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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 7 of 7 Research Studies Displayed
Chen HF, Rose AM, Waisbren S
Newborn screening and treatment of phenylketonuria: projected health outcomes and cost-effectiveness.
This study’s objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of newborn screening and treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU) in the context of new data on adherence to a recommended diet treatment and a newly available drug (sapropterin dihydrochloride). A computer simulation model was developed to project outcomes for a hypothetical cohort of newborns which compared four strategies. The strategies compared were: 1) clinical identification (CI) with diet treatment; 2) newborn screening (NBS) with diet treatment; 3) CI with diet and medication; and 4) NBS with diet and medication. The range of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio went from $6400/QALY for newborn screening with diet treatment compared to clinical identification with diet treatment up to $16,000,000/QALY for adding medication to NBS with diet treatment. Future research is needed to consider conditions under which sapropterin dihydrochloride would be more economically attractive.
Citation: Chen HF, Rose AM, Waisbren S . Newborn screening and treatment of phenylketonuria: projected health outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Children 2021 May 12;8(5). doi: 10.3390/children8050381..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Neurological Disorders, Screening, Value, Healthcare Costs
Khan U, Stoff L, Yahuaca JD
Evaluation of an interdisciplinary screening program for people with Parkinson disease and movement disorders.
Researchers described the characteristics of people with Parkinson disease and movement disorders referred by neurologist to a physiatrist-led interdisciplinary rehabilitation screening program. They found that the interdisciplinary rehabilitation screening program was sustained with increased numbers of referrals over time, occurring earlier in the disease in more recent years. Further, key strategies used to sustain the program over time included development of a unique referral order set for the neurologists, implementation of a comprehensive screen tool in the rehabilitation hospital electronic health records, and centralized communication through social workers at both facilities.
Citation: Khan U, Stoff L, Yahuaca JD . Evaluation of an interdisciplinary screening program for people with Parkinson disease and movement disorders. Arch Rehabil Res Clin Transl 2020 Sep;2(3):100067. doi: 10.1016/j.arrct.2020.100067..
Keywords: Neurological Disorders, Rehabilitation, Screening
H H, Caton Gilstrap L
AHRQ Author: Tracer H
Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults.
This evidence-based approach paper focuses on putting prevention into action. It discusses screening for cognitive impairment in older adults. It provides case study, case study questions and a discussion.
Citation: H H, Caton Gilstrap L . Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults. Am Fam Physician 2020 Jun 15;101(12):753-54..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Dementia, Neurological Disorders, Elderly, Screening, Prevention, Case Study, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines
Munger Clary HM, Croxton RD, Allan J
Who is willing to participate in research? A screening model for an anxiety and depression trial in the epilepsy clinic.
This study assessed the willingness of epilepsy patients positively screened for anxiety and/or depression to participate in a research study. A total of 199 patients screened positively during a routine epilepsy screening visit and 154 (77.4%) opted-in for further research assessment. Nearly half of those 199 individuals were already being treated for anxiety and/or depression, with 46.7% receiving neither antidepressants or therapy. Higher depression scores and current treatment were independently associated with opting in. One-quarter reported a past psychiatric hospitalization, but only half of those individuals were currently receiving mental health specialty care.
Citation: Munger Clary HM, Croxton RD, Allan J . Who is willing to participate in research? A screening model for an anxiety and depression trial in the epilepsy clinic. Epilepsy Behav 2020 Mar;104(Pt A):106907. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.106907..
Keywords: Anxiety, Depression, Behavioral Health, Neurological Disorders, Chronic Conditions, Screening, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Health Services Research (HSR), Research Methodologies
Patnode CD, Perdue LA, Rossom RC
Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the test accuracy of cognitive screening instruments and benefits and harms of interventions to treat cognitive impairment in older adults (>/=65 years) to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. The investigators concluded that screening instruments could adequately detect cognitive impairment. They indicated that there was no empirical evidence, however, that screening for cognitive impairment improved patient or caregiver outcomes or causes harm.
Citation: Patnode CD, Perdue LA, Rossom RC . Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2020 Feb 25;323(8):764-85. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.22258..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Dementia, Neurological Disorders, Elderly, Guidelines, Screening, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice
Gavinski K, Carnahan R, Weckmann M
Validation of the delirium observation screening scale in a hospitalized older population.
The authors studied the accuracy of the Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOS) as a screening tool in hospitalized patients over age 64. They also investigated the user-friendliness of the tool. They determined that DOS is an accurate and easy way to screen for delirium in older inpatients.
Citation: Gavinski K, Carnahan R, Weckmann M . Validation of the delirium observation screening scale in a hospitalized older population. J Hosp Med 2016 Jul;11(7):494-7. doi: 10.1002/jhm.2580.
Keywords: Elderly, Hospitalization, Neurological Disorders, Screening
Fan T, Rossi C
AHRQ Author: Fan T
Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults.
This case study describes a 72-year-old white man comes the physician’s office for a preventive visit. He does not have any symptoms of dementia but asks whether he should be screened. Based on the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, the authors ask (and answer) three questions concerning approaches to screening for cognitive impairment, risk factors for cognitive impairment or dementia in older adults, and the epidemiology of cognitive impairment in the United States.
Citation: Fan T, Rossi C . Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults. Am Fam Physician 2015 Jul 15;92(2):125-6..
Keywords: Case Study, Elderly, Neurological Disorders, Screening, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)