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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 119 Research Studies Displayed
McGuier EA, Kolko DJ, Klem M
Team functioning and implementation of innovations in healthcare and human service settings: a systematic review protocol.
Implementation of evidence-based practices and other innovations in these settings requires teams to work together to change processes and behaviors. Accordingly, team functioning may be a key determinant of implementation outcomes. This systematic review identified and summarized empirical research examining associations between team functioning and implementation outcomes in healthcare and human service settings.
Citation: McGuier EA, Kolko DJ, Klem M . Team functioning and implementation of innovations in healthcare and human service settings: a systematic review protocol. Syst Rev 2021 Jun 26;10(1):189. doi: 10.1186/s13643-021-01747-w..
Keywords: Teams, Innovations and Emerging Issues, Implementation
Hollingsworth JM, Yu X, Yan PL
Provider care team segregation and operative mortality following coronary artery bypass grafting.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether provider care team segregation within hospitals contributes to the higher mortality rate of Black patients following coronary artery bypass grafting compared to their White counterparts. Using national Medicare data, findings showed that Black patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting at a hospital with a higher level of provider care team segregation die more frequently after surgery than Black patients treated at a hospital with a lower level.
Citation: Hollingsworth JM, Yu X, Yan PL . Provider care team segregation and operative mortality following coronary artery bypass grafting. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 May;14(5):e007778. doi: 10.1161/circoutcomes.120.007778..
Keywords: Surgery, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Mortality, Teams, Healthcare Delivery, Racial / Ethnic Minorities
Kuo YF, Agrawal P, Chou LN
Assessing association between team structure and health outcome and cost by social network analysis.
Researchers sought to assess the impact of team structure composition and degree of collaboration among various providers on process and outcomes of primary care. Their findings showed that highly connected primary care practices with high collaborative care and less top-down MD-centered authority have lower odds of hospitalization, fewer emergency room admissions, and lower total spending. They concluded that these findings likely reflect better communication and more coordinated care of older patients.
Citation: Kuo YF, Agrawal P, Chou LN . Assessing association between team structure and health outcome and cost by social network analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Apr;69(4):946-54. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16962..
Keywords: Elderly, Teams, Healthcare Delivery, Primary Care, Primary Care: Models of Care, Care Coordination
Baloh J, Zhu X, Ward MM
What influences sustainment and nonsustainment of facilitation activities in implementation? Analysis of organizational factors in hospitals implementing TeamSTEPPS.
This study looked at the influences on sustainment of internal facilitation activities. For two years the authors followed 10 small rural hospitals implementing TeamSTEPPS, a patient safety program. Factors the authors examined were the influence of senior management support (SMS), middle management support (MMS), facilitator team time availability (TIME), and team continuity (CONTINUITY). Five hospitals sustained facilitation activities and they found that the combination of SMS, MMS, and CONTINUITY was a sufficient condition for sustainment. The five other hospitals that did not sustain facilitation activities either lacked MMS or lacked both TIME and CONTINUITY. They also discussed the implications for research and practice.
AHRQ-funded; HS024112; HS018396.
Citation: Baloh J, Zhu X, Ward MM . What influences sustainment and nonsustainment of facilitation activities in implementation? Analysis of organizational factors in hospitals implementing TeamSTEPPS. Med Care Res Rev 2021 Apr;78(2):146-56. doi: 10.1177/1077558719848267..
Keywords: TeamSTEPPS, Teams, Implementation, Hospitals, Patient Safety, Rural Health, Organization and Administration
Rosenman ED, Misisco A, Olenick J
Does team leader gender matter? A Bayesian reconciliation of leadership and patient care during trauma resuscitations.
This study assessed and compared team leadership and patient care in trauma resuscitations led by male and female physicians. A secondary analysis of data from a larger randomized controlled trial using video recordings of resuscitations at a Level 1 trauma center from April 2016 to December 2017 was conducted. A total of 60 participants and 120 video observations were included in the analysis. There was a weak positive effect for female leaders for both patient care and team leadership. Gender-based advantages to team leadership and clinical care were not conclusive with the exception of rejecting a strong male advantage to team leadership.
Citation: Rosenman ED, Misisco A, Olenick J . Does team leader gender matter? A Bayesian reconciliation of leadership and patient care during trauma resuscitations. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2021 Feb;2(1):e12348. doi: 10.1002/emp2.12348..
Keywords: Teams, Trauma, Critical Care, Provider: Physician, Provider
Kuo YF, Lin YL, D Jupiter, et al.
How to identify team-based primary care in the United States using Medicare data.
The authors assessed whether analyses using different sets of Medicare data can produce results similar to those from analyses using 100% data from an entire state in identifying primary care teams through social network analysis. They found that, depending on specific study purposes, researchers could use either 100% data from Medicare beneficiaries in randomly selected primary care services areas or data from a 20% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries to study team-based primary care in the United States.
Citation: Kuo YF, Lin YL, D Jupiter, et al.. How to identify team-based primary care in the United States using Medicare data. Med Care 2021 Feb;59(2):118-22. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001478.
Keywords: Teams, Primary Care: Models of Care, Primary Care, Medicare, Health Services Research (HSR), Healthcare Delivery
Hung DY, Truong QA, Liang SY
Implementing lean quality improvement in primary care: impact on efficiency in performing common clinical tasks.
Investigators examined 3-year impacts of Lean implementation on the amount of time taken for physicians to complete common clinical tasks. They found that Lean redesigns led to improvements in timely completion of 3 out of 4 common clinical tasks, thus supporting the use of Lean techniques to engage teams in routine aspects of patient care. They recommended more research to understand the mechanisms by which Lean promotes quality improvement and effectiveness of care team workflows.
Citation: Hung DY, Truong QA, Liang SY . Implementing lean quality improvement in primary care: impact on efficiency in performing common clinical tasks. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Feb;36(2):274-79. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06317-9..
Keywords: Primary Care, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Primary Care: Models of Care, Primary Care, Implementation, Workflow, Teams, Healthcare Delivery
Wang G, Wignall J, Kinard D
An implementation model for managing cloud-based longitudinal care plans for children with medical complexity.
In this study, the investigators aimed to iteratively refine an implementation model for managing cloud-based longitudinal care plans (LCPs) for children with medical complexity (CMC). They conducted iterative 1-on-1 design sessions with CMC caregivers (ie, parents/legal guardians) and providers between August 2017 and March 2019. The investigators concluded that utilizing the management strategies, described in the article, when implementing cloud-based LCPs had the potential to improve team-based care across settings.
Citation: Wang G, Wignall J, Kinard D . An implementation model for managing cloud-based longitudinal care plans for children with medical complexity. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Jan 15;28(1):23-32. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocaa207..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Implementation, Chronic Conditions, Care Management, Care Coordination, Health Information Exchange (HIE), Health Information Technology (HIT), Teams
Miller-Rosales C, Rodriguez HP
Interdisciplinary primary care team expertise and diabetes care management.
Researchers examined whether care team role expertise is associated with patients' experiences of chronic care for type 2 diabetes and whether the relationship is stronger for small community health center (CHC) sites. Results of surveys conducted with adults with diabetes that assessed nonphysician team roles involved in managing their chronic care were integrated with clinical and administrative data from 14 CHCs. They found that patients with access to care team expertise in self-management support, including diabetes educators, nutritionists, community health workers, and other general staff report better experiences of chronic care. They concluded that these team roles may reduce barriers to patient self-management and improve patients' overall experiences of chronic care, particularly in small CHC sites.
Citation: Miller-Rosales C, Rodriguez HP . Interdisciplinary primary care team expertise and diabetes care management. J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Jan-Feb;34(1):151-61. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2021.01.200187..
Keywords: Primary Care, Diabetes, Teams, Care Management, Community-Based Practice
Pestka DL, Paterson NL, Benedict KA
Delivering care to high-cost high-need patients: lessons learned in the development of a complex care primary care team.
As part of a population health-focused primary care transformation, in 2019 a health system in Minnesota developed a primary care team to exclusively care for high-cost high-need patients. Through its development and implementation, the team has discovered several key lessons in delivering care to complex patients. In this paper, the authors discuss lessons learned from their research.
Citation: Pestka DL, Paterson NL, Benedict KA . Delivering care to high-cost high-need patients: lessons learned in the development of a complex care primary care team. J Prim Care Community Health 2021 Jan-Dec;12:21501327211023888. doi: 10.1177/21501327211023888..
Keywords: Primary Care, Primary Care: Models of Care, Healthcare Delivery, Teams, Communications, Implementation
O'Leary KJ, Manojlovich M, Johnson JK
A multisite study of interprofessional teamwork and collaboration on general medical services.
This multisite study of four mid-sized hospitals measured teamwork climate of nurses, nurse assistants, and physicians working on general medical services. Teamwork climate scores for 380 participants (80 hospitalists, 13 resident physicians, 193 nurses, and 94 nurses) were measured using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Hospitalists had the highest median teamwork climate score and nurses had the lowest, but it was not a statistically significant difference. A higher percentage of hospitalists (63.3%) rated the quality of collaboration with nurses as high or very high, but only 48.7% of nurses rated the collaboration with hospitalists as high or very high. There were significant differences in perceptions of teamwork climate across sites and across professional categories.
Citation: O'Leary KJ, Manojlovich M, Johnson JK . A multisite study of interprofessional teamwork and collaboration on general medical services. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2020 Dec;46(12):667-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2020.09.009..
Keywords: Teams, Hospitals, Patient Safety, Provider: Clinician, Provider: Physician, Provider: Nurse, Provider
Umoren RA, Sawyer TL, Ades A
Team stress and adverse events during neonatal tracheal intubations: a report from NEAR4NEOS.
This study aimed to examine the association between team stress level and adverse tracheal intubation (TI)-associated events during neonatal intubations. TIs from 10 academic neonatal intensive care units were analyzed. Team stress level was rated immediately after TI using a 7-point Likert scale (1 = high stress). Associations among team stress, adverse TI-associated events, and TI characteristics were evaluated. The investigators concluded that high team stress levels during TI were more frequently reported among TIs with adverse events.
Citation: Umoren RA, Sawyer TL, Ades A . Team stress and adverse events during neonatal tracheal intubations: a report from NEAR4NEOS. Am J Perinatol 2020 Dec;37(14):1417-24. doi: 10.1055/s-0039-1693698..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Teams, Stress, Adverse Events
Frasier LL, Pavuluri Quamme SR, Wiegmann D
Evaluation of intraoperative hand-off frequency, duration, and context: a mixed methods analysis.
The authors sought a better understanding of the coordination and impact of intraoperative hand-offs. They found that intraoperative hand-offs were frequent and not well coordinated with intraoperative events including counts and other hand-offs. Anchoring and announced hand-offs occurred in a small proportion of cases. They recommended that future work focus on optimizing timing, content, and participation in intraoperative hand-offs.
Citation: Frasier LL, Pavuluri Quamme SR, Wiegmann D . Evaluation of intraoperative hand-off frequency, duration, and context: a mixed methods analysis. J Surg Res 2020 Dec;256:124-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2020.06.007..
Keywords: Surgery, Transitions of Care, Communications, Teams
Guo F, Lin YL, Raji M
Processes and outcomes of diabetes mellitus care by different types of team primary care models.
This study compared processes and outcomes of care provided to older patients with diabetes by primary care teams composed of only primary care physicians (PCPs) versus team care that included nurse practitioners (NPs) or physician assistants (PAs). The authors studied 3,524 primary care practices identified via social network analysis and 306,741 patients aged 66 and older diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in or before 2015 from Medicare data. Outcomes looked for was more adherence to guideline-recommended care including eye examination, hemoglobin A1c test, and nephropathy monitoring. Preventable hospitalizations and high-risk medication prescribing rates were also measured. Patients in the team care practices received more guideline-recommended diabetes care than patients in PCP only teams. Patients in team care practices had a slightly higher likelihood of being prescribed high-risk medications. The likelihood of preventable hospitalizations was similar among all types of practices.
Citation: Guo F, Lin YL, Raji M . Processes and outcomes of diabetes mellitus care by different types of team primary care models. PLoS One 2020 Nov 5;15(11):e0241516. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241516..
Keywords: Elderly, Teams, Primary Care: Models of Care, Healthcare Delivery, Outcomes, Care Coordination, Practice Patterns
Nijhawan AE, Bhattatiry M, Chansard M
HIV care cascade before and after hospitalization: impact of a multidisciplinary inpatient team in the US South.
Hospitalization represents an opportunity to re-engage out-of-care individuals, improve HIV outcomes, and reduce health disparities. The authors reviewed electronic health records of HIV-positive individuals hospitalized at an urban, public hospital between September 2013 and December 2015. They found that hospitalized patients with HIV had low rates of engagement in care, retention in care, and virologic suppression, though all three outcomes improved after hospitalization. A multidisciplinary transitions team improved care engagement and virologic suppression in those who received the intervention.
Citation: Nijhawan AE, Bhattatiry M, Chansard M . HIV care cascade before and after hospitalization: impact of a multidisciplinary inpatient team in the US South. AIDS Care 2020 Nov;32(11):1343-52. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2019.1698704.
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Transitions of Care, Inpatient Care, Teams, Hospitalization, Patient and Family Engagement, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice
Soberano BT, Brady P, Yunger T
The effects of care team roles on situation awareness in the pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective cross-sectional study.
Improved situation awareness (SA) decreases rates of clinical deterioration in the pediatric inpatient setting. The investigators used a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study to measure interprofessional care team SA for a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. The resident, bedside nurse, and respiratory therapist for each patient were surveyed regarding high clinical deterioration risk status as defined by clinical criteria identified by the PICU fellow or attending and mitigation plan.
Citation: Soberano BT, Brady P, Yunger T . The effects of care team roles on situation awareness in the pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective cross-sectional study. J Hosp Med 2020 Oct;15(10):594-97. doi: 10.12788/jhm.3449..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Teams, Inpatient Care
Ma AL, Cohen RS, Lee HC
Learning from wildfire disaster experience in California NICUs.
The authors’ objective was to learn how personnel working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of California hospitals handled issues of neonatal transfer during wildfire disasters in recent years; their ultimate goal was to share lessons learned with healthcare teams on disaster preparedness. They found that while describing disaster preparedness, equipment (such as bassinets and backpacks), ambulance access/transport and documentation/charting were noted as important and essential. They concluded that teamwork, willingness to do other tasks that are not part of typical job descriptions, and unconventional strategies contributed to the success of keeping NICU babies safe when California wildfire strikes.
Citation: Ma AL, Cohen RS, Lee HC . Learning from wildfire disaster experience in California NICUs. Children 2020 Oct;7(10):E155. doi: 10.3390/children7100155..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Transitions of Care, Emergency Preparedness, Teams, Healthcare Delivery
Costar DM, Hall KK
Improving team performance and patient safety on the job through team training and performance support tools: a systematic review.
This systematic review’s objective was to identify recent studies that implemented practices to improve teamwork in health care and were associated with positive improvements on the job. Two databases were searched to identify relevant articles published between 2008 and 2018. Twenty articles were selected for inclusion. Across studies, measures assessing teamwork skills on the job were most often collected and sustained improvements were shown for up to 12 months. Evidence of improved clinical practices and increased patient safety was found in both studies team training interventions, as well as those that introduced performance support tools. All studies were conducted in hospitals with very few studies found in other health care settings such as office-based care.
Citation: Costar DM, Hall KK . Improving team performance and patient safety on the job through team training and performance support tools: a systematic review. J Patient Saf 2020 Sep;16(3S Suppl 1):S48-s56. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000746..
Keywords: Teams, Patient Safety, Training, Patient Safety, Provider Performance, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Lai AY, Yuan CT, Marsteller JA
Patient safety in primary care: conceptual meanings to the health care team and patients.
This study’s goal was to describe how frontline clinicians, administrators, and staff conceptualize patient safety in primary care and to compare and contrast these conceptual meanings from the patient's perspective. Findings indicated that frontline personnel conceptualized patient safety in terms of work functions; frontline personnel and patients conceptualized patient safety in largely consistent ways.
Citation: Lai AY, Yuan CT, Marsteller JA . Patient safety in primary care: conceptual meanings to the health care team and patients. J Am Board Fam Med 2020 Sep-Oct;33(5):754-64. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2020.05.200042..
Keywords: Primary Care, Patient Safety, Teams
Rozenfeld RA, Nannicelli AP, Brown AR
Verbal communication during airway management and emergent endotracheal intubation: observations of team behavior among multi-institutional pediatric intensive care unit in situ simulations.
The objective of this study was to assess health-care teams' verbal communication, an observable teamwork behavior, during simulations involving pediatric emergency airway management and intubation. The investigators found that no uniform statement was identified to declare an airway emergency among the care teams. Preintubation medication dosages were not consistently included in intubation medication orders, and frequently, there were multiple requests to obtain medications.
Citation: Rozenfeld RA, Nannicelli AP, Brown AR . Verbal communication during airway management and emergent endotracheal intubation: observations of team behavior among multi-institutional pediatric intensive care unit in situ simulations. J Patient Saf 2020 Sep;16(3):e114-e19. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000272..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Teams, Communications, Simulation
Hall KK, Lim A, Gale B
The use of rapid response teams to reduce failure to rescue events: a systematic review.
This systematic review looked at studies on the evidence on the impact of rapid response teams (RRTs) on failure to rescue events. Articles from 2008 to 2018 were found on the impact of RRTs on failure to rescue events, including hospital mortality and in-hospital cardiac arrest events. Ten articles were identified for inclusion. Patient outcomes included hospital mortality (8 studies), in-hospital cardiac arrests (9 studies) and ICU transfer rates (5 studies). Moderate evidence was found linking the implementation of RRTs with decreased mortality and non-ICU cardiac arrest rates. Results linking RRTs to ICU transfer rates were inconclusive. Benefits of RRTs may take some time after implementation to be realized.
Citation: Hall KK, Lim A, Gale B . The use of rapid response teams to reduce failure to rescue events: a systematic review. J Patient Saf 2020 Sep;16(3S Suppl 1):S3-s7. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000748..
Keywords: Teams, Inpatient Care, Hospitals, Evidence-Based Practice, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Du S, Wiegmann D, Beasley J
Defining team membership in primary care: qualitative analysis.
This study explored the question: "How do healthcare professionals in primary care clinics define who is on their team?" Participants had very different perspectives on how their teams were defined, and multiple themes emerged. This study can inform healthcare professionals and administrators, as well as health IT designers, consultants, architects, and researchers interested in primary care teams and how they function in a clinic environment.
Citation: Du S, Wiegmann D, Beasley J . Defining team membership in primary care: qualitative analysis. IISE Trans Healthc Syst Eng 2020;10(4):251-60. doi: 10.1080/24725579.2020.1800869..
Keywords: Primary Care: Models of Care, Primary Care, Teams, Provider
Oslock WM, Ricci KB, Ingraham AM
Role of interprofessional teams in emergency general surgery patient outcomes.
This paper discusses the results of a 2015 survey of acute care hospitals, which asked whether residents and advanced practice providers participate in emergency general surgery care. The data was then linked to patient data from 17 State Inpatient Databases using American Hospital Association identifiers to determine if that was associated with better management of patients, mortality, or complications. Eighty-three hospitals and 49,271 unique emergency general surgery admissions were included in the dataset. Hospitals with residents had reduced odds of systemic complications compared with hospitals without them or other clinical support. Hospitals with only residents had the lowest odds of operative complication.
Citation: Oslock WM, Ricci KB, Ingraham AM . Role of interprofessional teams in emergency general surgery patient outcomes. Surgery 2020 Aug;168(2):347-53. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2020.04.046..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Teams, Surgery, Adverse Events, Hospitals, Healthcare Delivery
Halladay JR, Weiner BJ, In Kim J
Practice level factors associated with enhanced engagement with practice facilitators; findings from the Heart Health Now study.
In this analysis, the authors explored the practice and facilitator factors associated with greater team engagement at the mid-point of a 12-month practice facilitation intervention focused on implementing cardiovascular prevention activities in practice. Using data from the EvidenceNow initiative's NC Cooperative, named Heart Health Now, they found that their analysis provided information for practice facilitation stakeholders to consider when determining which practices may be more amendable to embracing facilitation services.
Citation: Halladay JR, Weiner BJ, In Kim J . Practice level factors associated with enhanced engagement with practice facilitators; findings from the Heart Health Now study. BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Jul 28;20(1):695. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-05552-4.
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Primary Care, Primary Care: Models of Care, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Evidence-Based Practice, Teams
Lee YSH, King MD, Anderson D
The how matters: how primary care provider communication with team relates to patients' disease management.
This study examined how primary care provider (PCP)-team communication relates to patients’ disease management. A longitudinal study was conducted of how 3 aspects of PCP-care team communication including participation, time spent listening, an uninterrupted speaking length relate to disease management of patients with hypertension or diabetes. The study recruited 27 PCPs and 98 team members serving 18,067 patients with hypertension and 8354 patients with diabetes affiliated with a federally qualified health center with 12 practice sites. Data was collected using sociometric sensors worn by PCPs and team members, surveys on patient-PCP communication, and electronic records which extracted PCP and patient characteristics. Results showed that PCPs participated in 75% of care team conversations, spent 56% of conversation time listening, and had an average uninterrupted speaking length of 2.42 seconds. Greater PCP participation, listening, and length of uninterrupted time speaking were associated with significantly higher odds that their patients had controlled hypertension and diabetes.
Citation: Lee YSH, King MD, Anderson D . The how matters: how primary care provider communication with team relates to patients' disease management. Med Care 2020 Jul;58(7):643-50. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001342..
Keywords: Primary Care, Communications, Teams, Provider, Quality of Care