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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 8 of 8 Research Studies Displayed
Womack VY, De Chavez PJ, Albrecht SS
A longitudinal relationship between depressive symptoms and development of metabolic syndrome: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.
The researchers tested whether baseline and time-varying depressive symptoms were associated with metabolic syndrome incidence in black and white men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. They found that, over 15 years, the incidence rate of metabolic syndrome varied by race and sex, with the highest rate in black women followed by white men, black men, and white women. Depressive symptoms were associated with incident metabolic syndrome in white men and white women. However, they found no significant association between depression and metabolic syndrome among black men or black women.
Citation: Womack VY, De Chavez PJ, Albrecht SS . A longitudinal relationship between depressive symptoms and development of metabolic syndrome: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Psychosom Med 2016 Sep;78(7):867-73. doi: 10.1097/psy.0000000000000347.
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Depression, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Sex Factors, Young Adults
de St Maurice A, Schaffner W, Griffin MR
Persistent sex disparities in invasive pneumococcal diseases in the conjugate vaccine era.
The authors examined sex differences in rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and trends after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). They concluded that rates of IPD were generally higher in male than in female subjects.
Citation: de St Maurice A, Schaffner W, Griffin MR . Persistent sex disparities in invasive pneumococcal diseases in the conjugate vaccine era. J Infect Dis 2016 Sep 01;214(5):792-7. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw222.
Keywords: Pneumonia, Sex Factors, Vaccination, Prevention
Albrecht JS, McCunn M, Stein DM
Sex differences in mortality following isolated traumatic brain injury among older adults.
This retrospective cohort study's objective was to determine the possibility of sex differences in mortality among older adutls following isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to comapre with findings using all TBI. The researchers did not find that women were significantly associated with decreased odds of mortality following isolated TBI.
Citation: Albrecht JS, McCunn M, Stein DM . Sex differences in mortality following isolated traumatic brain injury among older adults. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2016 Sep;81(3):486-92. doi: 10.1097/ta.0000000000001118.
Keywords: Sex Factors, Trauma, Brain Injury, Mortality, Elderly
Just E, Casarett DJ, Asch DA
Differences in terminal hospitalization care between U.S. men and women.
The authors sought to determine whether men and women receive different care during terminal hospitalizations by examining sex-based differences in lengths of stay, resuscitation status, and intensive interventions and processes of care. They found that. compared with men, women had slightly shorter hospitalizations and were more likely to have a do-not-resuscitate order. Women remained less likely to receive care in an intensive care unit, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, hemodialysis, or surgical procedures. The researchers concluded that men who die in hospitals receive more aggressive care than women.
Citation: Just E, Casarett DJ, Asch DA . Differences in terminal hospitalization care between U.S. men and women. J Pain Symptom Manage 2016 Aug;52(2):205-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2016.01.013.
Keywords: Disparities, Palliative Care, Hospitalization, Sex Factors, Elderly
Lipman GS, Krabak BJ, Rundell SD
Incidence and prevalence of acute kidney injury during multistage ultramarathons.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) during multistage ultramarathons. The authors found that prevalence of AKI was 63%-78% during multistage ultramarathons, and that female sex, lower pack weight, and greater weight loss were associated with renal impairment.
Citation: Lipman GS, Krabak BJ, Rundell SD . Incidence and prevalence of acute kidney injury during multistage ultramarathons. Clin J Sport Med 2016 Jul;26(4):314-9. doi: 10.1097/jsm.0000000000000253.
Keywords: Injuries and Wounds, Risk, Sex Factors, Outcomes
Piccini JP, Simon DN, Steinberg BA
Differences in clinical and functional outcomes of atrial fibrillation in women and men: two-year results from the ORBIT-AF Registry.
The purpose of this paper was to determine whether symptoms, quality of life, treatment, and outcomes differ between women and men with atrial fibrillation (AF). The authors found that women with AF have more symptoms and worse quality of life, lower risk-adjusted all-cause and cardiovascular death compared with men, but higher stroke rates.
Citation: Piccini JP, Simon DN, Steinberg BA . Differences in clinical and functional outcomes of atrial fibrillation in women and men: two-year results from the ORBIT-AF Registry. JAMA Cardiol 2016 Jun 1;1(3):282-91. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2016.0529.
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Sex Factors, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Quality of Life, Registries, Evidence-Based Practice
Kinasz K, Accurso EC, Kass AE
Does sex matter in the clinical presentation of eating disorders in youth?
The authors compared demographic and clinical characteristics of child and adolescent males and females who presented for eating disorder treatment. They found that males presented at a significantly younger age and were more likely to be nonwhite, while females showed more severe pathology across the Eating Disorder Examination subscales. They suggested further exploration into why the sexes present differently.
Citation: Kinasz K, Accurso EC, Kass AE . Does sex matter in the clinical presentation of eating disorders in youth? J Adolesc Health 2016 Apr;58(4):410-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.11.005.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Behavioral Health, Nutrition, Sex Factors
Lee S, Teschemaker AR, Daniel M
Calcium and vitamin D use among older adults in U.S.: results from national survey.
The investigators conducted this study to describe a 10-year trend of calcium and vitamin D use from 2000 to 2009 and to evaluate age, gender, and racial disparities using national level health data. They found variability in the access to the medications, despite the observed increases associated with calcium and vitamin D supplements.
Citation: Lee S, Teschemaker AR, Daniel M . Calcium and vitamin D use among older adults in U.S.: results from national survey. J Nutr Health Aging 2016 Mar;20(3):300-5. doi: 10.1007/s12603-015-0614-9.
Keywords: Disparities, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Sex Factors, Vitamins and Supplements