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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 6 of 6 Research Studies Displayed
Singh JA, Lemay CA, Nobel L
Association of early postoperative pain trajectories with longer-term pain outcome after primary total knee arthroplasty.
Studies to date have not comprehensively examined pain experience after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Discrete patterns of pain in this period might be associated with pain outcomes at 6 to 12 months after TKA. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of individual post-TKA pain trajectories and to assess their independent associations with longer-term pain outcome after TKA.
AHRQ-funded; HS021110; HS018910.
Citation: Singh JA, Lemay CA, Nobel L . Association of early postoperative pain trajectories with longer-term pain outcome after primary total knee arthroplasty. JAMA Netw Open 2019 Nov;2(11):e1915105. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.15105..
Keywords: Pain, Surgery, Orthopedics, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes
Lemay CA, Saag KG, Franklin PD
A qualitative study of the postoperative pain management educational needs of total joint replacement patients.
This study examined the challenges of pain management education for post-surgery of total joint replacement patients. The majority of patients have pain in the postoperative period and managing pain can be challenging. Nine orthopedic surgeons’ offices in 8 states recruited patients and 27 patients completed the interview. They were interviewed with open-ended questions on their experiences with pain after surgery, pain management, experiences with pain medicine, experience using non-medicine-related pain reduction methods, and suggestions for better pain management education. Challenges included lack of pain control and lack of information about prescribed opioid and nonopioid methods of managing pain.
AHRQ-funded; HS018910; HS021110.
Citation: Lemay CA, Saag KG, Franklin PD . A qualitative study of the postoperative pain management educational needs of total joint replacement patients. Pain Manag Nurs 2019 Aug;20(4):345-51. doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2018.12.009..
Keywords: Pain, Orthopedics, Surgery, Education: Patient and Caregiver
Smith ME, Lee JS, Bonham A
Effect of new persistent opioid use on physiologic and psychologic outcomes following bariatric surgery.
In this study, the investigators sought to determine the relationship between new persistent opioid use and 1-year postoperative outcomes for patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The investigators concluded that new persistent opioid use is common following bariatric surgery and associated with significantly worse physiologic and psychologic outcomes. More effective screening and postoperative surveillance tools are needed to identify these patients, who likely require more aggressive counseling and treatment to maximize the benefits of bariatric surgery.
Citation: Smith ME, Lee JS, Bonham A . Effect of new persistent opioid use on physiologic and psychologic outcomes following bariatric surgery. Surg Endosc 2019 Aug;33(8):2649-56. doi: 10.1007/s00464-018-6542-0..
Keywords: Opioids, Surgery, Medication, Obesity: Weight Management, Obesity, Obesity: Weight Management, Pain, Outcomes
Dy CJ, Peacock K, Olsen MA
Frequency and risk factors for prolonged opioid prescriptions after surgery for brachial plexus injury.
This study examined risk of prolonged opioid prescription use after surgery for brachial plexus injury (BPI). A cohort of BPI surgery patients was compared to a control group of non-BPI patients, matching for age, sex, and year. Pharmacy claims for prescriptions filled for opioids and neuropathic pain methods were examined 1 year before surgery to 180 days after surgery. The primary outcome studied was prolonged opioid prescription, which is defined as receiving a prescription 90 to 180 days after the surgery or randomly selected date of service for controls. Among BPI patients, a subgroup analysis was also performed on opioid-naïve patients between 30 days to 1 year before surgery. Among BPI surgery patients, 27.7% had prolonged opioid prescriptions, but only 10.8% of opioid-naïve patients had prolonged opioid prescriptions. The rate for controls was 0.11%. The rates of prolonged opioid prescriptions for BPI patients was higher than previous estimates among other surgical patients.
Citation: Dy CJ, Peacock K, Olsen MA . Frequency and risk factors for prolonged opioid prescriptions after surgery for brachial plexus injury. J Hand Surg Am 2019 Aug;44(8):662-68.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2019.04.001..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Surgery, Pain, Practice Patterns, Risk, Chronic Conditions
Nguyen UDT, Perneger T, Franklin PD
Improvement in mental health following total hip arthroplasty: the role of pain and function.
This prospective study examined whether mental health improved in patients who had total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to improvement in pain and function 1 year post-surgery. Patients enrolled in a THA registry from 2010 to 2014 were included and the mental component score (MCS) was examined before and 1 year post-surgery. There was a significant improvement in mental health due to less pain and improved function.
Citation: Nguyen UDT, Perneger T, Franklin PD . Improvement in mental health following total hip arthroplasty: the role of pain and function. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2019 Jun 29;20(1):307. doi: 10.1186/s12891-019-2669-y..
Keywords: Health Status, Behavioral Health, Orthopedics, Outcomes, Pain, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Quality of Life, Surgery
Parthipan A, Banerjee I, Humphreys K
Predicting inadequate postoperative pain management in depressed patients: a machine learning approach.
Researchers employed a machine-learning approach to identify patients who were prescribed a combination of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and prodrug opioids in order to examine the effect of this combination on postoperative pain control. They identified patients who received surgery over a 9-year period by using EHR data from an academic medical center, then developed and validated natural language processing (NLP) algorithms to extract depression-related information from both structured and unstructured data elements. The machine-learning algorithm accurately predicted the increase or decrease of the discharge, 3-week, and 8-week follow-up pain scores when compared to the pre-operative pain score; pre-operative pain, surgery type, and opioid tolerance were the strongest predictors of postoperative pain control. The researchers conclude that their study results provide the first direct clinical evidence that the known ability of SSRIs to inhibit prodrug opioid effectiveness is associated with worse pain control among depressed patients. They suggest that prescribers might choose direct acting opioids such as oxycodone or morphine for depressed patients on SSRIs instead of prodrug opioids.
Citation: Parthipan A, Banerjee I, Humphreys K . Predicting inadequate postoperative pain management in depressed patients: a machine learning approach. PLoS One 2019 Feb 6;14(2):e0210575. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210575..
Keywords: Care Management, Depression, Medication, Opioids, Pain, Surgery