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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 10 of 10 Research Studies Displayed
Keller SC, Caballero TM, Tamma PD
AHRQ Author: Miller MA
Assessment of changes in visits and antibiotic prescribing during the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Improving Antibiotic Use and the COVID-19 pandemic.
This cohort study evaluated the effectiveness of the AHRQ Safety Program for Improving Antibiotic Use aimed to improve antibiotic prescribing in ambulatory practices by engaging clinicians and staff to incorporate antibiotic stewardship into practice culture, communication, and decision-making. The study ran from December 2019 through November 2020. A total of 389 ambulatory care practices with over 6.5 million visits to 5483 clinicians were compared from the baseline to completion of the program. Participants included 82 primary care practices, 103 urgent care practices, 34 federally supported practices, 21 pediatric-only practices, 39 pediatric urgent care practices, 21 pediatric-only practices, and 14 other practice types. Of the 389 practices who completed the program, 75% submitted completed data. Visits per practice per month decreased from a mean of 1624 at baseline to a nadir of 906 early in the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020) and were 1797 at the end of the program. Total antibiotic prescribing decreased from 18.2% of visits at baseline to 9.5% at completion of the program. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) visits per practice per month decreased from a baseline of 321 to a nadir of 76 early in the pandemic (May 2020) and gradually increased through completion of the program (n = 239). Antibiotic prescribing for ARIs decreased from 39.2% at baseline to 24.7% at completion of the program.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 233201500020I.
Citation: Keller SC, Caballero TM, Tamma PD . Assessment of changes in visits and antibiotic prescribing during the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Improving Antibiotic Use and the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jul;5(7):e2220512. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.20512..
Keywords: Antimicrobial Stewardship, Antibiotics, Medication, COVID-19, Public Health, Respiratory Conditions
Haessler S, Guo N, Deshpande A
Etiology, treatments, and outcomes of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia in a large U.S. sample.
This study compared the clinical practice and outcomes in severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) patients to those in non-sCAP patients using guideline-defined criteria for sCAP. The definition for sCAP includes a principal diagnosis of pneumonia or a secondary pneumonia diagnosis paired with a principal diagnosis of sepsis or respiratory failure. One-hundred seventy-seven US hospitals within the Premier Healthcare Database were used to identify 154,799 patients with pneumonia, with 14.1% meeting criteria for sCAP. The sCAP patients had higher organ failure scores and inpatient mortality, longer lengths of stay, and higher costs than those with nonsevere disease. Patients with sCAP had twice the rate of positive blood cultures and respiratory cultures and more often had isolates resistant to first-line community-acquired pneumonia antibiotics. The most common pathogen acquired from blood cultures was Streptococcus pneumoniae and from the respiratory tract Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas species. The most common antibiotics prescribed were vancomycin (65%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (42.8%), regardless of cultures positive for a resistant organism.
Citation: Haessler S, Guo N, Deshpande A . Etiology, treatments, and outcomes of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia in a large U.S. sample. Crit Care Med 2022 Jul;50(7):1063-71. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000005498..
Keywords: Community-Acquired Infections, Pneumonia, Respiratory Conditions, Outcomes
Lindell RB, Fitzgerald JC, Rowan CM
The use and duration of preintubation respiratory support is associated with increased mortality in immunocompromised children with acute respiratory failure.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to examine the relationship between preintubation respiratory support and outcomes in pediatric patients with acute respiratory failure and to evaluate the impact of immunocompromised (IC) diagnoses on outcomes. The study utilized data from the Virtual Pediatric Systems database which included 82 centers, and focused on patients intubated in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) ranging in age from 1 month old to 17 years of age who received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for more than or equal to 24 hours. Of the 5,348 PICU intubations across 82 centers, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) or both were used before intubation in 34% (1,825) of patients. Fifty percent of the patients had no IC diagnosis. The researchers found that exposure to HFNC was associated with greater odds of PICU mortality when compared with patients intubated without prior support. When analyzing subgroups of IC status, preintubation support was related to higher odds of PICU mortality in IC patients and HCT patients when compared with IC/ HCT patients intubated without prior respiratory support. A duration of HFNC/NIPPV of more than 6 hours was associated with increased mortality in IC HCT patients. Rates of preintubation HFNC/NIPPV use and PICU mortality varied between the 82 centers. The researchers concluded that greater duration of exposure to HFNC/NIPPV prior to IMV is associated with increased mortality in HCT patients, and preintubation exposure to HFNC and/or NIPPV in IC pediatric patients is associated with increased odds of PICU mortality, independent of the severity of the illness.
Citation: Lindell RB, Fitzgerald JC, Rowan CM . The use and duration of preintubation respiratory support is associated with increased mortality in immunocompromised children with acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med 2022 Jul;50(7):1127-37. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000005535..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Respiratory Conditions, Mortality, Critical Care
Encinosa W, Figueroa J, Elias Y
AHRQ Author: Encinosa W
Severity of hospitalizations from SARS-CoV-2 vs influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infection in children aged 5 to 11 years in 11 US states.
By the time emergency use authorization had been granted for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in October 2021 in children aged 5 to 11 years, there had been 1.8 million diagnoses of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 8,000 hospitalizations, and 143 deaths in that age group. Very little has been reported on the severity of those hospitalizations relative to the influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) which are the most common childhood viruses. The purpose of this study was to compare hospitalizations of children aged 5 to 11 for SARS-CoV-2 infection and multisystem inflammatory system in children (MIS-C, a sequela of COVID-19 disease) with the hospitalizations of children aged 5 to 11 years who were infected with influenza and RSV. The researchers utilized inpatient data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project from the first 11 states with complete first-quarter data as of October 2021, representing 24% of the US population of children aged 5 to 11 years. The researchers examined 46 complications in 7 body systems, total care costs and charges, and data on race and ethnicity. The resulting cross-sectional study included patient data from a total of 2,269 children. The study found that COVID-19 hospitalizations occurred at the rate of 10.8 per 100,000 children, while Influenza and RSV were rare during the first quarter of 2021 with 23 total hospital discharges combined. However, in 2017, which researchers also measured for data on influenza and RSV, influenza and RSV had 17.0 and 6.2 hospitalizations per 100,000 children, respectively. Inpatient death for all viruses was rare. MIS-C had the highest rates of cardiovascular, hematologic, and gastrointestinal complications. Children with RSV ha the highest rate of respiratory complications. Children with COVID-19 (without MISC-C) had the highest rate of neurologic complications, whereas children with influenza had the highest rate of muscoskeletal complications. Children with MIS-C had the longest median length of stay at a median cost of $23,585 per stay compared to children with influenza with a median length of stay of 2 days and a cost of $5,200.
Citation: Encinosa W, Figueroa J, Elias Y . Severity of hospitalizations from SARS-CoV-2 vs influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infection in children aged 5 to 11 years in 11 US states. JAMA Pediatr 2022 May;176(5):520-22. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.6566..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), COVID-19, Children/Adolescents, Hospitalization, Influenza, Respiratory Conditions
Bardach NS, Harder VS, McCulloch CE
Follow-up after asthma emergency department visits and its relationship with subsequent asthma-related utilization.
Researchers sought to assess the association between follow-up after an asthma-related emergency department (ED) visit and the likelihood of subsequent asthma-related ED utilization. Using data from California Medicaid, Vermont, and Massachusetts all-payer claims databases, they found a protective association between outpatient 14-day follow-up and asthma-related ED revisits. They suggested that this may reflect improved asthma control as providers follow the NHLBI guideline stepwise approach.
AHRQ-funded; HS025297; HS020518.
Citation: Bardach NS, Harder VS, McCulloch CE . Follow-up after asthma emergency department visits and its relationship with subsequent asthma-related utilization. Acad Pediatr 2022 Apr;22(3S):S125-S32. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.10.015..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Asthma, Emergency Department, Respiratory Conditions, Healthcare Utilization
Anesi GL, Liu VX, Chowdhury M
Association of ICU admission and outcomes in sepsis and acute respiratory failure.
ICU capacity is strained and its capacity and effectiveness are limited because many patient admission decisions are not evidence-based regarding who benefits from admission triage. The purpose of the study was to measure the benefits of admission to the ICU in patients who were experiencing sepsis or acute respiratory failure. Researchers looked retrospectively from 2013 to 2018 at cohorts within 27 U.S. hospitals across two health systems. They compared ICU admission vs ward admission among patients with sepsis and/ or acute respiratory failure who did not require vasopressors or mechanical ventilation in the emergency department. Study results revealed in patients with sepsis that ICU admission was associated with a hospital stay of 1.32 days longer than ward admissions, with a higher in-hospital mortality ratio. In patients with respiratory failure, ICU admission was associated with a .82-day shorter length of stay and reduced in-patient mortality. Within the two groups, subgroup analysis was conducted, and results revealed that for patients with sepsis, harms were concentrated among older patients and patients with fewer comorbidities. In addition, for patients with respiratory failure, the benefits were concentrated among older patients, patients with higher lab-based acute physiology scores (“high acuity” patients), and patients with comorbidities. The study concluded that among sepsis patients with high acuity scores and not requiring life support in the emergency department, initial admission to the ward was associated with shorter length of stay and improved survival, compared to the same category of patients admitted to the ICU. This result differed from patients with acute respiratory failure, for whom triage to the ICU was associated with improved survival when compared to admission to the ward.
Citation: Anesi GL, Liu VX, Chowdhury M . Association of ICU admission and outcomes in sepsis and acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Mar 1;205(5):520-28. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202106-1350OC..
Keywords: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Sepsis, Respiratory Conditions, Outcomes
Fisher KA, Kennedy K, Bloomstone S
Can sharing clinic notes improve communication and promote self-management? A qualitative study of patients with COPD.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of physicians sharing their clinical notes with patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and assess the impact on patient-physician communication and patient self-management. The researchers conducted interviews with 30 patients with COPD, asking them to review their clinic notes. The participants were primarily White (93.3%) with an average age of 65.5 years; more than 50% reported having a high school degree or less, almost half reported sometimes requiring help to read medical materials, and half had challenges understanding spoken information. The study found that patients reported that having the clinic notes gave them an opportunity to learn more about their condition, and encouraged their self-management by reminding them of their action steps, serving as prompts for seeking information, and motivating them. Patients indicated positive reactions to those physician notes that implied their clinician considered them as a person, listened to them, and noticed details about them. The majority of patients reported negative reactions to incorrect information in the notes, wording that they considered disapproving, and medical terms. The study concluded that the act of providers sharing their clinical notes with their patients can serve multiple purposes, including encouraging the exchange of information and self-management, and improving the relationship between patients and providers.
Citation: Fisher KA, Kennedy K, Bloomstone S . Can sharing clinic notes improve communication and promote self-management? A qualitative study of patients with COPD. Patient Educ Couns 2022 Mar;105(3):726-33. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2021.06.004..
Keywords: Respiratory Conditions, Chronic Conditions, Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication, Patient Self-Management
Jaladanki S, Schechter SB, Genies MC
Strategies for sustaining high-quality pediatric asthma care in community hospitals.
This study’s objective was to identify strategies associated with sustained guideline adherence and high-quality pediatric asthma care in community hospitals. Hospitals who were part of the Pathways for Improving Pediatric Asthma Care (PIPA) national quality improvement (QI) intervention were included. Clinicians (n = 19) involved in clinical care of children hospitalized with asthma were interviewed from five higher- and three lower-performing hospitals. Higher-performing hospitals had dedicated local champions who consistently provided reminders of evidence-based practices and delivered ongoing education. These champions also modified/developed electronic health record (EHR) tools. Lower-performing hospital clinicians described unique barriers, including delays in modifying the EHR and lack of automation of EHR tools. For all hospitals, barriers to sustainability included challenges with quality monitoring, decreasing focus of local champions over time, and ongoing difficulties developing around evidence-based practices.
Citation: Jaladanki S, Schechter SB, Genies MC . Strategies for sustaining high-quality pediatric asthma care in community hospitals. Health Serv Res 2022 Feb;57(1):125-36. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13870..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Asthma, Respiratory Conditions, Chronic Conditions, Hospitals, Quality of Care
Ginestra JC, Mitchell OJL, Anesi GL
COVID-19 critical illness: a data-driven review.
This paper is a data-driven review of COVID-19 critical illness, including the extreme demand for intensive care unit (ICU) resources and the rapidly evolving understanding of the disease. Almost one-third of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 experience critical illness. The most common type of organ failure experienced is acute hypoxic respiratory failure, which presents clinically as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in three-quarters of ICU patients. Management of ARDS in COVID-19 patients is similar to that of non-COVID-19 ARDS patients. Mortality rates have decreased over the course of the pandemic likely due to increasing disease familiarity, data-driven pharmacologics, and improved adherence to evidence-based critical care.
Citation: Ginestra JC, Mitchell OJL, Anesi GL . COVID-19 critical illness: a data-driven review. Annu Rev Med 2022 Jan 27;73:95-111. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042420-110629..
Keywords: COVID-19, Critical Care, Respiratory Conditions, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Natarajan E, Florin TA, Constantinou C
What is the role of shared decision-making with parents of children with bronchiolitis?
The authors sought to study shared decision making (SDM) with parents of children with bronchiolitis. They discussed challenges to implementation and indicated that use of SDM with parents of children with bronchiolitis can improve patient-centered care by aligning medical decisions with informed parents’ values and preferences.
Citation: Natarajan E, Florin TA, Constantinou C . What is the role of shared decision-making with parents of children with bronchiolitis? Hosp Pediatr 2022 Jan;12(1):e50-e53. doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2021-006245.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Decision Making, Respiratory Conditions