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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 126 Research Studies Displayed
Park J, Zhong X, Dong Y
Investigating the cognitive capacity constraints of an ICU care team using a systems engineering approach.
This study used systems engineering to investigate the association between the operational conditions and the quantity of medication orders in an intensive care unit (ICU). The dataset used was 4822 unique patients admitted to the ICU at the Mayo Clinic between February 2016 and March 2018. Findings were that when the ICU was more than 50% occupied (> 18 patients), the number of medication orders per patient hour was significantly reduced. The reduction was even more pronounced when there was a higher presence of severely ill patients requiring a mechanical ventilator, which might be encountered in an ICU treating COVID-19 patients. These factors impact the ICU critical care team’s cognitive function and results in changes in the production of medication orders.
Citation: Park J, Zhong X, Dong Y . Investigating the cognitive capacity constraints of an ICU care team using a systems engineering approach. BMC Anesthesiol 2022 Jan 4;22(1):10. doi: 10.1186/s12871-021-01548-7..
Keywords: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Teams
Hoonakker PLT, Hose BZ, Carayon P
Scenario-based evaluation of team health information technology to support pediatric trauma care transitions.
This study’s objective was to examine if the Teamwork Transition Technology (T(3)) supports teams and team cognition. Using a scenario-based mock-up methodology with 36 clinicians and staff from the different units and departments who are involved in pediatric trauma to examine T(3), results showed that most participants agreed that the technology helped to achieve the goals set out in the design phase. Respondents thought that T(3) organized and presented information in a different way that was helpful to them. The authors concluded that the results of their evaluation showed that participants agreed that T(3) does support them in their work and increases their situation awareness.
Citation: Hoonakker PLT, Hose BZ, Carayon P . Scenario-based evaluation of team health information technology to support pediatric trauma care transitions. Appl Clin Inform 2022 Jan;13(1):218-29. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-1742368.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Transitions of Care, Health Information Technology (HIT), Teams, Trauma
McAlearney AS, Hefner JL, MacEwan SR
Care Team perspectives about an inpatient portal: benefits and challenges of patients' portal use during hospitalization.
This study’s goal was to get care team member’s point of view on the benefits and challenges of inpatient portal implementation and use. Brief in-person interviews with 433 care team members across a six-hospital health system were held to explore opinions about patients’ use. The Inpatient Portal Evaluation Framework was used to characterize benefits and challenges of portal use that care team members reported affected patients, themselves, and the collaborative work of those care teams with their patients.
AHRQ-funded; HS024379; HS024091; HS024767.
Citation: McAlearney AS, Hefner JL, MacEwan SR . Care Team perspectives about an inpatient portal: benefits and challenges of patients' portal use during hospitalization. Med Care Res Rev 2021 Oct;78(5):537-47. doi: 10.1177/1077558720925296..
Keywords: Teams, Health Information Technology (HIT), Inpatient Care
Atkinson MK, Singer SJ
Managing organizational constraints in innovation teams: a qualitative study across four health systems.
This study examined how interdisciplinary teams are affected by and manage external constraints over the lifecycle of their innovation project. The authors used a multimethod qualitative approach consisting of over 3 years of participant observation data to analyze how four interdisciplinary teams across different health system experienced and managed constraints as they pursued process innovations. Their findings point to several practical implications concerning innovation processes in healthcare: 1) how conditions in the organizational context, or constraints, can impede team progress at different stages of innovation; and 2) the collective efforts, or tactics, teams use to manage or work around those constraints to further progress on their innovations.
Citation: Atkinson MK, Singer SJ . Managing organizational constraints in innovation teams: a qualitative study across four health systems. Med Care Res Rev 2021 Oct;78(5):521-36. doi: 10.1177/1077558720925993..
Keywords: Learning Health Systems, Healthcare Systems, Innovations and Emerging Issues, Teams
Sosa T, Sitterding M, Dewan M
Optimizing situation awareness to reduce emergency transfers in hospitalized children.
Interventions to improve care team situation awareness (SA) are associated with reduced rates of unrecognized clinical deterioration in hospitalized children. By addressing themes from recent safety events and emerging corruptors to SA in their system, the investigators aimed to decrease emergency transfers (ETs) to the ICU by 50% over 10 months. The investigators concluded that an innovative, proactive, and reliable process to predict, prevent, and respond to clinical deterioration was associated with a nearly 70% reduction in ETs.
Citation: Sosa T, Sitterding M, Dewan M . Optimizing situation awareness to reduce emergency transfers in hospitalized children. Pediatrics 2021 Oct;148(4). doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-034603..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Teams
Mathis MR, Yule S, Wu X
The impact of team familiarity on intra and postoperative cardiac surgical outcomes.
The authors hypothesized that familiarity among cardiac surgery team members may be an important contributor to better outcomes and thus serve as a target for enhancing outcomes. They found that high team familiarity was associated with reduced cardiopulmonary bypass duration for medium-risk and high-risk patients. Increasing team familiarity was not significantly associated with the odds of major morbidity and mortality. They concluded that team familiarity, which was predictive of improved intraoperative efficiency without compromising major postoperative outcomes, may serve as a novel quality improvement target in the setting of cardiac surgery.
Citation: Mathis MR, Yule S, Wu X . The impact of team familiarity on intra and postoperative cardiac surgical outcomes. Surgery 2021 Oct;170(4):1031-38. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2021.05.020..
Keywords: Teams, Surgery, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Outcomes
McGuier EA, Kolko DJ, Klem M
Team functioning and implementation of innovations in healthcare and human service settings: a systematic review protocol.
Implementation of evidence-based practices and other innovations in these settings requires teams to work together to change processes and behaviors. Accordingly, team functioning may be a key determinant of implementation outcomes. This systematic review identified and summarized empirical research examining associations between team functioning and implementation outcomes in healthcare and human service settings.
Citation: McGuier EA, Kolko DJ, Klem M . Team functioning and implementation of innovations in healthcare and human service settings: a systematic review protocol. Syst Rev 2021 Jun 26;10(1):189. doi: 10.1186/s13643-021-01747-w..
Keywords: Teams, Innovations and Emerging Issues, Implementation
Manges KA, Wallace AS, Groves PS
Ready to go home? Assessment of shared mental models of the patient and discharging team regarding readiness for hospital discharge.
A critical task of the inpatient interprofessional team is readying patients for discharge. Assessment of shared mental model (SMM) convergence can determine how much team members agree about patient discharge readiness and how their mental models align with the patient's self-assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the convergence of interprofessional team SMMs of hospital discharge readiness and identify factors associated with these assessments.
Citation: Manges KA, Wallace AS, Groves PS . Ready to go home? Assessment of shared mental models of the patient and discharging team regarding readiness for hospital discharge. J Hosp Med 2021 Jun;16(6):326-32. doi: 10.12788/jhm.3464..
Keywords: Hospital Discharge, Teams, Care Management, Decision Making, Hospitals
Hollingsworth JM, Yu X, Yan PL
Provider care team segregation and operative mortality following coronary artery bypass grafting.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether provider care team segregation within hospitals contributes to the higher mortality rate of Black patients following coronary artery bypass grafting compared to their White counterparts. Using national Medicare data, findings showed that Black patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting at a hospital with a higher level of provider care team segregation die more frequently after surgery than Black patients treated at a hospital with a lower level.
Citation: Hollingsworth JM, Yu X, Yan PL . Provider care team segregation and operative mortality following coronary artery bypass grafting. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 May;14(5):e007778. doi: 10.1161/circoutcomes.120.007778..
Keywords: Surgery, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Mortality, Teams, Healthcare Delivery, Racial / Ethnic Minorities
Kuo YF, Agrawal P, Chou LN
Assessing association between team structure and health outcome and cost by social network analysis.
Researchers sought to assess the impact of team structure composition and degree of collaboration among various providers on process and outcomes of primary care. Their findings showed that highly connected primary care practices with high collaborative care and less top-down MD-centered authority have lower odds of hospitalization, fewer emergency room admissions, and lower total spending. They concluded that these findings likely reflect better communication and more coordinated care of older patients.
Citation: Kuo YF, Agrawal P, Chou LN . Assessing association between team structure and health outcome and cost by social network analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Apr;69(4):946-54. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16962..
Keywords: Elderly, Teams, Healthcare Delivery, Primary Care, Primary Care: Models of Care, Care Coordination
Baloh J, Zhu X, Ward MM
What influences sustainment and nonsustainment of facilitation activities in implementation? Analysis of organizational factors in hospitals implementing TeamSTEPPS.
This study looked at the influences on sustainment of internal facilitation activities. For two years the authors followed 10 small rural hospitals implementing TeamSTEPPS, a patient safety program. Factors the authors examined were the influence of senior management support (SMS), middle management support (MMS), facilitator team time availability (TIME), and team continuity (CONTINUITY). Five hospitals sustained facilitation activities and they found that the combination of SMS, MMS, and CONTINUITY was a sufficient condition for sustainment. The five other hospitals that did not sustain facilitation activities either lacked MMS or lacked both TIME and CONTINUITY. They also discussed the implications for research and practice.
AHRQ-funded; HS024112; HS018396.
Citation: Baloh J, Zhu X, Ward MM . What influences sustainment and nonsustainment of facilitation activities in implementation? Analysis of organizational factors in hospitals implementing TeamSTEPPS. Med Care Res Rev 2021 Apr;78(2):146-56. doi: 10.1177/1077558719848267..
Keywords: TeamSTEPPS, Teams, Implementation, Hospitals, Patient Safety, Rural Health, Organizational Change
Rosenman ED, Misisco A, Olenick J
Does team leader gender matter? A Bayesian reconciliation of leadership and patient care during trauma resuscitations.
This study assessed and compared team leadership and patient care in trauma resuscitations led by male and female physicians. A secondary analysis of data from a larger randomized controlled trial using video recordings of resuscitations at a Level 1 trauma center from April 2016 to December 2017 was conducted. A total of 60 participants and 120 video observations were included in the analysis. There was a weak positive effect for female leaders for both patient care and team leadership. Gender-based advantages to team leadership and clinical care were not conclusive with the exception of rejecting a strong male advantage to team leadership.
Citation: Rosenman ED, Misisco A, Olenick J . Does team leader gender matter? A Bayesian reconciliation of leadership and patient care during trauma resuscitations. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2021 Feb;2(1):e12348. doi: 10.1002/emp2.12348..
Keywords: Teams, Trauma, Critical Care, Provider: Physician, Provider
Kuo YF, Lin YL, D Jupiter, et al.
How to identify team-based primary care in the United States using Medicare data.
The authors assessed whether analyses using different sets of Medicare data can produce results similar to those from analyses using 100% data from an entire state in identifying primary care teams through social network analysis. They found that, depending on specific study purposes, researchers could use either 100% data from Medicare beneficiaries in randomly selected primary care services areas or data from a 20% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries to study team-based primary care in the United States.
Citation: Kuo YF, Lin YL, D Jupiter, et al.. How to identify team-based primary care in the United States using Medicare data. Med Care 2021 Feb;59(2):118-22. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001478.
Keywords: Teams, Primary Care: Models of Care, Primary Care, Medicare, Health Services Research (HSR), Healthcare Delivery
Hung DY, Truong QA, Liang SY
Implementing lean quality improvement in primary care: impact on efficiency in performing common clinical tasks.
Investigators examined 3-year impacts of Lean implementation on the amount of time taken for physicians to complete common clinical tasks. They found that Lean redesigns led to improvements in timely completion of 3 out of 4 common clinical tasks, thus supporting the use of Lean techniques to engage teams in routine aspects of patient care. They recommended more research to understand the mechanisms by which Lean promotes quality improvement and effectiveness of care team workflows.
Citation: Hung DY, Truong QA, Liang SY . Implementing lean quality improvement in primary care: impact on efficiency in performing common clinical tasks. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Feb;36(2):274-79. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06317-9..
Keywords: Primary Care, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Primary Care: Models of Care, Primary Care, Implementation, Workflow, Teams, Healthcare Delivery
Wang G, Wignall J, Kinard D
An implementation model for managing cloud-based longitudinal care plans for children with medical complexity.
In this study, the investigators aimed to iteratively refine an implementation model for managing cloud-based longitudinal care plans (LCPs) for children with medical complexity (CMC). They conducted iterative 1-on-1 design sessions with CMC caregivers (ie, parents/legal guardians) and providers between August 2017 and March 2019. The investigators concluded that utilizing the management strategies, described in the article, when implementing cloud-based LCPs had the potential to improve team-based care across settings.
Citation: Wang G, Wignall J, Kinard D . An implementation model for managing cloud-based longitudinal care plans for children with medical complexity. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Jan 15;28(1):23-32. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocaa207..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Implementation, Chronic Conditions, Care Management, Care Coordination, Health Information Exchange (HIE), Health Information Technology (HIT), Teams
Pestka DL, Paterson NL, Benedict KA
Delivering care to high-cost high-need patients: lessons learned in the development of a complex care primary care team.
As part of a population health-focused primary care transformation, in 2019 a health system in Minnesota developed a primary care team to exclusively care for high-cost high-need patients. Through its development and implementation, the team has discovered several key lessons in delivering care to complex patients. In this paper, the authors discuss lessons learned from their research.
Citation: Pestka DL, Paterson NL, Benedict KA . Delivering care to high-cost high-need patients: lessons learned in the development of a complex care primary care team. J Prim Care Community Health 2021 Jan-Dec;12:21501327211023888. doi: 10.1177/21501327211023888..
Keywords: Primary Care, Primary Care: Models of Care, Healthcare Delivery, Teams, Communication, Implementation
Miller-Rosales C, Rodriguez HP
Interdisciplinary primary care team expertise and diabetes care management.
Researchers examined whether care team role expertise is associated with patients' experiences of chronic care for type 2 diabetes and whether the relationship is stronger for small community health center (CHC) sites. Results of surveys conducted with adults with diabetes that assessed nonphysician team roles involved in managing their chronic care were integrated with clinical and administrative data from 14 CHCs. They found that patients with access to care team expertise in self-management support, including diabetes educators, nutritionists, community health workers, and other general staff report better experiences of chronic care. They concluded that these team roles may reduce barriers to patient self-management and improve patients' overall experiences of chronic care, particularly in small CHC sites.
Citation: Miller-Rosales C, Rodriguez HP . Interdisciplinary primary care team expertise and diabetes care management. J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Jan-Feb;34(1):151-61. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2021.01.200187..
Keywords: Primary Care, Diabetes, Teams, Care Management, Community-Based Practice
O'Leary KJ, Manojlovich M, Johnson JK
A multisite study of interprofessional teamwork and collaboration on general medical services.
This multisite study of four mid-sized hospitals measured teamwork climate of nurses, nurse assistants, and physicians working on general medical services. Teamwork climate scores for 380 participants (80 hospitalists, 13 resident physicians, 193 nurses, and 94 nurses) were measured using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Hospitalists had the highest median teamwork climate score and nurses had the lowest, but it was not a statistically significant difference. A higher percentage of hospitalists (63.3%) rated the quality of collaboration with nurses as high or very high, but only 48.7% of nurses rated the collaboration with hospitalists as high or very high. There were significant differences in perceptions of teamwork climate across sites and across professional categories.
Citation: O'Leary KJ, Manojlovich M, Johnson JK . A multisite study of interprofessional teamwork and collaboration on general medical services. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2020 Dec;46(12):667-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2020.09.009..
Keywords: Teams, Hospitals, Patient Safety, Provider: Clinician, Provider: Physician, Provider: Nurse, Provider
Frasier LL, Pavuluri Quamme SR, Wiegmann D
Evaluation of intraoperative hand-off frequency, duration, and context: a mixed methods analysis.
The authors sought a better understanding of the coordination and impact of intraoperative hand-offs. They found that intraoperative hand-offs were frequent and not well coordinated with intraoperative events including counts and other hand-offs. Anchoring and announced hand-offs occurred in a small proportion of cases. They recommended that future work focus on optimizing timing, content, and participation in intraoperative hand-offs.
Citation: Frasier LL, Pavuluri Quamme SR, Wiegmann D . Evaluation of intraoperative hand-off frequency, duration, and context: a mixed methods analysis. J Surg Res 2020 Dec;256:124-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2020.06.007..
Keywords: Surgery, Transitions of Care, Communication, Teams
Umoren RA, Sawyer TL, Ades A
Team stress and adverse events during neonatal tracheal intubations: a report from NEAR4NEOS.
This study aimed to examine the association between team stress level and adverse tracheal intubation (TI)-associated events during neonatal intubations. TIs from 10 academic neonatal intensive care units were analyzed. Team stress level was rated immediately after TI using a 7-point Likert scale (1 = high stress). Associations among team stress, adverse TI-associated events, and TI characteristics were evaluated. The investigators concluded that high team stress levels during TI were more frequently reported among TIs with adverse events.
Citation: Umoren RA, Sawyer TL, Ades A . Team stress and adverse events during neonatal tracheal intubations: a report from NEAR4NEOS. Am J Perinatol 2020 Dec;37(14):1417-24. doi: 10.1055/s-0039-1693698..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Teams, Stress, Adverse Events
Guo F, Lin YL, Raji M
Processes and outcomes of diabetes mellitus care by different types of team primary care models.
This study compared processes and outcomes of care provided to older patients with diabetes by primary care teams composed of only primary care physicians (PCPs) versus team care that included nurse practitioners (NPs) or physician assistants (PAs). The authors studied 3,524 primary care practices identified via social network analysis and 306,741 patients aged 66 and older diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in or before 2015 from Medicare data. Outcomes looked for was more adherence to guideline-recommended care including eye examination, hemoglobin A1c test, and nephropathy monitoring. Preventable hospitalizations and high-risk medication prescribing rates were also measured. Patients in the team care practices received more guideline-recommended diabetes care than patients in PCP only teams. Patients in team care practices had a slightly higher likelihood of being prescribed high-risk medications. The likelihood of preventable hospitalizations was similar among all types of practices.
Citation: Guo F, Lin YL, Raji M . Processes and outcomes of diabetes mellitus care by different types of team primary care models. PLoS One 2020 Nov 5;15(11):e0241516. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241516..
Keywords: Elderly, Teams, Primary Care: Models of Care, Healthcare Delivery, Outcomes, Care Coordination, Practice Patterns
Nijhawan AE, Bhattatiry M, Chansard M
HIV care cascade before and after hospitalization: impact of a multidisciplinary inpatient team in the US South.
Hospitalization represents an opportunity to re-engage out-of-care individuals, improve HIV outcomes, and reduce health disparities. The authors reviewed electronic health records of HIV-positive individuals hospitalized at an urban, public hospital between September 2013 and December 2015. They found that hospitalized patients with HIV had low rates of engagement in care, retention in care, and virologic suppression, though all three outcomes improved after hospitalization. A multidisciplinary transitions team improved care engagement and virologic suppression in those who received the intervention.
Citation: Nijhawan AE, Bhattatiry M, Chansard M . HIV care cascade before and after hospitalization: impact of a multidisciplinary inpatient team in the US South. AIDS Care 2020 Nov;32(11):1343-52. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2019.1698704.
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Transitions of Care, Inpatient Care, Teams, Hospitalization, Patient and Family Engagement, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice
Ma AL, Cohen RS, Lee HC
Learning from wildfire disaster experience in California NICUs.
The authors’ objective was to learn how personnel working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of California hospitals handled issues of neonatal transfer during wildfire disasters in recent years; their ultimate goal was to share lessons learned with healthcare teams on disaster preparedness. They found that while describing disaster preparedness, equipment (such as bassinets and backpacks), ambulance access/transport and documentation/charting were noted as important and essential. They concluded that teamwork, willingness to do other tasks that are not part of typical job descriptions, and unconventional strategies contributed to the success of keeping NICU babies safe when California wildfire strikes.
Citation: Ma AL, Cohen RS, Lee HC . Learning from wildfire disaster experience in California NICUs. Children 2020 Oct;7(10):E155. doi: 10.3390/children7100155..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Transitions of Care, Emergency Preparedness, Teams, Healthcare Delivery
Soberano BT, Brady P, Yunger T
The effects of care team roles on situation awareness in the pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective cross-sectional study.
Improved situation awareness (SA) decreases rates of clinical deterioration in the pediatric inpatient setting. The investigators used a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study to measure interprofessional care team SA for a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. The resident, bedside nurse, and respiratory therapist for each patient were surveyed regarding high clinical deterioration risk status as defined by clinical criteria identified by the PICU fellow or attending and mitigation plan.
Citation: Soberano BT, Brady P, Yunger T . The effects of care team roles on situation awareness in the pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective cross-sectional study. J Hosp Med 2020 Oct;15(10):594-97. doi: 10.12788/jhm.3449..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Teams, Inpatient Care
Costar DM, Hall KK
Improving team performance and patient safety on the job through team training and performance support tools: a systematic review.
This systematic review’s objective was to identify recent studies that implemented practices to improve teamwork in health care and were associated with positive improvements on the job. Two databases were searched to identify relevant articles published between 2008 and 2018. Twenty articles were selected for inclusion. Across studies, measures assessing teamwork skills on the job were most often collected and sustained improvements were shown for up to 12 months. Evidence of improved clinical practices and increased patient safety was found in both studies team training interventions, as well as those that introduced performance support tools. All studies were conducted in hospitals with very few studies found in other health care settings such as office-based care.
Citation: Costar DM, Hall KK . Improving team performance and patient safety on the job through team training and performance support tools: a systematic review. J Patient Saf 2020 Sep;16(3S Suppl 1):S48-s56. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000746..
Keywords: Teams, Patient Safety, Training, Patient Safety, Provider Performance, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care