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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 77 Research Studies Displayed
Schnitzer K, Senft N, Tindle HA
Understanding engagement behaviors and rapport building in tobacco cessation telephone counseling: an analysis of audio-recorded counseling calls.
This study explored smokers’ and counselors’ engagement and rapport-building behaviors in telephone counseling for smoking cessation and patterns of these behaviors by smokers’ psychiatric symptoms. The study transcribed audio-recorded counseling calls among recently hospitalized participants enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized controlled trial (RCT). The study used baseline RCT data to explore frequencies of smokers’ behaviors among smokers who reported more symptoms of depression (PHQ8 ≥ 10) or anxiety (GAD7 ≥ 10) at study entry. A total of 37 participants were included, who were mostly female (23), White (26), with a median age of 58. At study entry many participants experienced moderate-to-severe symptoms of depression (18/37) and anxiety (22/37). Counselor-led behaviors included building off priority interaction, empathy, normalizing challenges, reframing and summarizing, validating achievements, and expressing shared experiences. Participant-led engagement behaviors occurred more often among patients with higher baseline depression and anxiety symptoms compared to those with lower symptom scores.
Citation: Schnitzer K, Senft N, Tindle HA . Understanding engagement behaviors and rapport building in tobacco cessation telephone counseling: an analysis of audio-recorded counseling calls. J Subst Abuse Treat 2022 Apr;135:108643. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108643..
Keywords: Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use, Patient and Family Engagement, Lifestyle Changes
Dorilas E, Hill SC, Pesko MF
AHRQ Author: Hill SC
Tobacco surcharges associated with reduced ACA marketplace enrollment.
Researchers used 2014-19 administrative data on enrollees in the federally facilitated Affordable Care Act Marketplace, HealthCare.gov, to examine the relationships among surcharge rates, total Marketplace enrollment, and enrollment by tobacco users. They found that the tobacco surcharge rate was associated with lower total enrollment as well as a reduced share of total enrollees who reported any tobacco use. Further, tobacco surcharges have a significantly larger effect on tobacco users' share of enrollment in rural areas than in urban areas, which may contribute to urban-rural health disparities.
Citation: Dorilas E, Hill SC, Pesko MF . Tobacco surcharges associated with reduced ACA marketplace enrollment. Health Aff 2022 Mar;41(3):398-405. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2021.01313..
Keywords: Tobacco Use, Policy, Health Insurance
McClure JB, Lapham G
Tobacco quitline engagement and outcomes among primary care patients reporting use of tobacco or dual tobacco and cannabis: an observational study.
Researchers examined dual users of tobacco and cannabis and how this use impacts individuals' interest in or ability to stop smoking. They found that, although dual use of tobacco and cannabis is common among smokers seen in primary care and those enrolling in quitline care, it may not undermine tobacco quitline engagement or smoking cessation. They concluded that tobacco quitline care was equally engaging and effective among tobacco users and dual users of tobacco and cannabis.
Citation: McClure JB, Lapham G . Tobacco quitline engagement and outcomes among primary care patients reporting use of tobacco or dual tobacco and cannabis: an observational study. Subst Abus 2021;42(4):417-22. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2020.1846665..
Keywords: Tobacco Use, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Primary Care
Fan T, Lee G
AHRQ Author: Fan T
Interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant persons.
This AHRQ-authored Putting Preventions in Practice quiz has three questions and answers on the US Preventive Services Task Force final recommendation on interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant persons. A case study is presented with questions on the best behavioral interventions, e-cigarette use, and pharmacotherapy for tobacco cessation in pregnant persons. References are also provided at the end of the answers.
Citation: Fan T, Lee G . Interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant persons. Am Fam Physician 2021 Jun 15;103(12):753-54..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Tobacco Use, Prevention, Case Study, Pregnancy, Women, Substance Abuse
Tabaac AR, Charlton BM, Tan ASL
Differences in tobacco product use by sexual orientation and violence factors among United States youth.
The goal of this study was to assess differences in the relationship between violence factor exposure and tobacco product pattern use (exclusive and poly). The investigators hypothesized that compared with heterosexuals, sexual minority youth would be more likely to report exclusive-tobacco and poly-tobacco use patterns and controlling for violence factors would attenuate these associations. The investigators concluded that sexual minority girls have greater exclusive- and poly-tobacco use compared with heterosexual girls.
Citation: Tabaac AR, Charlton BM, Tan ASL . Differences in tobacco product use by sexual orientation and violence factors among United States youth. J Pediatr 2021 Jun;233:241-48. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.02.011..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Tobacco Use, Domestic Violence, Vulnerable Populations
Cohen DJ, Sweeney SM, Miller WL
Improving smoking and blood pressure outcomes: the interplay between operational changes and local context.
This study identified conditions and operational changes linked to improvements in smoking and blood pressure (BP) outcomes in primary care using samples and interviews from a subset of 104 practices participating in EvidenceNOW, a multisite cardiovascular disease prevention initiative. The authors calculated Clinical Quality Measure improvements, with targets of 10-point or greater absolute improvements in the proportion of patients with smoking screening, and if relevant, counseling and the proportion of hypertensive patients with adequately controlled BP. Primary care staff were surveyed and interviewed. In clinician-owned practices, implementing a workflow to routinely screen and counsel patients on smoking cessation resources, or implementing a documentation change or a referral to a resource alone led to an improvement of at least 10 points in the smoking outcome. These improvements did not occur though in health- or hospital system-owned practices or in Federally Qualified Health Centers. BP outcome improved by at least 10 points among solo practices after medical assistants learned how to take an accurate BP. Among larger, clinician-owned practices, BP outcomes improvement took place when staff took a second BP measurement after the first measurement was elevated and when staff learned where to document this information in the electronic health record. For larger and health- and hospital system-owned practices, 50 or more hours of facilitation was needed to improve BP outcomes.
Citation: Cohen DJ, Sweeney SM, Miller WL . Improving smoking and blood pressure outcomes: the interplay between operational changes and local context. Ann Fam Med 2021 May-Jun;19(3):240-48. doi: 10.1370/afm.2668..
Keywords: Tobacco Use, Blood Pressure, Hypertension, Primary Care, Cardiovascular Conditions, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes
Lewis JA, Senft N, Chen H
Evidence-based smoking cessation treatment: a comparison by healthcare system.
The authors surveyed general medicine providers and specialists in a large academic health center (AHC) and its affiliated Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in the Mid-South in 2017 to determine the cross-sectional association of healthcare system in which the provider practiced (AHC versus VHA) with self-reported provision of evidence-based smoking cessation treatment at least once in the past 12 months. They found that VHA healthcare providers were significantly more likely to provide evidence-based smoking cessation treatment compared to AHC healthcare providers.
Citation: Lewis JA, Senft N, Chen H . Evidence-based smoking cessation treatment: a comparison by healthcare system. BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Jan 7;21(1):33. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-06016-5..
Keywords: Healthcare Systems, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use, Evidence-Based Practice, Veterans, Substance Abuse
Chu KH, Matheny SJ, Escobar-Viera CG
Smartphone health apps for tobacco cessation: a systematic review.
The objective of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the types of studies that use smartphone apps for interventions in tobacco cessation. Findings showed that the majority of studies identified that use tobacco cessation apps as an intervention delivery modality were mostly at the pilot/feasibility stage. The growing field has resulted in studies that varied in methodologies, study design, and inclusion criteria. Recommendations included more consistency in intervention components and larger randomized controlled trials for tobacco cessation smartphone apps.
Citation: Chu KH, Matheny SJ, Escobar-Viera CG . Smartphone health apps for tobacco cessation: a systematic review. Addict Behav 2021 Jan;112:106616. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106616..
Keywords: Health Information Technology (HIT), Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use, Evidence-Based Practice
Prochaska JJ, Brown-Johnson C, Baiocchi M
Treating tobacco dependence to aid re-employment among job-seekers: a randomized controlled trial.
This study evaluated whether a cessation intervention for job-seekers would result in significantly fewer cigarettes per day and a greater likelihood of tobacco abstinence and re-employment compared to a control group at 6-months follow-up. A cohort of unemployed job-seekers who smoked daily were recruited from five employment development departments in the San Francisco Bay Area from October 2015 to February 2018. The 360 participants were 70% men, 43% African American, 27% non-Hispanic Caucasian and 19% unhoused. They averaged 12 cigarettes per day, 67% smoked within 30 minutes of wakening, and 27% were in preparation stage to quit. Study participants were randomized to a brief motivationally-tailored, computer-assisted counseling intervention or referred to a toll-free quitline. Participants were more likely to make a quit attempt and reported a significantly greater reduction in cigarettes/day than control participants but bioconfirmed abstinence and re-employment did not differ by treatment group.
Citation: Prochaska JJ, Brown-Johnson C, Baiocchi M . Treating tobacco dependence to aid re-employment among job-seekers: a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2020 Dec;141:106259. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106259..
Keywords: Tobacco Use, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation
Oates GR, Baker E, Rowe SM
Tobacco smoke exposure and socioeconomic factors are independent predictors of pulmonary decline in pediatric cystic fibrosis.
This longitudinal study evaluates the effects of tobacco smoke exposure and socioeconomic factors on pulmonary decline in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF). Data from the CF Foundation Patient Registration was obtained for patients who were 6-18 years old at the end of 2016. Lung function measures (ppFEV(1)) for 10,895 individuals was calculated at each attained age. At age 6, lung function was 4.7% lower among smoke-exposed children than among unexposed with this deficit continuing through age 18. Smoke exposure and socioeconomic factors had independent, additive associations with lung function. Factors that declined ppFEV(1) include smoke exposure (2.4%), lower paternal education (4.9%), public insurance (0.3%), and increased 0.2% with each $10,000 annual household income.
Citation: Oates GR, Baker E, Rowe SM . Tobacco smoke exposure and socioeconomic factors are independent predictors of pulmonary decline in pediatric cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros 2020 Sep;19(5):783-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2020.02.004..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Respiratory Conditions, Tobacco Use, Social Determinants of Health, Risk
Oates GR, Harris WT, Gutierrez HH
Tobacco smoke exposure in pediatric cystic fibrosis: a qualitative study of clinician and caregiver perspectives on smoking cessation.
This qualitative study identified barriers and facilitators of smoking cessation in caregivers to children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and outlined potential interventional approaches. Researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with CF familial caregivers who were current or former smokers, and with members of the CF care team, asking about experiences, practices, and prerequisites for a successful program. Findings revealed intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural barriers to eliminating tobacco smoke exposure in children with CF, outlined opportunities to address these barriers, and made recommendations for a comprehensive tobacco cessation strategy.
Citation: Oates GR, Harris WT, Gutierrez HH . Tobacco smoke exposure in pediatric cystic fibrosis: a qualitative study of clinician and caregiver perspectives on smoking cessation. Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Sep;55(9):2330-40. doi: 10.1002/ppul.24879..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Tobacco Use, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Caregiving, Respiratory Conditions
Fan T, Smith HJ
AHRQ Author: Fan T
Primary care interventions for prevention and cessation of tobacco use in children and adolescents.
In this case study, three questions are posed concerning a 13-year-old girl presenting for a routine well-child visit who reports that she has never used tobacco products in any form.
Citation: Fan T, Smith HJ . Primary care interventions for prevention and cessation of tobacco use in children and adolescents. .
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Case Study, Children/Adolescents, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use, Primary Care, Prevention, Substance Abuse
Friedman AS, Xu S
Associations of flavored e-cigarette uptake with subsequent smoking initiation and cessation.
Researchers evaluated whether new uptake of flavored e-cigarettes is more strongly associated with subsequent smoking initiation and cessation than uptake of unflavored e-cigarettes for youths, emerging adults, and prime-age adults. The cohort study conducted secondary data analyses of survey data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. The researchers found that vaping uptake was positively associated with smoking initiation in youth and in emerging adults, while vaping uptake was associated with cessation in adults. Additionally, vaping nontobacco flavors was no more associated with youth smoking initiation than vaping tobacco-flavors but was associated with increased adult smoking cessation. They recommended more research to establish the relationship between e-cigarette flavors and smoking and to guide related policy.
Citation: Friedman AS, Xu S . Associations of flavored e-cigarette uptake with subsequent smoking initiation and cessation. JAMA Netw Open 2020 Jun;3(6):e203826. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3826..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Young Adults, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use, Substance Abuse
Bailey SR, Marino M, Ezekiel-Herrera D
Tobacco cessation in Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion states versus non-expansion states.
This study examined whether states that expanded Medicaid eligibility under the ACA had increased smoking quit rates, tobacco cessation medication orders, and greater health care utilization compared to patients in non-expansion states. The researchers used electronic health record (EHR) data from 219 community health centers (CHCs) in 10 states that expanded Medicaid as of January 2014. They identified patients aged 19-64 with tobacco use status in their records within six months prior to ACA Medicaid expansion and 1 or more visits. They found that patients in expansion states had increased adjusted odds of quitting, having a medication ordered and having follow-up visits compared to patients in non-expansion states.
Citation: Bailey SR, Marino M, Ezekiel-Herrera D . Tobacco cessation in Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion states versus non-expansion states. Nicotine Tob Res 2020 Jun;22(6):1016-22. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntz087..
Keywords: Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use, Substance Abuse, Medication, Medicaid, Policy, Healthcare Utilization, Access to Care, Health Insurance
Selph S, Patnode C, Bailey SR
Primary care-relevant interventions for tobacco and nicotine use prevention and cessation in children and adolescents: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
Interventions to discourage the use of tobacco products (including electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes) among children and adolescents may help decrease tobacco-related illness and injury. The objective of this study was to update the 2013 review on primary care-relevant interventions for tobacco use prevention and cessation in children and adolescents to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force.
Citation: Selph S, Patnode C, Bailey SR . Primary care-relevant interventions for tobacco and nicotine use prevention and cessation in children and adolescents: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2020 Apr 28;323(16):1599-608. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.3332..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Children/Adolescents, Tobacco Use, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Prevention, Primary Care, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines
Yuce TK, Khorfan R, Soper NJ
Post-operative complications and readmissions associated with smoking following bariatric surgery.
The link between smoking and poor postoperative outcomes is well established. Despite this, current smokers are still offered bariatric surgery. In this study, the investigators describe the risk of postoperative 30-day complications and readmission following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic Roux-En-Y gastric bypass in smokers. The investigators concluded that smokers undergoing bariatric surgery experienced significantly worse 30-day outcomes when compared with non-smokers.
Citation: Yuce TK, Khorfan R, Soper NJ . Post-operative complications and readmissions associated with smoking following bariatric surgery. J Gastrointest Surg 2020 Mar;24(3):525-30. doi: 10.1007/s11605-019-04488-3..
Keywords: Surgery, Tobacco Use, Adverse Events, Hospital Readmissions, Obesity: Weight Management, Obesity, Risk, Outcomes
Parekh TM, Bhatia S, Cherrington A
Factors influencing decline in quality of life in smokers without airflow obstruction: the COPDGene study.
This study looked at factors influencing decline in quality of life (QoL) in smokers without airflow obstruction using participants from the COPDGene study, a multicenter, longitudinal US study designed to determine genetic determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors hypothesized that exacerbations and changes in exacerbation status would predict QoL decline among normal spirometry and Preserved Ratio Impaired Spirometry (PRISm) populations. They enrolled study subjects from Phase 1 of COPDGene and performed multivariable logistic regression models to determine independent predictors of decline in quality of life. Independent predictors of QoL deterioration included current smoking, higher exacerbation frequency, and a change from infrequent to frequent exacerbation status in both groups.
Citation: Parekh TM, Bhatia S, Cherrington A . Factors influencing decline in quality of life in smokers without airflow obstruction: the COPDGene study. Respir Med 2020 Jan;161:105820. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2019.105820..
Keywords: Respiratory Conditions, Chronic Conditions, Tobacco Use, Quality of Life
Elkhadragy N, Corelli RL, Russ AL
Faculty perceptions of a tobacco cessation train-the-trainer workshop and experiences with implementation: a qualitative follow-up study.
Researchers conducted a long-term, qualitative follow-up study of faculty participants in the Rx for Change: Clinician-Assisted Tobacco Cessation workshop. All study participants reported implementing components of Rx for Change at their institution. The researchers’ analysis yielded eight major themes pertaining to faculty perceptions and experiences with implementation. They found that participation in the train-the-trainer workshop increased self-reported confidence for teaching tobacco cessation, and faculty valued access to useful, updated tools for teaching. Furthermore, the newly-acquired counseling skills were deemed helpful for treating patients' tobacco use and dependence in clinical practice.
AHRQ- funded; HS022119.
Citation: Elkhadragy N, Corelli RL, Russ AL . Faculty perceptions of a tobacco cessation train-the-trainer workshop and experiences with implementation: a qualitative follow-up study. Res Social Adm Pharm 2019 Dec;15(12):1436-45. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.01.005..
Keywords: Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use, Education: Continuing Medical Education
Maclean JC, Pesko MF, Hill SC
AHRQ Author: Hill SC
Public insurance expansions and smoking cessation medications.
The authors examined public insurance expansion on use of smoking cessation medications. The Affordable Care Act expanded coverage of these medications with financing with Medicaid. Data was analyzed from retail and online pharmacies from 2011 to 2017, and the expansion increased smoking cessation prescriptions by 24% in new medication use.
Citation: Maclean JC, Pesko MF, Hill SC . Public insurance expansions and smoking cessation medications. Econ Inq 2019 Oct;57(4):1798-820. doi: 10.1111/ecin.12794..
Keywords: Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use, Health Insurance, Medication, Substance Abuse, Medicaid
Senft N, Sanderson M, Selove R
Attitudes toward precision treatment of smoking in the Southern Community Cohort Study.
Precision interventions using biological data may enhance smoking treatment, yet are understudied among smokers who are disproportionately burdened by smoking-related disease. In this study, the investigators surveyed smokers in the NCI-sponsored Southern Community Cohort Study, consisting primarily of African-American, low-income adults. The researchers concluded that among disproportionately burdened community smokers, most held favorable attitudes toward precision smoking treatment.
Citation: Senft N, Sanderson M, Selove R . Attitudes toward precision treatment of smoking in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019 Aug;28(8):1345-52. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.Epi-19-0179..
Keywords: Tobacco Use, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Substance Abuse, Social Determinants of Health, Cancer: Lung Cancer, Cancer
Chu KH, Colditz J, Malik M
Identifying key target audiences for public health campaigns: leveraging machine learning in the case of hookah tobacco smoking.
Current social media platforms provide researchers with opportunities to better identify and target specific audiences and even individuals. However, the investigators were not aware of systematic research attempting to identify audiences with mixed or ambivalent views toward hookah tobacco smoking (HTS). The objective of their study was to (1) confirm previous research showing positively skewed HTS sentiment on Twitter using a larger dataset by leveraging machine learning techniques and (2) systematically identify individuals who exhibit mixed opinions about HTS via the Twitter platform and therefore represent key audiences for intervention.
Citation: Chu KH, Colditz J, Malik M . Identifying key target audiences for public health campaigns: leveraging machine learning in the case of hookah tobacco smoking. J Med Internet Res 2019 Jul 8;21(7):e12443. doi: 10.2196/12443..
Keywords: Health Promotion, Public Health, Social Media, Tobacco Use, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation
Livingston CJ, Allison RD, Niebuhr DW
AHRQ Author: Niebuhr DW
Preventive medicine physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 6|18 Initiative.
This paper describes the American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) work done as part of the cooperative 5-year agreement called the 6|18 Initiative to improve population health through primary care and public health integration. This initiative is called 6|18 because its’ aim was to target six common and high-cost health behaviors/conditions with 18 proven interventions. CDC created three different buckets to describe the preventions. The six health behaviors/conditions targeted included reducing tobacco use, control high blood pressure, improve antibiotic use, control asthma, prevent unintended pregnancy, and prevent type 2 diabetes. The initiative aligned recommendations from national and professional societies and focused the guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). After six telephone-moderated discussions of the authors, three themes were developed as to how physicians may perceive the 6|18 interventions. The problems included lack of knowledge/awareness, variations in financial incentives and operational challenges such as time constraints.
Citation: Livingston CJ, Allison RD, Niebuhr DW . Preventive medicine physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 6|18 Initiative. Am J Prev Med 2019 Jul;57(1):127-33. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2019.02.014..
Keywords: Hypertension, Medication, Pregnancy, Prevention, Primary Care, Public Health, Tobacco Use, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
Kalkhoran S, Thorndike AN, Rigotti NA
Cigarette smoking and quitting-related factors among us adult health center patients with serious mental illness.
This study compared current smoking and quitting-related characteristics of low-income US adults with and without serious mental illness (SMI) who received healthcare at federally funded health centers. Using data from the Health Center Patient Survey, researchers concluded that the lower quit ratio in the SMI population suggests that advice alone is unlikely to be sufficient. They recommend augmented strategies to promote smoking cessation and to reduce the excess burden of tobacco-related disease in patients with SMI.
Citation: Kalkhoran S, Thorndike AN, Rigotti NA . Cigarette smoking and quitting-related factors among us adult health center patients with serious mental illness. J Gen Intern Med 2019 Jun;34(6):986-91. doi: 10.1007/s11606-019-04857-3..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Lifestyle Changes, Low-Income, Tobacco Use, Vulnerable Populations
Schnall R, Carcamo J, Porras T
Use of the phase-based model of smoking treatment to guide intervention development for persons living with HIV who self-identify as African American tobacco smokers.
To address the issue of developing effective tobacco cessation interventions for persons with HIV, this study conducted six focus group sessions with 45 African American smokers who are living with HIV in order to understand barriers to smoking cessation and strategies to help overcome these barriers. The participants articulated key components for incorporation into tobacco cessation intervention: personalized plans for quitting, reminders about the plan, and a support system. Participants also described barriers to use of pharmacotherapy, such as adverse side effects of nicotine gum and patch, and expressed concerns about negative health effects of some oral medications. The authors conclude that their findings provide information on the components of a tobacco cessation intervention for persons living with HIV.
Citation: Schnall R, Carcamo J, Porras T . Use of the phase-based model of smoking treatment to guide intervention development for persons living with HIV who self-identify as African American tobacco smokers. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 May 15;16(10). doi: 10.3390/ijerph16101703..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Primary Care: Models of Care, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Tobacco Use, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation
Gianfrancesco MA, Trupin L, Shiboski S
Smoking is associated with higher disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a longitudinal study controlling for time-varying covariates.
Prior studies around the relationship between smoking and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity have reported inconsistent findings, which may be ascribed to heterogeneous study designs or biases in statistical analyses. In this study, the investigators examined the association between smoking and RA outcomes using statistical methods that account for time-varying confounding and loss to followup. They found that smoking was associated with higher levels of disease activity in RA.
Citation: Gianfrancesco MA, Trupin L, Shiboski S . Smoking is associated with higher disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a longitudinal study controlling for time-varying covariates. J Rheumatol 2019 Apr;46(4):370-75. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.180262..
Keywords: Arthritis, Tobacco Use