded that these findings suggest that increased insurance coverage may to help mitigate the opioid crisis.
Citation: Decker S, Dworsky M, Gibson TB . The Impact of the Affordable Care Act Insurance Expansions on Opioid-Related Emergency Department Visits. American Journal of Health Economics 2023 Sum; 9(3):405–34..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Opioids, Policy, Health Insurance, Emergency Department, Access to Care, Medicaid, Healthcare Utilization
Borah L, Zebib L, Sanders HM
State restrictions and geographic access to gender-affirming care for transgender youth.
This research letter described a study that estimated changes in geographic access and drive times to gender clinics after 20 states enacted legislation to restrict puberty-suppressing medications and hormones for those under the age of 18. Access to appropriate medical and social services for transgender youths was associated with mental health benefits and decreased levels of suicidality.
Citation: Borah L, Zebib L, Sanders HM . State restrictions and geographic access to gender-affirming care for transgender youth. JAMA 2023 Jul 25; 330(4):375-78. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.11299..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Vulnerable Populations, Access to Care, Policy
Eliason EL, Thoma ME, Steenland MW
Differences in use of fertility treatment between people with Medicaid and private health insurance coverage in the United States.
This study compared differences in receipt of any and specific types of fertility services between people with Medicaid and private insurance. The authors used National Survey of Family Growth (2002-2019) data and linear probability regression models to examine the association between insurance type (Medicaid or private) and fertility service use. Primary outcome was use of fertility services in the past 12 months with secondary outcomes use of specific types of fertility services at any time: 1) testing, 2) common medical treatment, and 3) use of any fertility treatment type (testing, medical treatment, or surgical treatment of infertility). In adjusted models, Medicaid coverage was associated with an 11.2% lower use of fertility services in the past 12 months compared with private coverage. Medicaid insurance was also associated with large and statistically significantly lower rates of ever having used infertility testing or any fertility services compared to private insurance coverage. There was no difference in time-to-pregnancy with insurance type.
AHRQ-funded; HS027464; HS000011.
Citation: Eliason EL, Thoma ME, Steenland MW . Differences in use of fertility treatment between people with Medicaid and private health insurance coverage in the United States. Womens Health Issues 2023 Jul-Aug; 33(4):367-73. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2023.03.003..
Keywords: Access to Care, Medicaid, Health Insurance
Eliason E, Admon LK, Steenland MW
Late postpartum coverage loss before COVID-19: implications for Medicaid unwinding.
The purpose of this study was to explore the loss of Medicaid coverage in toward the end of the postpartum period prior to COVID-19 and describe the implications for Medicaid unwinding. The researchers utilized unique Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System follow-up data from prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study found that only 68% of enrollees in prenatal Medicaid maintained continuous Medicaid coverage through 9 or 10 months postpartum. Of the total prenatal Medicaid enrollees who lost their coverage in the early postpartum period, two-thirds continued to be uninsured 9 to 10 months postpartum. The researchers concluded that extensions to state postpartum Medicaid could prevent a return to postpartum coverage loss rates similar to the level in the prepandemic period.
AHRQ-funded; HS027464; HS000011.
Citation: Eliason E, Admon LK, Steenland MW . Late postpartum coverage loss before COVID-19: implications for Medicaid unwinding. Health Aff 2023 Jul; 42(7):966-72. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2022.01659..
Keywords: COVID-19, Maternal Care, Medicaid, Women, Access to Care, Uninsured, Health Insurance
Zhu JM, Meiselbach MK, Drake C C
Psychiatrist networks In Medicare Advantage plans are substantially narrower than in Medicaid and ACA Markets.
The authors used a novel data set that linked insurance network service areas, plans, and providers across Medicare Advantage, Medicaid managed care, and Affordable Care Act plan markets to compare psychiatrist network breadth; their purpose was to assess the percentage of providers in a given area considered in network for a plan. They found that nearly two-thirds of psychiatrist networks in Medicare Advantage contained fewer than 25 percent of providers in a network's service area. They concluded that these findings suggest a certain “narrowness” in psychiatrist networks in Medicare Advantage, which may disadvantage enrollees attempted to obtain mental health services.
Citation: Zhu JM, Meiselbach MK, Drake C C . Psychiatrist networks In Medicare Advantage plans are substantially narrower than in Medicaid and ACA Markets. Health Aff 2023 Jul; 42(7):909-18. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2022.01547..
Keywords: Elderly, Medicare, Behavioral Health, Access to Care
Cron DC, Tsai TC, Patzer RE
The association of dialysis facility payer mix with access to kidney transplantation.
The purpose of this retrospective population-based cohort study was to evaluate the relationships between insurance status, facility-level payer mix, and 1-year incidence of wait-listing for access to kidney transplantation. The researchers utilized data from the United States Renal Data System from 2013 to 2018, and included patients aged 18 to 75 years initiating chronic dialysis between 2013 and 2017, excluding patients with a prior kidney transplant or with major contraindications to kidney transplant. The primary study outcome was patients added to a waiting list for kidney transplant within 1 year of dialysis initiation. The study found that a total of 233, 003 patients across 6565 facilities met the study inclusion criteria. Of 6565 dialysis facilities, the mean commercial payer mix was 21.2% with a standard deviation of 15.6 percentage points. Patient-level commercial insurance was related with an increased incidence of wait-listing. At the facility-level, greater commercial payer mix was related with increased wait-listing. However, after statistical adjustment, including adjusting for patient-level insurance status, commercial payer mix was not significantly associated with outcome.
Citation: Cron DC, Tsai TC, Patzer RE . The association of dialysis facility payer mix with access to kidney transplantation. JAMA Netw Open 2023 Jul; 6(7):e2322803. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.22803..
Keywords: Kidney Disease and Health, Access to Care, Transplantation
Pagani K, Lukac D, Olbricht SM
Urgent referrals from primary care to dermatology for lesions suspicious for skin cancer: patterns, outcomes, and need for systems improvement.
The purpose of this study was to explore primary care and dermatology triaging and processing of urgent dermatology referrals. The researchers conducted chart reviews of all dermatology referrals designated by primary care as urgent for evaluation of a lesion concerning for skin cancer. Dermatology encounters for patients occurred on or before 30 days for 50.6% of referrals and on or after 31 days for 38.4% of referrals, with 10.9% never completed. The rate of non-English languages in the delayed group was 7.1% greater than in the timely group. The rate of all races excluding whites, non-Hispanic in the delayed appointment group (31 days or more) was 15.1% greater than in the timely appointment group (30 days or less). Overall, 15.8% of referrals yielded malignancy diagnoses, while 76.8% and 7.4% resulted in benign and pre-malignant diagnoses, respectively. The primary care team documented completed, incomplete, or pending referral status during their subsequent visits with the patients in only 37.5% of the referrals.
Citation: Pagani K, Lukac D, Olbricht SM . Urgent referrals from primary care to dermatology for lesions suspicious for skin cancer: patterns, outcomes, and need for systems improvement. Arch Dermatol Res 2023 Jul; 315(5):1397-400. doi: 10.1007/s00403-022-02456-7..
Keywords: Cancer: Skin Cancer, Cancer, Primary Care, Skin Conditions, Access to Care
Ray EM, Teal RW, Carda-Auten J
Qualitative evaluation of barriers and facilitators to hepatocellular carcinoma care in North Carolina.
The authors sought to understand barriers and facilitators to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) care.. Patients with recently diagnosed HCC were identified through the University of North Carolina HCC clinic or local hospital cancer registrar, and were interviewed. Barriers included lack of transportation, cost of care, provider lack of knowledge about HCC, delays in scheduling, and poor communication with the medical team. Key facilitators of care were effective communication, physician knowledge, social and financial support. Participants suggested better coordination of appointments and inclusion of a primary contact within the healthcare team. The authors concluded that their study results should serve as a basis for tailored interventions aimed at improving access to appropriate, life-prolonging care for patients with HCC.
Citation: Ray EM, Teal RW, Carda-Auten J . Qualitative evaluation of barriers and facilitators to hepatocellular carcinoma care in North Carolina. PLoS One 2023 Jun 22; 18(6):e0287338. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0287338..
Keywords: Cancer, Access to Care
Vasan A, Kenyon CC, Fiks AG
Continuous eligibility and coverage policies expanded children's Medicaid enrollment.
Researchers examined children's participation in Medicaid during 2019-21. Their findings found that states that had adopted continuous Medicaid coverage for children during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced a 4.62 percent relative increase in children's Medicaid participation when compared with states with existing continuous eligibility policies.
Citation: Vasan A, Kenyon CC, Fiks AG . Continuous eligibility and coverage policies expanded children's Medicaid enrollment. Health Aff 2023 Jun; 42(6):753-58. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2022.01465..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Medicaid, Policy, Health Insurance, Access to Care
Roberts ET, Mellor JM, McInerny MP
Effects of a Medicaid dental coverage "cliff" on dental care access among low-income Medicare beneficiaries.
Medicare beneficiaries with income levels slightly exceeding the thresholds of eligibility for Medicaid have few affordable options for dental coverage. This gap results in a dental coverage “cliff” above these thresholds. The purpose of this study was to assess how a sudden drop-off in dental coverage from Medicaid impacts access to dental care in low-income Medicare beneficiaries. The researchers studied low-income community resident Medicare recipients whose incomes were within approximately 75 percentage points of state-specific Medicaid income eligibility thresholds. The study found that Medicare beneficiaries whose income was higher than Medicaid eligibility thresholds were 5.0 percentage points more likely to report challenges accessing dental care because of cost concerns or a lack of insurance than beneficiaries below the thresholds.
AHRQ-funded; HS026727; HS025422.
Citation: Roberts ET, Mellor JM, McInerny MP . Effects of a Medicaid dental coverage "cliff" on dental care access among low-income Medicare beneficiaries. Health Serv Res 2023 Jun; 58(3):589-98. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13981..
Keywords: Dental and Oral Health, Medicaid, Medicare, Health Insurance, Access to Care
Hogg-Graham R, Mamaril CB, Benitez JA
Impact of state Medicaid expansion on cross-sector health and social service networks: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study.
This study’s objective was to examine the impact of state Medicaid expansion on the delivery of population health activities in cross-sector health and social services networks. The authors used data measuring the composition of cross-sector population health networks from the 2006-2018 National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems (NALSYS) linked with the Area Health Resource File. They restricted their data to jurisdictions serving populations of 100,000 or more and states that had NALSYS observations across all time periods, resulting in a final sample size of 667. Results indicated that Medicaid expansion was associated with a 2.3 percentage point increase in the density of population health networks. Communities in states with expanded Medicaid experienced significant increases in the participation of local public health, local government, hospitals, nonprofits, insurers, and K-12 schools. Of the organizations with significant increases in expansion communities, nonprofits (7.7 percentage points,), local public health agencies (6.5 percentage points), hospitals (5.8 percentage points), and local government agencies (6.0 percentage points) had the largest gains.
Citation: Hogg-Graham R, Mamaril CB, Benitez JA . Impact of state Medicaid expansion on cross-sector health and social service networks: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study. Health Serv Res 2023 Jun; 58(3):634-41. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.14144..
Keywords: Medicaid, Health Insurance, Community-Based Practice, Access to Care
Roberts ET, Kwon Y, Hames AG
Racial and ethnic disparities in health care use and access associated with loss of Medicaid supplemental insurance eligibility above the federal poverty level.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether exceeding the income threshold for Medicaid, which causes a sudden loss of Medicaid eligibility, is related with higher racial and ethnic disparities in access to and use of care. The researchers evaluated Medicare beneficiaries with incomes 0% to 200% of FPL from the 2008 to 2018 biennial waves of the Health and Retirement Study linked to Medicare administrative data. To identify racial and ethnic disparities related with the loss of Medicaid eligibility, the researchers compared discontinuities in outcomes among Black and Hispanic beneficiaries and White beneficiaries. Analyses were conducted between January 1, 2022, and October 1, 2022. The primary outcomes were patient-reported challenges accessing care due to cost and outpatient service use, medication fills, and hospitalizations measured from Medicare administrative data. The study included 8,144 participants representing 151,282, 957 weighted person-years in the community-dwelling population of Medicare beneficiaries aged 50 years and older and incomes less than 200% of the federal poverty level (FPL). Study findings indicate that exceeding the Medicaid eligibility threshold was related with a 43.8 percentage point (pp) lower probability of Medicaid enrollment among Black and Hispanic Medicare beneficiaries and a 31.0 pp lower probability of Medicaid enrollment among White beneficiaries. Among Black and Hispanic beneficiaries, exceeding the threshold was associated with increased cost-related barriers to care, lower outpatient use, and fewer medication fills, but it was not associated with a statistically significant discontinuity in hospitalizations. Discontinuities in these outcomes were smaller or nonsignificant among White beneficiaries. Consequently, exceeding the threshold was associated with widened disparities, including greater reductions in outpatient service use and medication fills among Black and Hispanic vs White beneficiaries.
Citation: Roberts ET, Kwon Y, Hames AG . Racial and ethnic disparities in health care use and access associated with loss of Medicaid supplemental insurance eligibility above the federal poverty level. JAMA Intern Med 2023 Jun; 183(6):534-43. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2023.0512..
Keywords: Disparities, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Medicaid, Access to Care, Health Insurance, Low-Income, Access to Care
Enzinger AC, Ghosh K, Keating NL
Racial and ethnic disparities in opioid access and urine drug screening among older patients with poor-prognosis cancer near the end of life.
This research characterized racial and ethnic disparities and trends in opioid access and urine drug screening (UDS) among older patients dying of cancer, and to explore potential mechanisms. Among 18,549 non-Hispanic White (White), Black, and Hispanic Medicare decedents older than 65 years with poor-prognosis cancers, the authors examined 2007-2019 trends in opioid prescription fills and potency (morphine milligram equivalents [MMEs] per day [MMEDs]) near the end of life (EOL), defined as 30 days before death or hospice enrollment. They found that between 2007 and 2019, White, Black, and Hispanic decedents experienced steady declines in EOL opioid access and rapid expansion of UDS. Compared with White patients, Black and Hispanic patients were less likely to receive any opioid (Black, -4.3 percentage points; Hispanic, -3.6 percentage points) and long-acting opioids (Black, -3.1 percentage points; Hispanic, -2.2 percentage points). They also received lower daily doses (Black, -10.5 MMED; Hispanic, -9.1 MMED) and lower total doses (Black, -210 MMEs; Hispanic, -179 MMEs). Black patients were also more likely to undergo UDS (0.5 percentage points).
Citation: Enzinger AC, Ghosh K, Keating NL . Racial and ethnic disparities in opioid access and urine drug screening among older patients with poor-prognosis cancer near the end of life. J Clin Oncol 2023 May 10; 41(14):2511-22. doi: 10.1200/jco.22.01413..
Keywords: Elderly, Opioids, Medication, Cancer, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Access to Care
Jacobs PD, Moriya AS
AHRQ Author: Jacobs PD, Moriya AS
Changes in health coverage during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This AHRQ-authored paper used data from MEPS to examine patterns of health insurance coverage during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors compared the proportion of people whose source of coverage changed from 2019 to 2020 with the proportion of people whose source changed from 2018 to 2019. The sample was limited to those who were interviewed in both 2018 and 2019 or in both 2019 and 2020. The analysis looked at people aged 63 or younger in the first year of the sample. The authors found increased stability for children and nonelderly adults during the first year of the pandemic. Fewer people who had Medicaid in 2019 became uninsured in 2020 (4.3%) than in 2018-19 (7.8%). Residents of Medicaid expansion states who were enrolled in 2019 were less likely to become uninsured in 2020 (3.6%) than was the case in the 2018-2019 period (6.0%). This was also true in non-Medicaid expansion states (6.6% vs 12.4%). However, residents of expansion states were more likely to become enrolled in Medicaid in 2020 if they were previously uninsured in 2019 (21.5%) compared with 2018-2019 (15.3%). For nonexpansion states, there was no detectable change in the percentage transitioning from uninsured to Medicaid over the two time periods (8.5% compared with 6.9%).
Citation: Jacobs PD, Moriya AS . Changes in health coverage during the COVID-19 pandemic. Health Affairs 2023 May; 42(5):721-26. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2022.01469..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), COVID-19, Health Insurance, Medicaid, Access to Care
Quinlan TAG, Lindrooth RC, Guiahi M
Medicaid payment for postpartum long-acting reversible contraception prompts more equitable use.
In addition to providing a global payment for maternity care, an increasing number of state Medicaid programs pay for immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). The purpose of this study was to examine postpartum LARC utilization by race and ethnicity and overall among respondents with Medicaid-paid births during 2012-2018 in eight states that implemented immediate postpartum LARC payment and eight states without immediate postpartum LARC payment. The study found that the policy resulted in a 2.1-percentage-point increase in postpartum LARC use overall. Further analysis found no significant change among White mothers and a 3.7-percentage-point increase in use among Black mothers compared with White mothers. The researchers concluded that additional research is required to determine whether the increase was related with patients' preferences and whether hospitals' immediate postpartum LARC policies and practices utilize a patient-centered approach that reinforces reproductive autonomy and equity.
Citation: Quinlan TAG, Lindrooth RC, Guiahi M . Medicaid payment for postpartum long-acting reversible contraception prompts more equitable use. Health Aff 2023 May; 42(5):665-73. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2022.01178..
Keywords: Medicaid, Maternal Care, Women, Access to Care, Policy
Meille G, Post B
AHRQ Author: Meille G
The effects of the Medicaid expansion on hospital utilization, employment, and capital.
This AHRQ-authored paper describes the effect of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion on hospital utilization, employment, and capital. The authors conducted a difference-in-differences analysis that compared changes to hospital demand and supply in Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states. They used 2010-2016 data from the American Hospital Association and the Healthcare Cost Report Information System to quantify changes to hospital utilization and characterize how hospitals adjusted labor and capital inputs. Medicaid expansion was associated with increases in emergency department visits and other outpatient hospital visits. They found strong evidence that hospitals met increases in demand by hiring nursing staff and weaker evidence that they increased hiring of technicians and investments in equipment. They found no evidence that hospitals adjusted hiring of physicians, support staff, or investments in other capital inputs.
Citation: Meille G, Post B . The effects of the Medicaid expansion on hospital utilization, employment, and capital. Med Care Res Rev 2023 Apr;80(2):165-74. doi: 10.1177/10775587221133165.
Keywords: Medicaid, Hospitals, Healthcare Utilization, Health Insurance, Policy, Access to Care, Uninsured
Atherly A, Feldman R, van den Broek-Altenburg EM
Understanding factors associated with increases in Medicare Advantage enrollment, 2007-2018.
The purpose of this study was to explore the growth in the Medicare Advantage plan market share during a time period of dramatic increase. The authors investigated the factors behind the significant increase in market share of the Medicare Advantage (MA) program during a period where no structural changes were made. The study drew data from 2007-2018 and concluded that Medicare Advantage was becoming more preferred to more educated and nonminority beneficiaries compared to the past, with minority and lower-income beneficiaries also were more likely to choose the program.
Citation: Atherly A, Feldman R, van den Broek-Altenburg EM . Understanding factors associated with increases in Medicare Advantage enrollment, 2007-2018. Am J Manag Care 2023 Apr; 29(4):e111-e16. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2023.89351..
Keywords: Medicare, Access to Care, Health Insurance
Reistetter TA, Dean JM, Haas AM
Development and evaluation of rehabilitation service areas for the United States.
The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize post-acute care Rehabilitation Service Areas (RSAs) in the US that reflect rehabilitation use by Medicare beneficiaries. Data was accessed from Medicare claims 2013-2015 and included patient records across all diagnostic groups. RSAs were described by provider type, population, and traveling patterns among beneficiaries. The authors conclude that RSAs as a tool for measurement can provide policy makers, researchers, and administrators with small-area boundaries to assess access, resources, and understanding of financing to improve practice and policy for post-acute care.
Citation: Reistetter TA, Dean JM, Haas AM . Development and evaluation of rehabilitation service areas for the United States. BMC Health Serv Res 2023 Mar 1;23(1):204. doi: 10.1186/s12913-023-09184-2.
Keywords: Rehabilitation, Access to Care