Search All Research Studies
AHRQ Research Studies Date
AHRQ Research Studies
Sign up: AHRQ Research Studies Email updates
Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 15 of 15 Research Studies Displayed
Wilcock AD, Joshi S, Escarce J
Luck of the draw: role of chance in the assignment of Medicare readmissions penalties.
Pay-for-performance programs are one strategy used by health plans to improve the efficiency and quality of care delivered to beneficiaries. Under such programs, providers are often compared against their peers in order to win bonuses or face penalties in payment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact luck can have on the assessment of performance, the researchers investigated its role in assigning penalties under Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Policy (HRRP), a program that penalizes hospitals with excess readmissions.
Citation: Wilcock AD, Joshi S, Escarce J . Luck of the draw: role of chance in the assignment of Medicare readmissions penalties. PLoS One 2021 Dec 21;16(12):e0261363. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0261363..
Keywords: Medicare, Payment, Hospital Readmissions, Provider Performance, Quality of Care
Liao JM, Chatterjee P, Wang E
The effect of hospital safety net status on the association between bundled payment participation and changes in medical episode outcomes.
This study evaluated whether hospital safety net status affected the association between bundled payment participation and medical outcomes. The hospitals included were participants in Medicare’s Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BCPI) program from 2011-2016. Data from Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, congestive heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were used. Among BCPI hospitals, safety net status was not associated with differential postdischarge spending or quality. However, BPCI safety net hospitals had differentially greater discharge due to institutional post-acute care and lower discharge home with home health than BPCI non-safety net hospitals.
Citation: Liao JM, Chatterjee P, Wang E . The effect of hospital safety net status on the association between bundled payment participation and changes in medical episode outcomes. J Hosp Med 2021 Dec;16(12):716-23. doi: 10.12788/jhm.3722..
Keywords: Medicare, Payment, Safety Net, Hospitals
Arntson E, Dimick JB, Nuliyalu U
Changes in hospital-acquired conditions and mortality associated with the hospital-acquired condition reduction program.
This study evaluated changes in Hospital-Acquired Conditions (HACs) and 30-day mortality after the announcement of the Centers for Medicare and Medicare Services’ Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program (HACRP) in August 2013. The authors evaluated models to test for changes in HACs and 30-day mortality before and after the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and after the HACRP. Fee-for-service Medicare claims from 2009 to 2015 were used. The HAC rate declined after the ACA was passed and declined further after the HACRP announcement. However, 30-day mortality rates were unchanged.
Citation: Arntson E, Dimick JB, Nuliyalu U . Changes in hospital-acquired conditions and mortality associated with the hospital-acquired condition reduction program. Ann Surg 2021 Oct 1;274(4):e301-e07. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000003641..
Keywords: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Hospitals, Mortality, Medicare, Payment, Prevention, Patient Safety
Roberts ET, Song Z, Ding L
Changes in patient experiences and assessment of gaming among large clinician practices in precursors of the merit-based incentive payment system.
Medicare's Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS), a public reporting and pay-for-performance program, adjusts clinician payments based on publicly reported measures that are chosen primarily by clinicians or their practices. Within precursor programs of the MIPS, this study examined 1) practices' selection of Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) patient experience measures for quality scoring under pay-for-performance and 2) the association between mandated public reporting on CAHPS measures and performance on those measures.
Citation: Roberts ET, Song Z, Ding L . Changes in patient experiences and assessment of gaming among large clinician practices in precursors of the merit-based incentive payment system. JAMA Health Forum 2021 Oct;2(10). doi: 10.1001/jamahealthforum.2021.3105..
Keywords: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), Patient Experience, Medicare, Provider Performance, Payment, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Markovitz AA, Ayanian JZ, Warrier A
Medicare Advantage plan double bonuses drive racial disparity in payments, yield no quality or enrollment improvements.
Using national data for 2008-18, investigators found that double bonuses were not associated with either improvements in plan quality or increased Medicare Advantage enrollment. Additionally, double bonuses increased payments to plans to care for Black beneficiaries by $60 per year, compared with $91 for White beneficiaries. These findings suggest that double bonuses not only fail to improve quality and enrollment but also foster a racially inequitable distribution of Medicare funds that disfavors Black beneficiaries. This study supports eliminating double bonuses, thereby saving Medicare an estimated $1.8 billion per year.
Citation: Markovitz AA, Ayanian JZ, Warrier A . Medicare Advantage plan double bonuses drive racial disparity in payments, yield no quality or enrollment improvements. Health Aff 2021 Sep;40(9):1411-19. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2021.00349..
Keywords: Medicare, Health Insurance, Payment, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Disparities, Racial / Ethnic Minorities
Hoffman GJ, U U, Bynum J
Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and episode spending under Medicare's Bundled Payment for Care Improvements Advanced (BPCI-A).
Investigators evaluated the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) across the episodes included in Medicare's Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Advanced (BPCI-A) program and the association between ADRD and 90-day spending among hospitals participating in the BPCI-A program. They found that ADRD is associated with higher episode spending, highlighting the importance of closely monitoring the experience of these patients under BPCI-A to ensure that they are receiving appropriate care. This is particularly important for episodes like sepsis and pneumonia that are common among patients with ADRD and also highly prevalent under BPCI-A.
Citation: Hoffman GJ, U U, Bynum J . Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and episode spending under Medicare's Bundled Payment for Care Improvements Advanced (BPCI-A). J Gen Intern Med 2021 Aug;36(8):2499-502. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06348-2..
Keywords: Elderly, Dementia, Medicare, Payment
Kandel ZK, Rittenhouse DR, Bibi S
The CMS State Innovation Models Initiative and improved health information technology and care management capabilities of physician practices.
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS) State Innovation Models (SIMs) initiative funded 17 states to implement health care payment and delivery system reforms to improve health system performance. The authors investigated whether SIM improved health information technology (HIT) and care management capabilities of physician practices. They found that the CMS SIM Initiative did not accelerate the adoption of ten foundational physician practice capabilities beyond national trends.
Citation: Kandel ZK, Rittenhouse DR, Bibi S . The CMS State Innovation Models Initiative and improved health information technology and care management capabilities of physician practices. Med Care Res Rev 2021 Aug;78(4):350-60. doi: 10.1177/1077558719901217..
Keywords: Health Information Technology (HIT), Healthcare Delivery, Payment, Healthcare Systems, Innovations and Emerging Issues
Fung V, McCarthy S, Price M
Payment discrepancies and access to primary care physicians for dual-eligible Medicare-Medicaid beneficiaries.
This study examined whether the Affordable Care Act (ACA) primary care fee bump for dual-eligible Medicare-Medicaid beneficiaries impacted primary care physicians (PCP) acceptance of duals. The authors assessed differences in the likelihood that PCPs had dual caseloads of ≥10% or 20% in states with lower versus full dual reimbursement using linear probability models adjusted for physician and area-level traits. The proportion of PCPs with dual caseloads of ≥10% or 20% decreased significantly between 2012 and 2017. The fee bump was not consistently associated with increases in dual caseloads.
Citation: Fung V, McCarthy S, Price M . Payment discrepancies and access to primary care physicians for dual-eligible Medicare-Medicaid beneficiaries. Med Care 2021 Jun;59(6):487-94. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001525..
Keywords: Primary Care, Medicaid, Medicare, Health Insurance, Payment, Access to Care
Sanghavi P, Jena AB, Newhouse JP
Identifying outlier patterns of inconsistent ambulance billing in Medicare.
The objective of this study was to illustrate a method that accounts for sampling variation in identifying suppliers and counties with outlying rates of a particular pattern of inconsistent billing for ambulance services to Medicare. The investigators concluded that health care fraud and abuse were frequently asserted but could be difficult to detect. They suggested that their data-driven approach may be a useful starting point for further investigation.
AHRQ-funded; 6HS022798; HS025720.
Citation: Sanghavi P, Jena AB, Newhouse JP . Identifying outlier patterns of inconsistent ambulance billing in Medicare. Health Serv Res 2021 Apr;56(2):188-92. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13622..
Keywords: Medicare, Payment, Health Services Research (HSR)
Haddad DN, Shipe ME, Absi TS
Preparing for bundled payments: impact of complications post-coronary artery bypass grafting on costs.
This study examined the impact of complications on bundled payments for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for care provided from admission through 90 days post-discharge. The authors linked clinical and internal cost data for patients undergoing CABG from 2014 to 2017 at a single institution. They performed multivariable linear regression to evaluate drivers of high costs, adjusting for preoperative and intraoperative characteristics and postoperative complications. They reviewed records of 1789 patients undergoing CABG with an average of 2.7 vessels. A large proportion of patients were diabetic and obese. Factors associated with increased adjusted costs were preoperative renal failure, diabetes and body mass index, postoperative stroke, prolonged ventilation, rebleeding requiring reoperation, and renal failure with varying magnitude.
Citation: Haddad DN, Shipe ME, Absi TS . Preparing for bundled payments: impact of complications post-coronary artery bypass grafting on costs. Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Apr;111(4):1258-63. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.06.105..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Surgery, Adverse Events, Healthcare Costs, Payment
Ukhanova M, Marino M, Angier H
The impact of capitated payment on preventive care utilization in community health clinics.
Only half of the United States population regularly receives recommended preventive care services. Alternative payment models (e.g., a per-member-per-month capitated payment model) may encourage the delivery of preventive services when compared to a fee-for-service visit based model; however, evaluation is lacking in the United States. This study assessed the impact of implementing Oregon's Alternative Payment Methodology (APM) on orders for preventive services within community health centers (CHCs).
Citation: Ukhanova M, Marino M, Angier H . The impact of capitated payment on preventive care utilization in community health clinics. Prev Med 2021 Apr;145:106405. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106405..
Keywords: Payment, Community-Based Practice, Prevention, Healthcare Utilization
Zachrison KS, Boggs KM, Cash RE
Are state telemedicine parity laws associated with greater use of telemedicine in the emergency department?
Telemedicine is a valuable tool to improve access to specialty care in emergency departments (EDs), and states have passed telemedicine parity laws requiring insurers to reimburse for telemedicine visits. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between such laws and the use of telemedicine in an ED. The investigators concluded that telemedicine parity laws were not associated with use of telemedicine in the ED.
Citation: Zachrison KS, Boggs KM, Cash RE . Are state telemedicine parity laws associated with greater use of telemedicine in the emergency department? J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2021 Feb;2(1):e212359. doi: 10.1002/emp2.12359..
Keywords: Telehealth, Emergency Department, Health Information Technology (HIT), Policy, Payment
Post B, Norton EC, Hollenbeck B
Hospital-physician integration and Medicare's site-based outpatient payments.
Citation: Post B, Norton EC, Hollenbeck B . Hospital-physician integration and Medicare's site-based outpatient payments. Health Serv Res 2021 Feb;56(1):7-15. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13613..
Keywords: Hospitals, Payment, Medicare, Ambulatory Care and Surgery, Healthcare Delivery
Spivack SB, Murray GF, Rodriguez HP
Avoiding Medicaid: characteristics of primary care practices with no Medicaid revenue.
Primary care access for Medicaid patients is an ongoing area of concern. Most studies of providers' participation in Medicaid have focused on factors associated with the Medicaid program, such as reimbursement rates. Few studies have examined the characteristics of primary care practices associated with Medicaid participation. In this study, the investigators used a nationally representative survey of primary care practices to compare practices with no, low, and high Medicaid revenue.
Citation: Spivack SB, Murray GF, Rodriguez HP . Avoiding Medicaid: characteristics of primary care practices with no Medicaid revenue. Health Aff 2021 Jan;40(1):98-104. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00100..
Keywords: Medicaid, Health Insurance, Payment, Primary Care, Provider
Cottrell EK, Dambrun K, O'Malley J
Documenting new ways of delivering care under Oregon's Alternative Payment and Advanced Care Model.
This study’s objective was to describe trends in rates of traditional face-to-face office visits and “Care Services That Engage Patients” (Care STEPs) documentation among community health centers (CHCs) involved in the first 3 phases Oregon’s Alternative Payment and Advanced Care Model (APCM) pilot program. In this program, participating community health centers (CHCs) received per-member-per-month payments for empaneled Medicaid patients in lieu of standard fee-for-service Medicaid payments. Among participating CHCs, the mean rate of face-to-face visits with billable providers declined. Care STEPS documentation increased, but the difference was not statistically significant. The Care STEPs category New Visit Types were documented most frequently. There were significant increases in document of Patient Care Coordination and Integration, and a smaller but still significant increase in Reducing Barriers to Health. There was a significant decrease in documentation done by physicians and advanced practice providers with an increase by ancillary staff.
AHRQ-funded; R01 HS022651.
Citation: Cottrell EK, Dambrun K, O'Malley J . Documenting new ways of delivering care under Oregon's Alternative Payment and Advanced Care Model. J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Jan-Feb;34(1):78-88. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2021.01.200027..
Keywords: Healthcare Delivery, Payment, Community-Based Practice, Medicaid