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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 93 Research Studies Displayed
Venema DM, Skinner AM, Nailon R
Patient and system factors associated with unassisted and injurious falls in hospitals: an observational study.
Unassisted falls are more likely to result in injury than assisted falls. However, little is known about risk factors for falling unassisted. Furthermore, rural hospitals, which care for a high proportion of older adults, are underrepresented in research on hospital falls. This study identified risk factors for unassisted and injurious falls in rural hospitals.
Citation: Venema DM, Skinner AM, Nailon R . Patient and system factors associated with unassisted and injurious falls in hospitals: an observational study. BMC Geriatr 2019 Dec 11;19(1):348. doi: 10.1186/s12877-019-1368-8..
Keywords: Falls, Injuries and Wounds, Patient Safety, Elderly, Risk, Hospitals, Adverse Events
Xu X, Lin H, Wright JD
Association between power morcellation and mortality in women with unexpected uterine cancer undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy.
Despite concerns that power morcellation may adversely affect prognosis of patients with occult uterine cancer, empirical evidence has been limited and inconclusive. In this study, the investigators aimed to determine whether uncontained power morcellation at the time of hysterectomy or myomectomy was associated with increased mortality risk in women with occult uterine cancer.
Citation: Xu X, Lin H, Wright JD . Association between power morcellation and mortality in women with unexpected uterine cancer undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy. J Clin Oncol 2019 Dec 10;37(35):3412-24. doi: 10.1200/jco.19.00562..
Keywords: Cancer, Mortality, Women, Surgery, Risk, Adverse Events
Almasri J, Tello M, Benkhadra R
A systematic review for variables to be collected in a transplant database for improving risk prediction.
This study is a systematic review that was commissioned to identify new variables associated with transplant outcomes that are not currently collected by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. They identified 81 unique studies including almost 1.2 million patients with median follow-up of 36 months posttransplant. A total of 108 unique risk factors were reported with most (104) recipient related and only 4 donor related. Most risk factors were small to moderate (ranging between 1.0 and 2.0). There were four relative association measures that were the strongest: 1) heart transplant recipients with a previous Fontan operation (8.6); 2) kidney transplant recipients with sickle cell nephropathy as primary cause of end-stage renal disease (2.8); 3) liver transplant recipients with serum ferritin >500 microg/L (14.3); and 4) lung transplant recipients with Burkholderia cepacia complex infection for 1 year or less (63.). These four risk factors were considered candidates for collection in databases and registries.
Citation: Almasri J, Tello M, Benkhadra R . A systematic review for variables to be collected in a transplant database for improving risk prediction. Transplantation 2019 Dec;103(12):2591-601. doi: 10.1097/tp.0000000000002652..
Keywords: Transplantation, Risk, Decision Making
Patel DK, Duncan MS, Shah AS
Association of cardiac rehabilitation with decreased hospitalization and mortality risk after cardiac valve surgery.
Investigators sought to characterize cardiac rehabilitation (CR) enrollment after cardiac valve surgery and its association with outcomes, including hospitalizations and mortality. Subjects were all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries undergoing open cardiac valve surgery in 2014, identified by inpatient diagnosis codes for open aortic, mitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary valve surgery. They found that fewer than half of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing cardiac valve surgery enrolled in CR programs, and there were marked racial/ethnic disparities among those who do. They recommend further study on barriers to CR enrollment in this population.
Citation: Patel DK, Duncan MS, Shah AS . Association of cardiac rehabilitation with decreased hospitalization and mortality risk after cardiac valve surgery. JAMA Cardiol 2019 Dec;4(12):11887-1301. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2019.4032..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Heart Disease and Health, Rehabilitation, Hospitalization, Surgery, Mortality, Risk, Elderly
Sheetz KH, Dimick JB, Nathan H
Centralization of high-risk cancer surgery within existing hospital systems.
Centralization is often proposed as a strategy to improve the quality of certain high-risk health care services. In this study, the investigators evaluated the extent to which existing hospital systems centralize high-risk cancer surgery and whether centralization is associated with short-term clinical outcomes. The investigators concluded that greater centralization of complex cancer surgery within existing hospital systems was associated with better outcomes.
Citation: Sheetz KH, Dimick JB, Nathan H . Centralization of high-risk cancer surgery within existing hospital systems. J Clin Oncol 2019 Dec 1;37(34):3234-42. doi: 10.1200/jco.18.02035..
Keywords: Surgery, Cancer, Risk, Hospitals, Healthcare Systems, Quality Improvement, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality of Care, Outcomes
Mehta HB, Yong S, Sura SD
Development of comorbidity score for patients undergoing major surgery.
The goal of this study was to develop and validate a claims-based comorbidity score and compare to established comorbidity scores. The researchers used Medicare data to find adults 65 and older who had undergone major surgery to predict 1-year mortality, and 30-day hospital readmission. The comorbidity score was compared to the Charlson, Elixhauser, and CMC-HCC scores. Their newly developed comorbidity score better predicted outcomes than the established comorbidity score systems in the surgical population.
Citation: Mehta HB, Yong S, Sura SD . Development of comorbidity score for patients undergoing major surgery. Health Serv Res 2019 Dec;54(6):1223-32. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13209..
Keywords: Surgery, Risk, Mortality
Kitsios GD, Yang L, Manatakis DV
Host-response subphenotypes offer prognostic enrichment in patients with or at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome.
This study examined whether certain plasma biomarkers can be used to help classify mechanically ventilated ICU patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome into hyper- and hypoinflammatory subphenotypes to facilitate more effective targeted therapy. The researchers performed longitudinal measures of 10 plasma biomarkers of host injury and inflammation. They were able to demonstrate that two-class models (hyper- vs hypoinflammatory subphenotypes) fit better than one-class models in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome or patients at risk for acute respiratory distress (ARFA). Hyperinflammatory classification was associated higher severity of illness, worse clinical outcomes, and persistently elevated biomarkers of host injury and inflammation compared with hypoinflammatory patients.
Citation: Kitsios GD, Yang L, Manatakis DV . Host-response subphenotypes offer prognostic enrichment in patients with or at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 2019 Dec;47(12):1724-34. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000004018..
Keywords: Respiratory Conditions, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Risk
Predmore Z, Hatef E, Weiner JP
Integrating social and behavioral determinants of health into population health analytics: a conceptual framework and suggested road map.
There is growing recognition that social and behavioral risk factors impact population health outcomes. Interventions that target these risk factors can improve health outcomes. This study presents a review of existing literature and proposes a conceptual framework for the integration of social and behavioral data into population health analytics platforms. The authors describe several use cases for these platforms at the patient, health system, and community levels, and align these use cases with the different types of prevention identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Citation: Predmore Z, Hatef E, Weiner JP . Integrating social and behavioral determinants of health into population health analytics: a conceptual framework and suggested road map. Popul Health Manag 2019 Dec;22(6):488-94. doi: 10.1089/pop.2018.0151..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Risk, Research Methodologies
Patel SA, Araujo T, Rodriguez LP
Long peripheral catheters: a retrospective review of major complications.
The risk of infectious and noninfectious complications associated with long peripheral catheters (LPCs) is unknown. In this retrospective study of 539 catheters, the investigators did a retrospective review of major complications. Among other discoveries, they found LPCs were often placed for the indications of difficult access and long-term antibiotics.
Citation: Patel SA, Araujo T, Rodriguez LP . Long peripheral catheters: a retrospective review of major complications. J Hosp Med 2019 Dec;14(12):758-60. doi: 10.12788/jhm.3313..
Keywords: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Adverse Events, Patient Safety, Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI), Blood Clots, Infectious Diseases, Risk
Fitzsimmons-Craft EE, Eichen DM, Kass AE
Reciprocal longitudinal relations between weight/shape concern and comorbid pathology among women at very high risk for eating disorder onset.
This study examined short-term reciprocal longitudinal relations between weight/shape concern and comorbid symptoms and behaviors over the course of 24 months using cross-lagged panel models. Subjects were women 18-25 years old at high risk for onset of an eating disorder (ED), randomized to an online ED preventive intervention or waitlist control. Results supported focusing intervention on reducing weight/shape concern over reducing comorbid constructs for efficient short-term change.
Citation: Fitzsimmons-Craft EE, Eichen DM, Kass AE . Reciprocal longitudinal relations between weight/shape concern and comorbid pathology among women at very high risk for eating disorder onset. Eat Weight Disord 2019 Dec;24(6):1189-98. doi: 10.1007/s40519-017-0469-7..
Keywords: Obesity, Obesity: Weight Management, Women, Risk, Behavioral Health, Young Adults
Montgomery JR, Waits SA, Dimick JB
Risks of bariatric surgery among patients with end-stage renal disease.
Pretransplant morbid obesity among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a significant predictor of delayed access to transplant and inferior posttransplant patient and kidney allograft outcomes. In this study, the authors performed an analysis of perioperative safety of bariatric surgery in obese patients with ESRD using a national registry capturing greater than 95% of bariatric operations.
Citation: Montgomery JR, Waits SA, Dimick JB . Risks of bariatric surgery among patients with end-stage renal disease. JAMA Surg 2019 Dec;154(12):1160-62. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2019.2824..
Keywords: Surgery, Obesity, Obesity: Weight Management, Kidney Disease and Health, Transplantation, Risk, Chronic Conditions
Tung EL, Chua RFM, Besser SA
Association of rising violent crime with blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: longitudinal evidence from Chicago, 2014-2016.
The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between rising violent crime and elevated blood pressure (BP). They analyzed 217,816 BP measurements from 17,783 adults during a temporal surge in violent crime in Chicago (2014-2016).The investigators concluded that rising violent crime was associated with increased BP during a temporal crime surge.
Citation: Tung EL, Chua RFM, Besser SA . Association of rising violent crime with blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: longitudinal evidence from Chicago, 2014-2016. Am J Hypertens 2019 Nov 15;32(12):1192-98. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpz134..
Keywords: Blood Pressure, Cardiovascular Conditions, Hypertension, Risk, Social Determinants of Health
Kapoor A, Field T, Handler S
Characteristics of long-term care residents that predict adverse events after hospitalization.
This study examined the characteristics of long-term care (LTC) residents that predict adverse events (AEs) after discharge from recent hospitalization. This cohort study looked at AEs that occurred at 32 nursing homes from six New England states. AE incidents involving a total of 555 LTC residents with 762 transitions from the hospital back to LTC were reviewed. The association between all AEs and preventable AEs developing in the 45 days following discharge back to LTC was measured. There were 283 discharges with one or more AEs and 212 with preventable AEs. Characteristics independently associated with higher risk of AEs included hospital length of stay (LOS) 9 or more days, 18 or more regularly scheduled medications, and 19 and above on the dependency in activities of daily living (ADL) scale.
Citation: Kapoor A, Field T, Handler S . Characteristics of long-term care residents that predict adverse events after hospitalization. J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Nov;68(11):2551-57. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16770..
Keywords: Elderly, Long-Term Care, Nursing Homes, Hospitalization, Adverse Events, Transitions of Care, Hospital Discharge, Risk
Levy AE, Shah NR, Matheny ME
Determining post-test risk in a national sample of stress nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging reports: implications for natural language processing tools.
The authors investigated whether Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools could potentially help estimate myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) risk. Subjects were VA patients who underwent stress MPI and coronary angiography 2009-11; stress test reports were randomly selected for analysis. The authors found that post-test ischemic risk was determinable but rarely reported in this sample of stress MPI reports. They conclude that this supports the potential use of NLP to help clarify risk and recommend further study of NLP in this context.
Citation: Levy AE, Shah NR, Matheny ME . Determining post-test risk in a national sample of stress nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging reports: implications for natural language processing tools. J Nucl Cardiol 2019 Dec;26(6):1878-85. doi: 10.1007/s12350-018-1275-y..
Keywords: Imaging, Risk, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Health Information Technology (HIT), Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Cardiovascular Conditions, Heart Disease and Health
Cruz AT, Nigrovic LE, Xie J
Predictors of invasive herpes simplex virus infection in young infants.
This study’s objective was to identify independent predictors of invasive herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in infants aged 60 days or less. This 23-center nested case-control study matched 149 infants with HSV to 1340 controls. All were 60 days or less old and had cerebrospinal fluid obtained within 24 hours of presentation or had HSV detected. Of the 149 infants with HSV, 90 had invasive and 59 had skin, eyes, and mouth disease. Predictors independently associated with invasive HSV included younger age (<28 days), prematurity, seizure at home, ill appearance, abnormal triage temperature, vesicular rash, thrombocytopenia, and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Infants with invasive HSV had a higher median risk score than those without invasive HSV.
AHRQ-funded; HS026006; HS025138.
Citation: Cruz AT, Nigrovic LE, Xie J . Predictors of invasive herpes simplex virus infection in young infants. Pediatrics 2021 Sep;148(3). doi: 10.1542/peds.2021-050052..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Infectious Diseases, Risk
Yang H, Tourani R, Zhu Y
Strategies for building robust prediction models using data unavailable at prediction time.
Risk prediction models based on pre- and intraoperative data have been proposed to assess the risk of HAIs at the end of the surgery, but the performance of these models lag behind HAI detection models based on postoperative data. Postoperative data are more predictive than pre- or interoperative data but it is unavailable when the risk models are applied (end of surgery). The objective of this study was to examine whether such data can be used to improve the performance of the risk model.
Citation: Yang H, Tourani R, Zhu Y . Strategies for building robust prediction models using data unavailable at prediction time. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Dec 28;29(1):72-79. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocab229..
Keywords: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Risk, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Howard R, Thompson M, Fan Z
Costs associated with modifiable risk factors in ventral and incisional hernia repair.
The authors sought to identify the attributable association of modifiable risk factors for adverse outcomes after ventral and incisional hernia repair (VIHR) on outcomes and episode-of-care payments. They found that, in this cross-sectional study, modifiable risk factors, such as obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes, and unhealthy alcohol use, were associated with adverse outcomes after VIHR. These factors were significantly associated with increased health care spending; therefore, preoperative optimization may improve outcomes and decrease episode-of-care costs.
Citation: Howard R, Thompson M, Fan Z . Costs associated with modifiable risk factors in ventral and incisional hernia repair. JAMA Netw Open 2019 Nov;2(11):e1916330. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.16330..
Keywords: Surgery, Risk, Healthcare Costs
Fritz BA, Cui Z, Zhang M
Deep-learning model for predicting 30-day postoperative mortality.
The currently available prediction tools using summaries of intraoperative data are limited by their inability to reflect shifting risk associated with intraoperative physiological perturbations. In this study the investigators sought to compare similar benchmarks to a deep-learning algorithm predicting postoperative 30-day mortality. They concluded that a deep-learning time-series model improved prediction compared with models with simple summaries of intraoperative data.
Citation: Fritz BA, Cui Z, Zhang M . Deep-learning model for predicting 30-day postoperative mortality. Br J Anaesth 2019 Nov;123(5):688-95. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2019.07.025..
Keywords: Adverse Events, Health Information Technology (HIT), Mortality, Risk, Surgery
Goswami E, Ogden RK, Bennett WE
Evidence-based development of a nephrotoxic medication list to screen for acute kidney injury risk in hospitalized children.
This paper describes an initiative to develop an evidence-based list of nephrotoxic medications to screen for acute kidney injury (AKI) risk in hospitalized children. This initiative, called the Nephrotoxic Injury Negated by Just-in-time Action quality improvement collaborative, convened a Nephrotoxic Medication (NTMx) Subcommittee composed of pediatric nephrologists, a pharmacist, and a pediatric intensivist. The committee reviewed NTMx lists, conducted a literature review of the disputed medications, and assigned an evidence grade based on the association between nephrotoxicity and the quality of the data. The subcommittee then came to a majority consensus to which medications should be included on the list. The list was presented to the larger collaborative and voted on. This list will be continually updated and voted on annually.
Citation: Goswami E, Ogden RK, Bennett WE . Evidence-based development of a nephrotoxic medication list to screen for acute kidney injury risk in hospitalized children. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2019 Oct 30;76(22):1869-74. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/zxz203..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Medication: Safety, Medication, Patient Safety, Risk, Evidence-Based Practice, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Vanderlaan J, Dunlop A, Rochat R
Methodology for sampling women at high maternal risk in administrative data.
This study compared the net benefits of using the Obstetric Comorbidity Index (OCI) to identify women at high maternal risk compared to conventional risk identification methods. Hospitalization discharge and vital records data for women experience singleton births in George from 2008 to 2012 was used. Results found there was a small but positive net benefit in using the OCI and conventional risk identification methods actually performed worse than using no risk identification methods at all. The researchers suggest that using OCI helps reduce misclassification.
Citation: Vanderlaan J, Dunlop A, Rochat R . Methodology for sampling women at high maternal risk in administrative data. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Oct 21;19(1):364. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2500-7..
Keywords: Research Methodologies, Health Services Research (HSR), Pregnancy, Maternal Care, Risk, Women
Goldstone AB, Chiu P, Baiocchi M
Interfacility transfer of Medicare beneficiaries with acute type a aortic dissection and regionalization of care in the United States.
Researchers investigated the hypothesis that regionalizing care at high-volume hospitals for acute type A aortic dissections will lower mortality. Operative mortality and long-term survival were compared for Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with an acute type A aortic dissection who were transferred versus not transferred, underwent surgery at high-volume versus low-volume hospitals, and were rerouted versus not rerouted to a high-volume hospital for treatment. The researchers found that, despite delaying surgery, a regionalization policy that transfers patients to high-volume hospitals was associated with a 7.2% absolute risk reduction in operative mortality. They recommended that policymakers evaluate the feasibility and benefits of regionalizing the surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection in the United States.
Citation: Goldstone AB, Chiu P, Baiocchi M . Interfacility transfer of Medicare beneficiaries with acute type a aortic dissection and regionalization of care in the United States. Circulation 2019 Oct 8;140(15):1239-50. doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.118.038867..
Keywords: Transitions of Care, Medicare, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Risk, Evidence-Based Practice, Mortality, Hospitals
Caroff DA, Chan C, Kleinman K
Association of open approach vs laparoscopic approach with risk of surgical site infection after colon surgery.
The authors assessed whether laparoscopic colon surgery is associated with a lower surgical site infection rate than open-approach laparoscopy. They found that policy changes that promote surgical education and resources for laparoscopy, especially at low-adoption hospitals, may be associated with reduced colon surgical site infection rates. They recommend support of the development of innovative educational policies to help achieve improvement in patient outcomes and decreased health care use in colon surgery.
Citation: Caroff DA, Chan C, Kleinman K . Association of open approach vs laparoscopic approach with risk of surgical site infection after colon surgery. JAMA Netw Open 2019 Oct 2;2(10):e1913570. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13570..
Keywords: Surgery, Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Injuries and Wounds, Patient Safety, Risk
Qi AC, Peacock K, Luke AA
Associations between social risk factors and surgical site infections after colectomy and abdominal hysterectomy.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether social risk factors, including race/ethnicity, insurance status, and neighborhood income, were associated with higher rates of surgical site infections (SSI) after colectomy or abdominal hysterectomy, 2 surgical procedures for which SSI rates are publicly reported and included in pay-for-performance programs by Medicare and other groups. The investigators report that inconsistent associations between social risk factors and SSIs were found.
Citation: Qi AC, Peacock K, Luke AA . Associations between social risk factors and surgical site infections after colectomy and abdominal hysterectomy. JAMA Netw Open 2019 Oct 2;2(10):e1912339. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12339..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Risk, Surgery, Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Injuries and Wounds, Adverse Events, Social Determinants of Health
Lewkowitz AK, Rosenbloom JI , Keller M
Association between severe maternal morbidity and psychiatric illness within 1 year of hospital discharge after delivery.
The purpose of this study was to estimate whether severe maternal morbidity is associated with increased risk of psychiatric illness in the year after delivery hospital discharge. Results showed that although absolute numbers were modest, severe maternal morbidity was associated with increased risk of severe postpartum psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorder. The highest period of risk extended to 4 months after hospital discharge.
Citation: Lewkowitz AK, Rosenbloom JI , Keller M . Association between severe maternal morbidity and psychiatric illness within 1 year of hospital discharge after delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2019 Oct;134(4):695-707. doi: 10.1097/aog.0000000000003434..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Maternal Care, Pregnancy, Behavioral Health, Hospital Discharge, Risk, Women
Paredes AZ, Malik AT, Cluse M
Discharge disposition to skilled nursing facility after emergent general surgery predicts a poor prognosis.
Emergency general surgery can have a profound impact on the functional status of even previously independent patients. In this study, the investigators examined the role and influence of discharging a patient to a skilled nursing facility. They concluded that after accounting for patient severity and perioperative course, discharge to a skilled nursing facility was an independent risk factor for death, readmission, and postdischarge complications.
Citation: Paredes AZ, Malik AT, Cluse M . Discharge disposition to skilled nursing facility after emergent general surgery predicts a poor prognosis. Surgery 2019 Oct;166(4):489-95. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2019.04.034..
Keywords: Nursing Homes, Hospital Discharge, Elderly, Ambulatory Care and Surgery, Emergency Department, Outcomes, Hospital Readmissions, Outcomes, Risk