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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 325 Research Studies Displayed
Snyder BM, Patterson MF, Gebretsadik T
Association between asthma status and prenatal antibiotic prescription fills among women in a Medicaid population.
The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal asthma and outpatient prenatal antibiotic prescription fills to inform antibiotic stewardship. With data from the Tennessee Medicaid Program, findings showed that women with asthma had an increased risk of filling at least one prenatal antibiotic prescription and had an increased number of fills during pregnancy compared to women without asthma. These findings highlight that pregnant women with asthma disproportionately fill more antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy.
Citation: Snyder BM, Patterson MF, Gebretsadik T . Association between asthma status and prenatal antibiotic prescription fills among women in a Medicaid population. J Asthma 2022 Oct;59(10):2100-07. doi: 10.1080/02770903.2021.1993247..
Keywords: Asthma, Respiratory Conditions, Pregnancy, Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Stewardship, Medication, Maternal Care, Women, Chronic Conditions
Weekes AJ, Raper JD, Thomas AM
Electrocardiographic findings associated with early clinical deterioration in acute pulmonary embolism.
Investigators sought to determine associations of early ECG patterns with clinical deterioration (CD) within 5 days and with RV abnormality (abnlRV) by echocardiography in PE. They found that supraventricular tachycardia was an independent predictor of CD, while T-wave inversion, incomplete right bundle branch block, ST-segment elevation aVR, sinus tachycardia, and S1-Q3-T3 were independent predictors of abnlRV. They suggested that finding one or more of these ECG patterns may increase considerations for performance of echocardiography to look for RV abnormalities and, if present, inform concerns for early clinical deterioration.
Citation: Weekes AJ, Raper JD, Thomas AM . Electrocardiographic findings associated with early clinical deterioration in acute pulmonary embolism. Acad Emerg Med 2022 Oct;29(10):1185-96. doi: 10.1111/acem.14554..
Keywords: Respiratory Conditions, Blood Clots
Owora AH, Li R R, Tepper RS
Impact of time-varying confounders on the association between early-life allergy sensitization and the risk of current asthma: a post hoc analysis of a birth cohort.
The purpose of this study was to explore whether allergen avoidance in infants genetically predisposed to asthma can weaken the increased risk of current asthma that is associated with early-life allergy sensitization. The researchers utilized a post hoc analysis to estimate the average causal effect of early-life allergy sensitization and allergen avoidance on the risk of current asthma. The study found that that the odds of current asthma were higher among children with an early-life allergy sensitization at 7 years of age. No differences were demonstrated at 15-years of age. Overall, the odds of current asthma were lower among children randomized to the Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention Study (CAPPS) intervention. CAPPS was developed to decrease exposure in the first year of infancy to indoor aeroallergens and to promote prolonged breastfeeding and delayed introduction of milk and solid foods. The study also found that female children had 28% lower odds of current asthma than male children. The researchers concluded that early life is a vital time when allergy sensitization may provoke pathogenesis towards school-age asthma onset, and allergen avoidance during the same period may reduce the risk of current asthma. Confounding due to time-varying allergy sensitization states and asthma-related treatment exposure may explain some of the null associations reported in previous research.
Citation: Owora AH, Li R R, Tepper RS . Impact of time-varying confounders on the association between early-life allergy sensitization and the risk of current asthma: a post hoc analysis of a birth cohort. Allergy 2022 Oct;77(10):3141-44. doi: 10.1111/all.15403..
Keywords: Asthma, Respiratory Conditions, Children/Adolescents, Risk
Khorasani S, Zubiago J, Carreiro J
Influenza vaccination in Massachusetts jails: a mixed-methods analysis.
The objectives of this study were to survey health administrators in Massachusetts county jails about institutional influenza vaccine policies and practices and estimate influenza vaccination rates in Massachusetts jails from 2013 to 2020. Findings showed that influenza vaccination rates in Massachusetts jails were low, and delivery practices in jails varied. The authors noted that lack of influenza vaccinations in jails is a gap in health care that needs to be prioritized, especially considering the current COVID-19 pandemic. They suggested that further investigations for effective and equitable vaccination in this population should involve people who are incarcerated and people who make influenza vaccine policies in jails.
Citation: Khorasani S, Zubiago J, Carreiro J . Influenza vaccination in Massachusetts jails: a mixed-methods analysis. Public Health Rep 2022 Sep-Oct;137(5):936-43. doi: 10.1177/00333549211041659..
Keywords: Influenza, Vaccination, Respiratory Conditions
Dikranian L, Barry S, Ata A
Sars-CoV-2 with concurrent respiratory viral infection as a risk factor for a higher level of care in hospitalized pediatric patients.
This study’s objective was to evaluate if the presence of concurrent respiratory viral infections in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital with SARS-CoV-2 was associated with an increased rate of ICU level of care. Data from 67 participating hospitals was provided through The Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Network Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study database. A total of 922 patients were included, with 391 requiring ICU level care and 31 having concurrent non-SARS-CoV-2 viral coinfection. After accounting for age, positive blood culture, positive sputum culture, preexisting chronic medical conditions, the presence of a viral respiratory coinfection was associated with increased need for ICU care.
Citation: Dikranian L, Barry S, Ata A . Sars-CoV-2 with concurrent respiratory viral infection as a risk factor for a higher level of care in hospitalized pediatric patients. Pediatr Emerg Care 2022 Sep;38(9):472-76. doi: 10.1097/pec.0000000000002814..
Keywords: COVID-19, Children/Adolescents, Respiratory Conditions, Risk
Adams C, Chamberlain A, Wang Y
The role of staff in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in long-term care facilities.
The purpose of this study was to assess the role of long-term care facility (LTCF) staff in transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. From March 2020 to September the researchers evaluated residents and staff of 60 LTCFs in Georgia. The study found that after vaccines were first distributed to LTCFs in December 202, case counts, outbreak size and duration, and time-varying reproduction number [R(t)] declined rapidly. Staff cases were six times more infectious than resident cases, and unvaccinated resident cases were more infectious than vaccinated resident cases. The researchers concluded that staff were the primary drivers of COVID-19 transmission in LTCFs and vaccines slowed the transmission of the virus and contributed to a reduction in cases in LTCFs.
Citation: Adams C, Chamberlain A, Wang Y . The role of staff in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in long-term care facilities. Epidemiology 2022 Sep 1;33(5):669-77. doi: 10.1097/ede.0000000000001510..
Keywords: COVID-19, Respiratory Conditions, Long-Term Care, Public Health
Vaughn VM, Gandhi TN, Hofer TP
A statewide collaborative quality initiative to improve antibiotic duration and outcomes in patients hospitalized with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia.
Researchers sought to improve antibiotic duration for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) across 41 hospitals participating in the Michigan Hospital Medicine Safety Consortium (HMS). They found that, across diverse hospitals, HMS participation was associated with more appropriate use of short-course therapy and fewer adverse events in hospitalized patients with uncomplicated CAP.
Citation: Vaughn VM, Gandhi TN, Hofer TP . A statewide collaborative quality initiative to improve antibiotic duration and outcomes in patients hospitalized with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 2022 Aug 31;75(3):460-67. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab950..
Keywords: Community-Acquired Infections, Pneumonia, Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Stewardship, Medication, Respiratory Conditions
Duan KI, Wong ES, Liao JM
Long-term trends in home respiratory medical equipment among U.S. Medicare patients.
The purpose of this study was to explore how respiratory durable medical equipment (DME) supply has changed since Medicare implemented the Competitive Bidding Program (CBP) in 2011and increased the scale of the program nationally in 2013 and 2016. The researchers analyzed all publicly available nationwide Medicare DME data from 2013 to 2019 and analyzed all respiratory DME included in the CBP (excluding accessories such as masks, tubing, and filters). The researchers found that the three highest-volume respiratory DME products were stationary oxygen concentrators, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, and gaseous portable oxygen. Decreases in suppliers across all items and increases in claims per supplier for the majority of items suggest greater market concentration of respiratory DME suppliers for Medicare beneficiaries. Even as the Medicare population expanded by 2.6% between 2013 and 2019, the number of patients receiving home oxygen decreased, results that could represent reduced access to home oxygen DME. Finally, in contrast to declines in use for most home oxygen items, the percentage of Medicare beneficiaries using portable oxygen concentrators and CPAP devices increased significantly. The researchers conclude that this analysis addresses a critical knowledge gap and highlights the need for future work evaluating how policies such as the CBP affect respiratory DME access and outcomes.
Citation: Duan KI, Wong ES, Liao JM . Long-term trends in home respiratory medical equipment among U.S. Medicare patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Aug 15;206(4):509-11. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202202-0238LE..
Keywords: Home Healthcare, Medicare, Respiratory Conditions
Rothberg MB, Imrey PB, Guo N MB, Imrey PB, Guo N
A risk model to identify Legionella among patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study.
This study’s goal was to derive and externally validate a model to predict a positive Legionella test among adult inpatients diagnosed with pneumonia. The study used data from 177 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database and 12 Cleveland Clinic Health System (CCHS) hospitals. Of 166,689 patients hospitalized for pneumonia, out of 43,070 tested for Legionella 642 (1.5%) tested positive. The strongest predictors of a positive test were a local outbreak, June-October occurrence, hyponatremia, smoking and diarrhea. A negative test was associated with prior admission within 6 months and chronic pulmonary disease.
Citation: Rothberg MB, Imrey PB, Guo N MB, Imrey PB, Guo N . A risk model to identify Legionella among patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study. J Hosp Med 2022 Aug;17(8):624-32. doi: 10.1002/jhm.12919..
Keywords: Pneumonia, Community-Acquired Infections, Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Conditions
Kim B, Mulready-Ward C, Thorpe LE
Housing environments and asthma outcomes within population-based samples of adults and children in NYC.
This study assessed the relationship between housing type (i.e., home ownership, public housing, rental assistance, rent-controlled housing, and other rental housing) and asthma outcomes among New York City (NYC) adults and children (ages 1-13). The authors used the 2019 NYC Community Health Survey (CHS) and 2019 NYC KIDS survey to analyze associations between housing type and ever having been diagnosed with asthma (“ever asthma”) and experiencing an asthma attack within the past year. They also examined whether associations were modified by smoking status (among adults), smoking within the house (among children), and overweight/obesity. Among adults, living in public housing, compared to home ownership, was associated with higher odds of ever asthma and past-year asthma attack. Rental assistance housing living was also significantly associated with ever asthma. Public or rental assistance housing associations and ever asthma were marginally significant among children but were more pronounced among ever smokers than among never smokers.
Citation: Kim B, Mulready-Ward C, Thorpe LE . Housing environments and asthma outcomes within population-based samples of adults and children in NYC. Prev Med 2022 Aug;161:107147. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.107147..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Asthma, Respiratory Conditions, Social Determinants of Health, Vulnerable Populations, Urban Health, Chronic Conditions
Rudin RS, Qureshi N, Foer D
Toward an asthma patient-reported outcome measure for use in digital remote monitoring.
The purpose of this study was to create a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) and evaluate its suitability for digital remote asthma symptom monitoring to identify uncontrolled asthma. The researchers modified the asthma control measure (ACM), an existing, non-licensed PROM, and tested it with the asthma control questionnaire (ACQ-5) on 498 individuals with asthma, all of whom were recruited through an online platform. The study concluded that the modified ACM can be used in digital remote monitoring, does not require a license, and is able to differentiate between patients with uncontrolled asthma and patients with well-controlled asthma.
Citation: Rudin RS, Qureshi N, Foer D . Toward an asthma patient-reported outcome measure for use in digital remote monitoring. J Asthma 2022 Aug;59(8):1697-702. doi: 10.1080/02770903.2021.1955378..
Keywords: Asthma, Respiratory Conditions, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Keller SC, Caballero TM, Tamma PD
AHRQ Author: Miller MA
Assessment of changes in visits and antibiotic prescribing during the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Improving Antibiotic Use and the COVID-19 pandemic.
This cohort study evaluated the effectiveness of the AHRQ Safety Program for Improving Antibiotic Use aimed to improve antibiotic prescribing in ambulatory practices by engaging clinicians and staff to incorporate antibiotic stewardship into practice culture, communication, and decision-making. The study ran from December 2019 through November 2020. A total of 389 ambulatory care practices with over 6.5 million visits to 5483 clinicians were compared from the baseline to completion of the program. Participants included 82 primary care practices, 103 urgent care practices, 34 federally supported practices, 21 pediatric-only practices, 39 pediatric urgent care practices, 21 pediatric-only practices, and 14 other practice types. Of the 389 practices who completed the program, 75% submitted completed data. Visits per practice per month decreased from a mean of 1624 at baseline to a nadir of 906 early in the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020) and were 1797 at the end of the program. Total antibiotic prescribing decreased from 18.2% of visits at baseline to 9.5% at completion of the program. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) visits per practice per month decreased from a baseline of 321 to a nadir of 76 early in the pandemic (May 2020) and gradually increased through completion of the program (n = 239). Antibiotic prescribing for ARIs decreased from 39.2% at baseline to 24.7% at completion of the program.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 233201500020I.
Citation: Keller SC, Caballero TM, Tamma PD . Assessment of changes in visits and antibiotic prescribing during the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Improving Antibiotic Use and the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jul;5(7):e2220512. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.20512..
Keywords: Antimicrobial Stewardship, Antibiotics, Medication, COVID-19, Public Health, Respiratory Conditions
Saxena FE, Bierman AS, Glazier RH
AHRQ Author: Bierman AS
Association of Early Physician Follow-up With Readmission Among Patients Hospitalized for Acute Myocardial Infarction, Congestive Heart Failure, or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Investigators assessed whether hospitalized patients with early physician follow-up after discharge had lower rates of overall and condition-specific readmissions within 30 days and 90 days of discharge. Studying adults in Ontario, Canada, with first admission for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the findings suggested that early follow-up in conjunction with a comprehensive transitional care strategy for hospitalized patients with medically complex conditions coupled with ongoing effective chronic disease management may be associated with reduced 90-day readmissions.
Citation: Saxena FE, Bierman AS, Glazier RH . Association of Early Physician Follow-up With Readmission Among Patients Hospitalized for Acute Myocardial Infarction, Congestive Heart Failure, or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jul;5(7):e2222056. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.22056..
Keywords: Hospital Readmissions, Hospitalization, Cardiovascular Conditions, Respiratory Conditions, Transitions of Care
Raper JD, Thomas AM, Lupez K
Can right ventricular assessments improve triaging of low risk pulmonary embolism?
Researchers sought to determine if right ventricle (RV) assessment variables add prognostic accuracy for 5-day clinical deterioration in patients classified low risk by the Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index and to determine the prognostic importance of RV assessments compared to other variables and to each other. They found that a pulmonary embolism triaging strategy with RV imaging assessments had superior prognostic performance at classifying low risk for 5-day clinical deterioration versus one without.
Citation: Raper JD, Thomas AM, Lupez K . Can right ventricular assessments improve triaging of low risk pulmonary embolism? Acad Emerg Med 2022 Jul;29(7):835-50. doi: 10.1111/acem.14484..
Keywords: Respiratory Conditions, Blood Clots, Risk
Tyler A, Dempsey A, Spencer S
Do the guidelines apply?-A multisite, combined stakeholder qualitative case study to understand care decisions in bronchiolitis.
Researchers sought an improved understanding of factors that influence care decisions across multiple stakeholders and diverse settings in order to develop effective strategies to de-implement unnecessary testing and treatment for bronchiolitis. A qualitative case study was conducted across two geographically distinct university affiliated children's hospitals, including semistructured interviews and focus groups with patient participants. The researchers found that, incongruent with provider and care team perceptions, parents reported that they desire an evidence-based, less-is-more approach to bronchiolitis care.
Citation: Tyler A, Dempsey A, Spencer S . Do the guidelines apply?-A multisite, combined stakeholder qualitative case study to understand care decisions in bronchiolitis. Acad Pediatr 2022 Jul;22(5):806-17. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.08.003..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Respiratory Conditions, Decision Making, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice
Haessler S, Guo N, Deshpande A
Etiology, treatments, and outcomes of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia in a large U.S. sample.
This study compared the clinical practice and outcomes in severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) patients to those in non-sCAP patients using guideline-defined criteria for sCAP. The definition for sCAP includes a principal diagnosis of pneumonia or a secondary pneumonia diagnosis paired with a principal diagnosis of sepsis or respiratory failure. One-hundred seventy-seven US hospitals within the Premier Healthcare Database were used to identify 154,799 patients with pneumonia, with 14.1% meeting criteria for sCAP. The sCAP patients had higher organ failure scores and inpatient mortality, longer lengths of stay, and higher costs than those with nonsevere disease. Patients with sCAP had twice the rate of positive blood cultures and respiratory cultures and more often had isolates resistant to first-line community-acquired pneumonia antibiotics. The most common pathogen acquired from blood cultures was Streptococcus pneumoniae and from the respiratory tract Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas species. The most common antibiotics prescribed were vancomycin (65%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (42.8%), regardless of cultures positive for a resistant organism.
Citation: Haessler S, Guo N, Deshpande A . Etiology, treatments, and outcomes of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia in a large U.S. sample. Crit Care Med 2022 Jul;50(7):1063-71. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000005498..
Keywords: Community-Acquired Infections, Pneumonia, Respiratory Conditions, Outcomes
Lindell RB, Fitzgerald JC, Rowan CM
The use and duration of preintubation respiratory support is associated with increased mortality in immunocompromised children with acute respiratory failure.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to examine the relationship between preintubation respiratory support and outcomes in pediatric patients with acute respiratory failure and to evaluate the impact of immunocompromised (IC) diagnoses on outcomes. The study utilized data from the Virtual Pediatric Systems database which included 82 centers, and focused on patients intubated in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) ranging in age from 1 month old to 17 years of age who received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for more than or equal to 24 hours. Of the 5,348 PICU intubations across 82 centers, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) or both were used before intubation in 34% (1,825) of patients. Fifty percent of the patients had no IC diagnosis. The researchers found that exposure to HFNC was associated with greater odds of PICU mortality when compared with patients intubated without prior support. When analyzing subgroups of IC status, preintubation support was related to higher odds of PICU mortality in IC patients and HCT patients when compared with IC/ HCT patients intubated without prior respiratory support. A duration of HFNC/NIPPV of more than 6 hours was associated with increased mortality in IC HCT patients. Rates of preintubation HFNC/NIPPV use and PICU mortality varied between the 82 centers. The researchers concluded that greater duration of exposure to HFNC/NIPPV prior to IMV is associated with increased mortality in HCT patients, and preintubation exposure to HFNC and/or NIPPV in IC pediatric patients is associated with increased odds of PICU mortality, independent of the severity of the illness.
Citation: Lindell RB, Fitzgerald JC, Rowan CM . The use and duration of preintubation respiratory support is associated with increased mortality in immunocompromised children with acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med 2022 Jul;50(7):1127-37. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000005535..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Respiratory Conditions, Mortality, Critical Care
Wayne MT, Seelye S, Molling D
Variation in U.S. hospital practices for bronchoscopy in the intensive care unit.
The authors sought to measure bronchoscopy rates among mechanically ventilated ICU patients and to assess for variation across hospitals. In this cohort of over 150 diverse hospitals across the United States, they found that nearly 4% of mechanically ventilated ICU patients underwent bronchoscopy, representing a more than 20-fold variation in its use, which was only minimally attenuated after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. They recommended future studies to understand the drivers and impact of this variation on patient outcomes.
Citation: Wayne MT, Seelye S, Molling D . Variation in U.S. hospital practices for bronchoscopy in the intensive care unit. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2022 Jun;19(6):1061-65. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202110-1141RL..
Keywords: Hospitals, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Respiratory Conditions
Wang Y, Eldridge N, Metersky ML
AHRQ Author: Eldridge N, Rodrick D
Analysis of hospital-level readmission rates and variation in adverse events among patients with pneumonia in the United States.
The purpose of this AHRQ-authored cross-sectional study was to assess whether patients with pneumonia who were admitted to hospitals with higher risk-standardized readmission rates had a higher risk of in-hospital adverse events. The researchers linked patient-level adverse events data from the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS) to the hospital-level pneumonia-specific all-cause readmissions data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. The MPSMS data included 46,047 patients with pneumonia across 2,590 hospitals discharged from July 1, 2010, through December 31, 2019. For data from 2010 to 2017, analysis was completed from October 2019 through July 2020, and for data from 2018 to 2019 analysis was completed from March through April 2022. The study concluded that readmission rates are associated with the quality of hospital care for pneumonia; patients with pneumonia admitted to hospitals with high all-cause readmission rates had a higher likelihood of developing adverse events during the initial hospitalization.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290201800005C.
Citation: Wang Y, Eldridge N, Metersky ML . Analysis of hospital-level readmission rates and variation in adverse events among patients with pneumonia in the United States. JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2214586. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.14586..
Keywords: Hospital Readmissions, Hospitals, Adverse Events, Pneumonia, Respiratory Conditions
Encinosa W, Figueroa J, Elias Y
AHRQ Author: Encinosa W
Severity of hospitalizations from SARS-CoV-2 vs influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infection in children aged 5 to 11 years in 11 US states.
By the time emergency use authorization had been granted for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in October 2021 in children aged 5 to 11 years, there had been 1.8 million diagnoses of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 8,000 hospitalizations, and 143 deaths in that age group. Very little has been reported on the severity of those hospitalizations relative to the influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) which are the most common childhood viruses. The purpose of this study was to compare hospitalizations of children aged 5 to 11 for SARS-CoV-2 infection and multisystem inflammatory system in children (MIS-C, a sequela of COVID-19 disease) with the hospitalizations of children aged 5 to 11 years who were infected with influenza and RSV. The researchers utilized inpatient data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project from the first 11 states with complete first-quarter data as of October 2021, representing 24% of the US population of children aged 5 to 11 years. The researchers examined 46 complications in 7 body systems, total care costs and charges, and data on race and ethnicity. The resulting cross-sectional study included patient data from a total of 2,269 children. The study found that COVID-19 hospitalizations occurred at the rate of 10.8 per 100,000 children, while Influenza and RSV were rare during the first quarter of 2021 with 23 total hospital discharges combined. However, in 2017, which researchers also measured for data on influenza and RSV, influenza and RSV had 17.0 and 6.2 hospitalizations per 100,000 children, respectively. Inpatient death for all viruses was rare. MIS-C had the highest rates of cardiovascular, hematologic, and gastrointestinal complications. Children with RSV ha the highest rate of respiratory complications. Children with COVID-19 (without MISC-C) had the highest rate of neurologic complications, whereas children with influenza had the highest rate of muscoskeletal complications. Children with MIS-C had the longest median length of stay at a median cost of $23,585 per stay compared to children with influenza with a median length of stay of 2 days and a cost of $5,200.
Citation: Encinosa W, Figueroa J, Elias Y . Severity of hospitalizations from SARS-CoV-2 vs influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infection in children aged 5 to 11 years in 11 US states. JAMA Pediatr 2022 May;176(5):520-22. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.6566..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), COVID-19, Children/Adolescents, Hospitalization, Influenza, Respiratory Conditions
Bardach NS, Harder VS, McCulloch CE
Follow-up after asthma emergency department visits and its relationship with subsequent asthma-related utilization.
Researchers sought to assess the association between follow-up after an asthma-related emergency department (ED) visit and the likelihood of subsequent asthma-related ED utilization. Using data from California Medicaid, Vermont, and Massachusetts all-payer claims databases, they found a protective association between outpatient 14-day follow-up and asthma-related ED revisits. They suggested that this may reflect improved asthma control as providers follow the NHLBI guideline stepwise approach.
AHRQ-funded; HS025297; HS020518.
Citation: Bardach NS, Harder VS, McCulloch CE . Follow-up after asthma emergency department visits and its relationship with subsequent asthma-related utilization. Acad Pediatr 2022 Apr;22(3S):S125-S32. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.10.015..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Asthma, Emergency Department, Respiratory Conditions, Healthcare Utilization
Valbuena VSM, Barbaro RP, Claar D
Racial bias in pulse oximetry measurement among patients about to undergo extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in 2019-2020: a retrospective cohort study.
This study examined whether pulse oximeters detect arterial hypoxemia less effectively in Black, Hispanic, and/or Asian patients than in White patients in respiratory failure who are about to undergo extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Data on adult patients with respiratory failure readings 6 hours before ECMO from 324 centers from January 2019 to July 2020 who were in the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry was used. The author’s primary analysis was of rates of occult hypoxemia-low arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2) ≤ 88%) on arterial blood gas measurement despite a pulse oximetry reading in the range of 92% to 96%. The rate of pre-ECMO occult hypoxemia was 10.2% for 186 White patients with peripheral oxygen saturation; 21.5% for 51 Black patients; 8.6% for 70 Hispanic patients; and 9.2% for 75 Asian patients. The risk of occult hypoxemia was comparable for Hispanic and Asian patients to White patients, but the prevalence of occult hypoxemia was higher in Black patients than for White patients about to undergo ECMO for respiratory failure.
Citation: Valbuena VSM, Barbaro RP, Claar D . Racial bias in pulse oximetry measurement among patients about to undergo extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in 2019-2020: a retrospective cohort study. Chest 2022 Apr;161(4):971-78. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.09.025..
Keywords: Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Medical Devices, Respiratory Conditions
Anesi GL, Liu VX, Chowdhury M
Association of ICU admission and outcomes in sepsis and acute respiratory failure.
ICU capacity is strained and its capacity and effectiveness are limited because many patient admission decisions are not evidence-based regarding who benefits from admission triage. The purpose of the study was to measure the benefits of admission to the ICU in patients who were experiencing sepsis or acute respiratory failure. Researchers looked retrospectively from 2013 to 2018 at cohorts within 27 U.S. hospitals across two health systems. They compared ICU admission vs ward admission among patients with sepsis and/ or acute respiratory failure who did not require vasopressors or mechanical ventilation in the emergency department. Study results revealed in patients with sepsis that ICU admission was associated with a hospital stay of 1.32 days longer than ward admissions, with a higher in-hospital mortality ratio. In patients with respiratory failure, ICU admission was associated with a .82-day shorter length of stay and reduced in-patient mortality. Within the two groups, subgroup analysis was conducted, and results revealed that for patients with sepsis, harms were concentrated among older patients and patients with fewer comorbidities. In addition, for patients with respiratory failure, the benefits were concentrated among older patients, patients with higher lab-based acute physiology scores (“high acuity” patients), and patients with comorbidities. The study concluded that among sepsis patients with high acuity scores and not requiring life support in the emergency department, initial admission to the ward was associated with shorter length of stay and improved survival, compared to the same category of patients admitted to the ICU. This result differed from patients with acute respiratory failure, for whom triage to the ICU was associated with improved survival when compared to admission to the ward.
Citation: Anesi GL, Liu VX, Chowdhury M . Association of ICU admission and outcomes in sepsis and acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Mar 1;205(5):520-28. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202106-1350OC..
Keywords: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Sepsis, Respiratory Conditions, Outcomes
Fisher KA, Kennedy K, Bloomstone S
Can sharing clinic notes improve communication and promote self-management? A qualitative study of patients with COPD.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of physicians sharing their clinical notes with patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and assess the impact on patient-physician communication and patient self-management. The researchers conducted interviews with 30 patients with COPD, asking them to review their clinic notes. The participants were primarily White (93.3%) with an average age of 65.5 years; more than 50% reported having a high school degree or less, almost half reported sometimes requiring help to read medical materials, and half had challenges understanding spoken information. The study found that patients reported that having the clinic notes gave them an opportunity to learn more about their condition, and encouraged their self-management by reminding them of their action steps, serving as prompts for seeking information, and motivating them. Patients indicated positive reactions to those physician notes that implied their clinician considered them as a person, listened to them, and noticed details about them. The majority of patients reported negative reactions to incorrect information in the notes, wording that they considered disapproving, and medical terms. The study concluded that the act of providers sharing their clinical notes with their patients can serve multiple purposes, including encouraging the exchange of information and self-management, and improving the relationship between patients and providers.
Citation: Fisher KA, Kennedy K, Bloomstone S . Can sharing clinic notes improve communication and promote self-management? A qualitative study of patients with COPD. Patient Educ Couns 2022 Mar;105(3):726-33. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2021.06.004..
Keywords: Respiratory Conditions, Chronic Conditions, Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication, Patient Self-Management
Jaladanki S, Schechter SB, Genies MC
Strategies for sustaining high-quality pediatric asthma care in community hospitals.
This study’s objective was to identify strategies associated with sustained guideline adherence and high-quality pediatric asthma care in community hospitals. Hospitals who were part of the Pathways for Improving Pediatric Asthma Care (PIPA) national quality improvement (QI) intervention were included. Clinicians (n = 19) involved in clinical care of children hospitalized with asthma were interviewed from five higher- and three lower-performing hospitals. Higher-performing hospitals had dedicated local champions who consistently provided reminders of evidence-based practices and delivered ongoing education. These champions also modified/developed electronic health record (EHR) tools. Lower-performing hospital clinicians described unique barriers, including delays in modifying the EHR and lack of automation of EHR tools. For all hospitals, barriers to sustainability included challenges with quality monitoring, decreasing focus of local champions over time, and ongoing difficulties developing around evidence-based practices.
Citation: Jaladanki S, Schechter SB, Genies MC . Strategies for sustaining high-quality pediatric asthma care in community hospitals. Health Serv Res 2022 Feb;57(1):125-36. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13870..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Asthma, Respiratory Conditions, Chronic Conditions, Hospitals, Quality of Care