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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 23 of 23 Research Studies Displayed
Fashaw-Walters SA, McCreedy E, Bynum JPW
Disproportionate increases in schizophrenia diagnoses among Black nursing home residents with ADRD.
Investigators examined how race and Alzheimer's and related dementia (ADRD) status influenced the rate of schizophrenia diagnoses among nursing home (NH) residents following the CMS National Partnership to Improve Dementia Care. Using 2011-2015 Minimum Data Set 3.0 assessments, they found that, following the partnership, black NH residents with ADRD were more likely to have a schizophrenia diagnosis documented on their minimum data set assessments, and schizophrenia rates increased for black NH residents with ADRD only.
Citation: Fashaw-Walters SA, McCreedy E, Bynum JPW . Disproportionate increases in schizophrenia diagnoses among Black nursing home residents with ADRD. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Dec;69(12):3623-30. doi: 10.1111/jgs.17464..
Keywords: Elderly, Dementia, Nursing Homes, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Long-Term Care
Goodwin JS, Agrawal P, Li S
Growth of physicians and nurse practitioners practicing full time in nursing homes.
This retrospective cohort study examined the growth of physicians and nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) who work full time in nursing homes, and to assess resident and nursing home characteristics associated with receiving care from full-time providers. Researchers looked at a 20% national sample of Medicare data on long-term care residents in 2008 and 2018 and the physicians, NPs, and PAs who submitted charges for services rendered in nursing homes. Full-time nursing home providers increased from 26% in 2008 to 44.6% in 2017. The largest increase from 2008 to 2017 was in NPs with 1986 total in 2008 increasing 44.6% in 2017. Residents with an NP primary care provider were 23 times more likely to have a full-time provider. Residents who received care from both a physician and an NP or PA increased from 33.5% in 2008 to 62.5% in 2018. There was large variation in the percentage of residents with full-time providers, with 5.72% of residents in the bottom quintile of facilities to 91.4% in the top quintile.
Citation: Goodwin JS, Agrawal P, Li S . Growth of physicians and nurse practitioners practicing full time in nursing homes. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Dec;22(12):2534-39.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2021.06.019..
Keywords: Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Provider: Clinician, Provider: Physician, Provider: Nurse, Workforce
Davila H, Shippee TP, Park YS
Inside the black box of improving on nursing home quality measures.
This qualitative study investigated how nursing homes (NHs) interact with quality measures (QMs) used by Nursing Home Compare (NHC) as part of its 5-star rating system. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 110 NH personnel and 23 NH provider association representatives. Observations of organizational processes in 12 NHs in three states were also done. The authors found that most NHs are working to improve the quality of care they provide, not merely to improve their QM scores. They also found limitations with the QMs, suggesting that the QMs on their own may not accurately reflect the quality of care that NHs provide. The findings suggest several changes to improve NHC.
Citation: Davila H, Shippee TP, Park YS . Inside the black box of improving on nursing home quality measures. Med Care Res Rev 2021 Dec;78(6):758-70. doi: 10.1177/1077558720960326..
Keywords: Nursing Homes, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality Measures, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Provider Performance, Long-Term Care
Abrahamson K, Davila H, Kirk L
Can a nursing home psychotropic reduction project be successfully implemented in assisted living?
This study’s objective was to compare implementation of a psychotropic medication reduction project across nursing homes (NH) and assisted living (AL) facilities. Fifteen NHs and 14 AL facilities within a single corporate chain participated. In-person and telephone interviews with 62 staff members from participating NH and AL facilities were conducted to investigate project implementation experience. Implementation at nursing homes made more dramatic changes in residents’ lives and medication use than at assisted living facilities. AL staff identified numerous barriers to implementation.
Citation: Abrahamson K, Davila H, Kirk L . Can a nursing home psychotropic reduction project be successfully implemented in assisted living? J Appl Gerontol 2021 Sep;40(9):1071-79. doi: 10.1177/0733464820948328..
Keywords: Elderly, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Medication, Dementia
Shepard V, Chou LN, Kuo YF, et al.
Characteristics associated with feeding tube placement: retrospective cohort study of Texas nursing home residents with advanced dementia.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate resident-level, provider-type, nursing home (NH), and regional factors associated with feeding tube (FT) placement in advanced dementia. The investigators concluded that regional, race, and ethnic variations in prevalence of FT use among NH residents suggested opportunities for clinicians and policy makers to improve the quality of end-of-life care by especially considering other palliative care measures for minorities living in border towns.
Citation: Shepard V, Chou LN, Kuo YF, et al.. Characteristics associated with feeding tube placement: retrospective cohort study of Texas nursing home residents with advanced dementia. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Jul;22(7):1471-76.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.10.033..
Keywords: Elderly, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Dementia, Neurological Disorders
Measuring caregiver retention in nursing homes.
This study examined the retention of nursing home caregivers using a survey of nursing home administrators conducted in 2016 from 2,898 facilities. Survey data was matched with Nursing Home Compare and the Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting data. Four measures of retention were associated with each of three types for caregivers: nurse aids (NAs), registered nurses (RNs), and licensed practical nurses with six quality indicators. Retention rates at 5 years was shown to be low for all three of these caregiver types. Regression estimates showed some support for the theory that different measures of retention were more/less associated with quality. The 3- and 5-year retention measures had the strongest associations with quality of care.
Citation: Castle NG . Measuring caregiver retention in nursing homes. Gerontologist 2021 Jun 2;61(4):e118-e28. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnab012..
Keywords: Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Provider: Health Personnel, Workforce
Wang J, Ying M, Temkin-Greener H
Care-partner support and hospitalization in assisted living during transitional home health care.
This study examined the impact of care-partner support on outcomes among assisted living (AL) residents. Variation in care-partner and its impact on hospitalizations among AL residents receiving Medicare home health (HH) services was investigated. Analysis of national data from various databases was used and a total of 741,926 participants were identified with Medicare HH admissions in 2017. Care-partner support during the HH admission was measured in seven domains: activity of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of ADLs), medication administration, treatment, medical equipment, home safety, and transportation. Care-partner support was categorized as assistance not needed, care-partner currently providing assistance, care-partner needs additional training/support to provide assistance, and care-partner is unavailable/unlikely to provide assistance. Among the cohort, inadequate care-partner support was identified for all seven domains ranging from 13.1% for transportation to 49.8% for treatment and was unavailable for 0.9% for transportation to 11.0% for treatment. Having inadequate or unavailable care-partner support was related to increased risk of hospitalization by 8.9% for treatment to 41.3% for medication administration.
Citation: Wang J, Ying M, Temkin-Greener H . Care-partner support and hospitalization in assisted living during transitional home health care. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 May;69(5):1231-39. doi: 10.1111/jgs.17005..
Keywords: Elderly, Transitions of Care, Caregiving, Hospitalization, Home Healthcare, Long-Term Care
Olivieri-Mui B, McGuire J, Griffith J
Exploring the association between the quality of HIV care in nursing homes and hospitalization.
Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are living long enough to need age-related and HIV-related nursing home (NH) care. Nursing home quality of care has been associated with risk for hospitalization, but it is unknown if quality of HIV care in NHs affects hospitalization in this population. In this study, the investigators assessed HIV care quality with four national measures adapted for the NH setting.
AHRQ-funded; R36 HS025662.
Citation: Olivieri-Mui B, McGuire J, Griffith J . Exploring the association between the quality of HIV care in nursing homes and hospitalization. J Healthc Qual 2021 May-Jun;43(3):174-82. doi: 10.1097/jhq.0000000000000277..
Keywords: Elderly, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Quality of Care, Quality Measures
Mack DS, Baek J, Tjia J
Geographic variation of statin use among US nursing home residents with life-limiting illness.
The authors described regional variation in statin use among residents with life-limiting illness. Statin usage was determined by examination of Medicare Part D claims. Findings suggested extensive geographic variation in US statin prescribing across hospital referral regions, especially for those aged 76 years or older. This variation may reflect clinical uncertainty given the largely absent guidelines for statin use in nursing home residents.
Citation: Mack DS, Baek J, Tjia J . Geographic variation of statin use among US nursing home residents with life-limiting illness. Med Care 2021 May;59(5):425-36. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001505..
Keywords: Elderly, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Medicare, Practice Patterns
Mack DS, Hume AL, Tjia J
National trends in statin use among the United States nursing home population (2011-2016).
Citation: Mack DS, Hume AL, Tjia J . National trends in statin use among the United States nursing home population (2011-2016). Drugs Aging 2021 May;38(5):427-39. doi: 10.1007/s40266-021-00844-8..
Keywords: Elderly, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Blood Thinners, Medication
Hua CL, Cornell PY, Zimmerman S
Trends in serious mental illness in US assisted living compared to nursing homes and the community: 2007-2017.
This study examined trends in the prevalence of serious mental illness (SMI) in assisted living (AL) communities in the United States over time and in relationship to characteristics such as dual eligibility and health conditions. Using Medicare data, findings showed that the prevalence of SMI in AL increased by 54% from 2007 to 2017. Residents with SMI were more likely to be dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid than residents without SMI. Approximately 10% of AL communities had over half of the sample's AL residents with SMI.
Citation: Hua CL, Cornell PY, Zimmerman S . Trends in serious mental illness in US assisted living compared to nursing homes and the community: 2007-2017. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2021 May;29(5):434-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2020.09.011..
Keywords: Elderly, Behavioral Health, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Medicare
Reistetter TA, Eschbach K K, Prochaska J
Understanding variation in postacute care: developing rehabilitation service areas through geographic mapping.
This study’s goal was to demonstrate a method for developing rehabilitation service areas for post-acute care. A secondary analysis of 2013-2014 Medicare records for older patients in Texas (n = 469,172) was conducted. The analysis included admission records for inpatient rehabilitation facilities, skilled nursing facilities, and long-term care hospitals. The authors used Ward’s algorithm to cluster patient ZIP code tabulation areas based on which facilities patients were admitted to for rehabilitation. They set the number of rehabilitation clusters to 22 to allow for comparison to the 22 hospital referral regions. Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and variance in the number of rehabilitation beds across areas were the methods used to evaluate rehabilitation service areas. The service areas had a higher ICC and variance in beds than the hospital referral regions.
Citation: Reistetter TA, Eschbach K K, Prochaska J . Understanding variation in postacute care: developing rehabilitation service areas through geographic mapping. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2021 May;100(5):465-72. doi: 10.1097/phm.0000000000001577..
Keywords: Elderly, Rehabilitation, Medicare, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Home Healthcare, Access to Care
Hua CL, Thomas KS, Peterson LJ
Emergency department use among assisted living residents after Hurricane Irma.
This retrospective cohort study examined whether rates of emergency department (ED) use for injuries and other medical reasons increased after Hurricane Irma in 2017 among assisted living (AL) residents in Florida. The researchers found that heart failure was a leading cause of ED visits within 90 days of September 1 in 2017, unlike in 2016. They recommended increased attention to AL communities in disaster preparedness and response efforts, given the increased likelihood of ED visits following a hurricane.
AHRQ-funded; T32 HS000011.
Citation: Hua CL, Thomas KS, Peterson LJ . Emergency department use among assisted living residents after Hurricane Irma. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Apr;22(4):918-22.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.10.010..
Keywords: Elderly, Emergency Department, Long-Term Care
Griffey RT, Schneider RM, Adler L
Post-acute and long-term care patients account for a disproportionately high number of adverse events in the emergency department.
This retrospective observation study compares emergency department (ED) rates for adverse events (AEs) between post-acute and long-term care settings (PA/LTC) residents and non-PA/LTC residents. The authors describe all-cause harm among patients from PA/LTC setting seen in the ED. The study used the ED Trigger Tool, with dual independent nurse reviews of 5582 ED records with triggers. Data was captured for all adult patients at an urban, academic ED over a 13-month period. PA/LTC patients tended to be older (median 69 vs 50 years old). They accounted for 21% of all AEs (26% present on arrival, 13% in ED). Present on arrival AEs from a PA/LTC setting were most commonly patient-care related (39%), medication (34%) and infections (16%). The analysis showed that a disproportionate number of ED visits from PA/LTC are for AEs, which is an admission rate double that for non-PA/LTC patients.
AHRQ-funded; R18 HS025052.
Citation: Griffey RT, Schneider RM, Adler L . Post-acute and long-term care patients account for a disproportionately high number of adverse events in the emergency department. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Apr;22(4):907-12.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.043..
Keywords: Elderly, Long-Term Care, Emergency Department, Adverse Events
Enyioha C, Khairat S, Kistler CE
Adoption of electronic health records by practices of nursing home providers and Wi-Fi availability in nursing homes.
This study evaluated the rate of electronic health record (EHR) adoption by nursing homes (NHs) and nursing home providers and Wi-Fi availability in nursing homes by geographical region. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey on a convenience sample of NH primary care providers (PCPs) serving 867 NHs recruited from the Medefield Primary Care research panel. They also sought to evaluate the proportion of NHs with Wi-Fi access. The states were categorized into four geographical locations: Midwest, Northeast, South, and West. Participants included a total of 515 physicians, 209 nurse practitioners, and 143 physician assistants. Mean age of participants was 49 years, 56% were male, and 76% white. The mean number of days per week participants worked in a NH was 1.8 and number of hours per week 32.3. Overall, 89.4% reported EHR adoption in their practice, and 73.2% reported Wi-Fi presence in their primary NH. The three most EHRs were EpicCare Ambulatory (24.0%), Vitera (20.4%), and eClinicalWorks (14.4%) Wi-Fi access was highest in the Northeast (78.1%) and lowest in the West (63.9%). Rates of EHR adoption was also highest in the Northeast (94.5%). These differences may help explain continued deficiencies in care coordination between NH and other sites of clinical care.
Citation: Enyioha C, Khairat S, Kistler CE . Adoption of electronic health records by practices of nursing home providers and Wi-Fi availability in nursing homes. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Feb;22(2):475-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.09.028..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care
Alexander GL, Powell KR, Deroche CB
An evaluation of telehealth expansion in U.S. nursing homes.
This study contains the results of a national survey about telehealth use reported in a random sample of US nursing homes. The sample includes 664 nursing homes that completed surveys about information technology maturity from January 2019 to August 4, 2020. Differences in nursing home telehealth use was examined prior to and after telehealth expansion. A cumulative telehealth score was calculated using survey data from 6 questions about the expansion of telehealth use (score range 0-42). Larger metropolitan nursing homes had greater telehealth use. Ownership type had little effect. Nursing home telehealth use postexpansion used telehealth applications for resident evaluation 11.24 times more than pre-expansion. A wide range of telehealth use was reported, with approximately 16% having no telehealth use and 5% having the maximum amount of telehealth use. Mean telehealth use scores reported by the majority of these nursing homes were on the lower end of the range. However, increasing use will most likely continue due to the current pandemic.
Citation: Alexander GL, Powell KR, Deroche CB . An evaluation of telehealth expansion in U.S. nursing homes. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Feb 15;28(2):342-48. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocaa253..
Keywords: Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Orth J, Li Y, Simning A
End-of-life care among nursing home residents with dementia varies by nursing home and market characteristics.
This study’s objectives were to examine variations in end-of-life (EOL) care/outcomes among decedents with Alzheimer's disease/related dementias (ADRD) and to identify associations with nursing home (NH)/market characteristics. Findings showed that decedents with ADRD in NHs that were nonprofit, had Alzheimer's units, higher licensed nurse staffing, and in more competitive markets, had better EOL care/outcomes. Recommendations included modifications to state Medicaid NH payments to promote better EOL care/outcomes and future research to understand NH care practices associated with presence of Alzheimer's units in order to identify mechanisms possibly promoting higher-quality EOL care.
Citation: Orth J, Li Y, Simning A . End-of-life care among nursing home residents with dementia varies by nursing home and market characteristics. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Feb;22(2):320-28.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.021..
Keywords: Elderly, Palliative Care, Dementia, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care
Zimmerman S, Guo W, Mao Y, S, Guo W, Mao Y
Health care needs in assisted living: survey data may underestimate chronic conditions.
In this paper, the authors caution that survey data may underestimate chronic conditions when examining healthcare needs in assisted living. Research using electronic and administrative databases has become increasingly common in post-acute and long-term cared. However, data accuracy in some areas has been challenged. Thus, research based on administrative databases must be cautiously interpreted.
Citation: Zimmerman S, Guo W, Mao Y, S, Guo W, Mao Y . Health care needs in assisted living: survey data may underestimate chronic conditions. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Feb;22(2):471-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.11.036..
Keywords: Elderly, Chronic Conditions, Long-Term Care, Healthcare Delivery
Nelson RE, Lautenbach E, Chang N
Attributable cost of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in a long-term care center.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the attributable cost of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) healthcare-associated infections in long-term care centers (LTCCs) within the Department of Veterans Affairs. Findings showed a significant increase in the odds of being transferred to an acute care facility and in acute care costs. These findings of high cost and increased risk of transfer from LTCC to acute care are important because they highlight the substantial clinical and economic impact of MRSA infections in this population.
Citation: Nelson RE, Lautenbach E, Chang N . Attributable cost of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in a long-term care center. Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jan 29;72(Suppl 1):S27-s33. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1582..
Keywords: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Infectious Diseases, Healthcare Costs, Long-Term Care
Hanlon JT, Perera S, Schweon S
Improvements in antibiotic appropriateness for cystitis in older nursing home residents: a quality improvement study with randomized assignment.
This study evaluated the impact of an educational quality improvement initiative on the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing restricted to uncomplicated cystitis in older noncatheterized nursing home residents. This 1-year case-control study used 25 participating nursing homes that were randomized to the intervention or usual care group by strata that included state, urban/rural status, bed size, and geographic separation. A total of 75 cases of cystitis were found in the intervention groups and 92 in the control groups. The intervention group had a nonsignificant 21% reduction in the risk of antibiotic prescribing. There was a favorable comparison in appropriateness of duration. However, the intervention group had more problems with drug-drug interactions than the control group (8% vs 1%). There were also more problems with dosage in the intervention group. Both groups had similar rates of problems with choice or effectiveness (44% vs 45%). The most common antibiotic class that was prescribed inappropriately was quinolones.
AHRQ-funded; R18 HS023779.
Citation: Hanlon JT, Perera S, Schweon S . Improvements in antibiotic appropriateness for cystitis in older nursing home residents: a quality improvement study with randomized assignment. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Jan;22(1):173-77. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.07.040..
Keywords: Elderly, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Antibiotics, Medication, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Decision Making
Beeber AS, Kistler CE, Zimmerman S
Nurse decision-making for suspected urinary tract infections in nursing homes: potential targets to reduce antibiotic overuse.
This study’s goal was to determine what information is most important to registered nurses (RNs) decisions to call clinicians about suspected urinary tract infections (UTIs) in nursing home residents. An online survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 881 RNs recruited from a health care research panel. Clinical scenarios from 10 categories of resident characteristics were used: UTI risk, resident type, functional status, mental status, lower urinary tract status, body temperature, physical exam, urinalysis, antibiotic request, and goals of care. Participants were randomized into 2 deliberation conditions: self-paced (n=437) and forced deliberation (n=444). Painful or difficult urinary, obvious blood in urine and temperature at 101.5° had the highest odds of a RN calling a clinician by the forced-deliberation group. For the self-paced group, painful or difficult urination had the highest odds.
Citation: Beeber AS, Kistler CE, Zimmerman S . Nurse decision-making for suspected urinary tract infections in nursing homes: potential targets to reduce antibiotic overuse. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Jan;22(1):156-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.053..
Keywords: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Stewardship, Medication, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Decision Making, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Montoya A, Jenq G, Mills JP
Partnering with local hospitals and public health to manage COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes.
In this study, the authors described, among short-term and long-term residents at three nursing homes (NHs) in Michigan, the outbreak identification process, universal testing, point prevalence of COVID-19, and subsequent containment efforts, outcomes, and challenges. They found that proactive and coordinated steps between NH medical directors and administrators, referral hospitals including their laboratories, and local public health officials were necessary to respond rapidly to an outbreak and to limit the transmission of COVID-19. They suggested that this coordinated public health approach may save lives, minimize the burden to the healthcare system, and reduce healthcare costs.
Citation: Montoya A, Jenq G, Mills JP . Partnering with local hospitals and public health to manage COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jan;69(1):30-36. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16869..
Keywords: Hospitals, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Public Health, COVID-19, Elderly, Infectious Diseases
Zmora R, Statz TL, Birkeland RW
Transitioning to long-term care: family caregiver experiences of dementia, communities, and counseling.
Previous analyses of interventions targeting relationships between family caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and residential long-term care (RLTC) staff showed modest associations with caregiver outcomes. This analysis aimed to better understand interpersonal and contextual factors that influence caregiver-staff relationships and identify targets for future interventions to improve these relationships.
Citation: Zmora R, Statz TL, Birkeland RW . Transitioning to long-term care: family caregiver experiences of dementia, communities, and counseling. J Aging Health 2021 Jan;33(1-2):133-46. doi: 10.1177/0898264320963588..
Keywords: Elderly, Caregiving, Dementia, Transitions of Care, Long-Term Care, Chronic Conditions