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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 692 Research Studies Displayed
Kim HN, Nance RM, Lo Re V
Development and validation of a model for prediction of end-stage liver disease in people with HIV.
The authors developed and validated a risk-prediction model for end-stage liver disease (ESLD) among people with HIV (PWH). They developed and validated a risk prediction model for ESLD among PWH who received care in 12 cohorts of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design and found that their model of readily accessible clinical parameters predicted ESLD in a large diverse population of PWH.
Citation: Kim HN, Nance RM, Lo Re V . Development and validation of a model for prediction of end-stage liver disease in people with HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2022 Apr;89(4):396-404. doi: 10.1097/qai.0000000000002886..
Keywords: Chronic Conditions, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Risk
Jacobsohn GC, Leaf M, Liao F
Collaborative design and implementation of a clinical decision support system for automated fall-risk identification and referrals in emergency departments.
The authors used a collaborative and iterative approach to design and implement an automated clinical decision support system (CDS) for Emergency Department (ED) providers to identify and refer older adult ED patients at high risk of future falls. The system was developed using collaborative input from an interdisciplinary design team and integrated seamlessly into existing ED workflows. A key feature of development was the unique combination of patient experience strategies, human-centered design, and implementation science, which allowed for the CDS tool and intervention implementation strategies to be designed simultaneously. Challenges included: usability problems, data inaccessibility, time constraints, low appointment availability, high volume of patients, and others. The study concluded that using the collaborative, iterative approach was successful in achieving all project goals, and could be applied to other cases.
Citation: Jacobsohn GC, Leaf M, Liao F . Collaborative design and implementation of a clinical decision support system for automated fall-risk identification and referrals in emergency departments. Healthc 2022 Mar;10(1):100598. doi: 10.1016/j.hjdsi.2021.100598..
Keywords: Elderly, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Decision Making, Falls, Risk, Emergency Department, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Flannery DD, Mukhopadhyay S, Morales KH
Delivery characteristics and the risk of early-onset neonatal sepsis.
This retrospective cohort study identified term and preterm infants at lowest risk of culture-confirmed early-onset sepsis (EOS) using delivery characteristics and also determined antibiotic use among them. The study cohort included term and preterm infants born 2009 to 2014 with blood culture with or without cerebrospinal fluid culture obtained ≤72 hours after birth. Low EOS risk criteria included: cesarean delivery, without labor or membrane rupture before delivery, and no antepartum concern for intraamniotic infection or nonreassuring fetal status. Among 53,575 births, 7549 (14.1%) were evaluated and 41 (0.5%) of those infants had EOS. For 1121 evaluated infants there were low-risk delivery characteristics and none had EOS. Duration of antibiotics administered to infants born with and without low-risk characteristics was not different.
Citation: Flannery DD, Mukhopadhyay S, Morales KH . Delivery characteristics and the risk of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Pediatrics 2022 Feb;149(2). doi: 10.1542/peds.2021-052900..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Sepsis, Risk, Labor and Delivery, Antibiotics, Medication
Carpenter K, Scavotto M, McGovern A
Early parental knowledge of late effect risks in children with cancer.
This study assessed early parental knowledge of late effect risks in children with cancer. The cohort included parents of children receiving cancer treatment at Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. The parents were surveyed about their knowledge of their child’s likelihood of eight late effects. Only 11 out of 96 parents correctly identified all their child’s risk for the eight late effects. Five of eight effects were the median number of correctly identified late effect risks. Among the 21 parents whose children were at risk for ototoxicity, 95% correctly identified this risk. Conversely, parents were less knowledgeable about risks of second malignancy, cardiac toxicity, neurocognitive impairment, and infertility.
Citation: Carpenter K, Scavotto M, McGovern A . Early parental knowledge of late effect risks in children with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022 Feb;69(2):e29473. doi: 10.1002/pbc.29473..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Cancer, Risk, Education: Patient and Caregiver, Health Literacy
Yunusa I, Gagne JJ, Yoshida K
Risk of opioid overdose associated with concomitant use of oxycodone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Oxycodone is a potent prescription opioid. Some Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) inhibit oxycodone metabolism in the body, but the clinical consequences of this interaction on overdose risk have not been adequately determined. The study researchers compared the rates of opioid overdoses in patients who had initiated oxycodone while taking enzyme-inhibiting SSRIs with the overdose rates of patents who had initiated oxycodone while taking non-enzyme inhibiting SSRIs. Data from 3 U.S. health insurance databases was used to analyze a cohort of adults who initiated oxycodone while receiving SSRI therapy between the years 2000 and 2020. Of the total of 2,037,490 who initiated oxycodone, 69.6% were receiving SSRIs at the time of the initiation of the oxycodone. One-thousand-thirty-five overdose events were observed during this time, and the resulting incidence rate in those initiating oxycodone while using enzyme-inhibiting SSRI’s was higher than in those using other SSRIs. The researchers concluded that in the study cohort of U.S. adults, there is a small increased risk of opioid overdose when initiating oxycodone in patients taking enzyme-inhibiting SSRIs.
Citation: Yunusa I, Gagne JJ, Yoshida K . Risk of opioid overdose associated with concomitant use of oxycodone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Feb;5(2):e220194. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.0194..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Risk, Depression, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Fatemi P, Zhang Y, Han SS
A, et al. External validation of a predictive model of adverse events following spine surgery.
The authors externally validated a previously developed predictive model for common 30-day adverse events after spine surgery, the Risk Assessment Tool for Adverse Events after Spine Surgery (RAT-Spine). Their results are presented as low-, moderate-, and high-risk designations.
Citation: Fatemi P, Zhang Y, Han SS . A, et al. External validation of a predictive model of adverse events following spine surgery. Spine J 2022 Jan;22(1):104-12. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2021.06.006..
Keywords: Surgery, Adverse Events, Orthopedics, Risk
Squires A, Ma C, Miner S
Assessing the influence of patient language preference on 30 day hospital readmission risk from home health care: a retrospective analysis.
In home health care, language barriers are understudied. Language barriers between patients and providers are known to affect a variety of patient outcomes. How a patient's language preference influences hospital readmission risk from home health care has yet to be determined. The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to determine if home care patients' language preference is associated with their risk for hospital readmission from home health care within 30 days of hospital discharge.
Citation: Squires A, Ma C, Miner S . Assessing the influence of patient language preference on 30 day hospital readmission risk from home health care: a retrospective analysis. Int J Nurs Stud 2022 Jan;125:104093. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2021.104093..
Keywords: Cultural Competence, Home Healthcare, Hospital Readmissions, Risk, Communication
Frehn JL, Brewster AL, Shortell SM
Comparing health care system and physician practice influences on social risk screening.
This study examined the association of multilevel organizational capabilities and adoption of social risk screening among system-owned physician practices. A secondary analysis of the 2018 National Survey of Healthcare Organizations and Systems data was conducted. Five social risks were used as measures for physician and system screening: food insecurity, housing instability, utility needs, interpersonal violence, and transportation needs. System-owned practices screened an average of 1.7 of the 5 social risks assessed. The differences were 16% attributable to practice variation between their health system owners, and 84% attributable to differences between individual practices. Practices owned by hospital systems screened for an additional 0.44 social risks relative to practices of systems without hospitals. Characteristics associated with more social risk screening included health information technology capacity, innovation culture, and patient engagement strategies.
AHRQ-funded; HS024075; HS022241.
Citation: Frehn JL, Brewster AL, Shortell SM . Comparing health care system and physician practice influences on social risk screening. Health Care Manage Rev 2022 Jan-Mar;47(1):E1-e10. doi: 10.1097/hmr.0000000000000309..
Keywords: Healthcare Systems, Social Determinants of Health, Screening, Risk
Boehme AK, Oka M, Cohen B
Readmission rates in stroke patients with and without infections: incidence and risk factors.
Investigators examined whether an infection acquired during the initial stroke admission contributed to increased risk of readmission and infection during readmission. Their a retrospective cohort study incorporated all adult ischemic stroke patients 2006-2016 from three New York City hospitals. They found that, among stroke patients, healthcare-associated infections and infections present on admission were predictors of readmission within 60 days and infection during readmission.
Citation: Boehme AK, Oka M, Cohen B . Readmission rates in stroke patients with and without infections: incidence and risk factors. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2022 Jan;31(1):106172. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106172..
Keywords: Stroke, Cardiovascular Conditions, Hospital Readmissions, Risk, Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs)
Herzig SJ, Anderson TS,, Jung y
Risk factors for opioid-related adverse drug events among older adults after hospital discharge.
This study examined patient- and prescribing-related risk factors for opioid-related adverse drug events (ADEs) after hospital discharge among medical patients. Administrative billing codes and medication claims were used to define potential opioid-related ADEs within 30 days of hospital discharge. Findings showed that potential opioid-related ADEs occurred in 7% of older adults discharged from a medical hospitalization with an opioid prescription. Recommendations included using identified risk factors to inform physician decision-making, having conversations with older adults about risk, and increasing development and targeting of harm reduction strategies.
Citation: Herzig SJ, Anderson TS,, Jung y . Risk factors for opioid-related adverse drug events among older adults after hospital discharge. J Am Geriatr Soc 2022 Jan;70(1):228-34. doi: 10.1111/jgs.17453..
Keywords: Elderly, Opioids, Risk, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Medication, Hospital Discharge
Oster NV, Williams EC, Unger JM
A risk prediction model to identify newborns at risk for missing early childhood vaccinations.
Approximately 30% of US children aged 24 months have not received all recommended vaccines. This retrospective cohort study aimed to develop a prediction model to identify newborns at high risk for missing early childhood vaccines. The investigators concluded that their prediction model using information readily available in birth hospitalization records consistently identified newborns at high risk for undervaccination.
Citation: Oster NV, Williams EC, Unger JM . A risk prediction model to identify newborns at risk for missing early childhood vaccinations. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2021 Dec 31;10(12):1080-86. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piab073..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Vaccination, Risk
Thorsness R, Wang V, Patzer RE
Association of social risk factors with home dialysis and kidney transplant rates in dialysis facilities.
This study examines rates of home dialysis and transplant at dialysis facilities that serve patients with high social risk to understand how they fare under the End-Stage Renal Disease Treatment Choices Model.
Citation: Thorsness R, Wang V, Patzer RE . Association of social risk factors with home dialysis and kidney transplant rates in dialysis facilities. JAMA 2021 Dec 14;326(22):2323-25. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.18372..
Keywords: Dialysis, Kidney Disease and Health, Transplantation, Risk
Williams D, Stout MJ, Rosenbloom JI
Preeclampsia predicts risk of hospitalization for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Preeclampsia is associated with increased risk of future heart failure (HF), but the relationship between preeclampsia and HF subtypes are not well-established. The objective of this analysis was to identify the risk of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) following a delivery complicated by preeclampsia/eclampsia. The investigators concluded that preeclampsia/eclampsia was an independent risk factor for future hospitalizations for HFpEF.
Citation: Williams D, Stout MJ, Rosenbloom JI . Preeclampsia predicts risk of hospitalization for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Dec 7;78(23):2281-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.09.1360..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Hospitalization, Risk, Labor and Delivery, Pregnancy, Women
Andrews AL, Brinton DL, Simpson AN
A comparison of administrative claims-based risk predictors for pediatric asthma.
This retrospective cohort study used 2013-2014 MarketScan Medicaid data to compare administrative claims-based risk predictors of emergency department (ED) visits for pediatric asthma. The cohort included were children aged 2 to 17 years. Seven risk predictors were compared for 3-month subsequent ED visits/hospitalizations: 3-month rolling asthma medication ratio (AMR), Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) criteria, revised HEDIS criteria, quarterly short-acting β-agonist (SABA) claims, prior ED visit, prior hospitalization, and prior ED visit or hospitalization. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), and percentage of population identified as high risk were compared for each risk predictor utilization the McNemar test. Cohort total population was 214,452 children with a mean age of 7.8 years. HEDIS and revised HEDIS identified prohibitively large cohorts as high-risk (67% and 48%). For the remaining measures, the NPV range was 97% to 99%, indicating high performance at identifying patients who would not benefit from intervention using AMR and SABA count. Superior sensitivities were found for ED visit and ED/hospitalization measures compared with pharmacy claims-based measures.
Citation: Andrews AL, Brinton DL, Simpson AN . A comparison of administrative claims-based risk predictors for pediatric asthma. Am J Manag Care 2021 Dec;27(12):533-37. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2021.88792..
Keywords: Asthma, Respiratory Conditions, Chronic Conditions, Risk
Weekes AJ, Raper JD, Lupez K
Development and validation of a prognostic tool: pulmonary embolism short-term clinical outcomes risk estimation (PE-SCORE).
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic model for clinical deterioration or death within days of pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis using point-of-care criteria. In this study, the investigators used prospective registry data from six emergency departments. The primary composite outcome was death or deterioration (respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, new dysrhythmia, sustained hypotension, and rescue reperfusion intervention) within 5 days.
Citation: Weekes AJ, Raper JD, Lupez K . Development and validation of a prognostic tool: pulmonary embolism short-term clinical outcomes risk estimation (PE-SCORE). PLoS One 2021 Nov 18;16(11):e0260036. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0260036..
Keywords: Respiratory Conditions, Risk, Outcomes
Shipe ME, Baechle JJ, Deppen SA
Modeling the impact of delaying surgery for early esophageal cancer in the era of COVID-19.
Surgical society guidelines have recommended changing the treatment strategy for early esophageal cancer during the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Delaying resection can allow for interim disease progression, but the impact of this delay on mortality is unknown. The COVID-19 infection rate at which immediate operative risk exceeds benefit is unknown. In this study, the investigators sought to model immediate versus delayed surgical resection in a T1b esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Citation: Shipe ME, Baechle JJ, Deppen SA . Modeling the impact of delaying surgery for early esophageal cancer in the era of COVID-19. Surg Endosc 2021 Nov;35(11):6081-88. doi: 10.1007/s00464-020-08101-6..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer, Surgery, Decision Making, Risk
Delaney LD, Howard R, Palazzolo K
Outcomes of a presurgical optimization program for elective hernia repairs among high-risk patients.
The authors evaluated the feasibility of evidence-based patient optimization before surgery by implementing a low-cost preoperative optimization clinic. They found that a hernia optimization clinic safely improved management of high-risk patients and increased operative yield for the institution. They concluded that their results represented an opportunity to create sustainable and scalable models that provide longitudinal care and optimize patients to improve outcomes of hernia repair.
Citation: Delaney LD, Howard R, Palazzolo K . Outcomes of a presurgical optimization program for elective hernia repairs among high-risk patients. JAMA Netw Open 2021 Nov;4(11):e2130016. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30016..
Keywords: Surgery, Risk, Evidence-Based Practice, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Outcomes
Czosek RJ, Anderson JB, Baskar S
Predictors and outcomes of heart block during surgical stage I palliation of patients with a single ventricle: a report from the NPC-QIC.
This study investigated patient and surgical risks of heart block and its effect on 12-month transplant-free survival in children with a single ventricle. In total, 1423 patients were identified from the National Pediatric Cardiology Improvement Collaborative with and without heart block. One-year outcomes were analyzed. A very small percentage (2%) developed heart block during their surgical admission. Associated risk factors for block included heterotaxy syndrome and atrial flutter/fibrillation. Patients with complete heart block had lower 12-month survival, which wasn’t true for patients with second degree block. At 12 months of age, 43% of patients with heart block died and were more likely to experience mortality than patients without heart block.
Citation: Czosek RJ, Anderson JB, Baskar S . Predictors and outcomes of heart block during surgical stage I palliation of patients with a single ventricle: a report from the NPC-QIC. Heart Rhythm 2021 Nov;18(11):1876-83. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.05.019..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Surgery, Palliative Care, Risk, Outcomes
Davidson KW, Krist AH, Tseng CW
AHRQ Author: Mills J, Borsky A
Incorporation of social risk in US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and identification of key challenges for primary care.
The authors assessed how social risks have been considered in USPSTF recommendation statements and identified current gaps in evidence needed to expand the systematic inclusion of social risks in future recommendations. They concluded that their report serves as a benchmark and foundation for ongoing work to advance the goal of ensuring that health equity and social risks are incorporated into USPSTF methods and recommendations.
Citation: Davidson KW, Krist AH, Tseng CW . Incorporation of social risk in US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and identification of key challenges for primary care. JAMA 2021 Oct 12;326(14):1410-15. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.12833..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Primary Care, Social Determinants of Health, Risk, Evidence-Based Practice, Research Methodologies, Guidelines
Smulowitz PB, Burke RC, Ostrovsky D
Attitudes toward risk among emergency physicians and advanced practice clinicians in Massachusetts.
Risk aversion is a personality trait influential to decision making in medicine. Little is known about how emergency department (ED) clinicians differ in their attitudes toward risk taking. In this study, the investigators conducted a cross-sectional survey of practicing ED clinicians (physicians and advanced practice clinicians [APCs]) in Massachusetts using the following 4 existing validated scales: the Risk-Taking Scale (RTS), Stress from Uncertainty Scale (SUS), the Fear of Malpractice Scale (FMS), and the Need for (Cognitive) Closure Scale (NCC).
Citation: Smulowitz PB, Burke RC, Ostrovsky D . Attitudes toward risk among emergency physicians and advanced practice clinicians in Massachusetts. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2021 Oct;2(5):e12573. doi: 10.1002/emp2.12573..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Risk
Coley RY, Walker RL, Cruz M
Clinical risk prediction models and informative cluster size: assessing the performance of a suicide risk prediction algorithm.
Investigators used data from seven health systems to predict suicide attempt within 90 days. They recommended dividing clustered data on the person level, rather than visit level, to ensure strong performance in prospective use and accurate estimation of future performance at the time of model development.
Citation: Coley RY, Walker RL, Cruz M . Clinical risk prediction models and informative cluster size: assessing the performance of a suicide risk prediction algorithm. Biom J 2021 Oct;63(7):1375-88. doi: 10.1002/bimj.202000199..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Risk
Mills J, O'Dowd N
AHRQ Author: Mills J
Healthy diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors.
This “Putting Prevention into Practice: An Evidence Based Approach” paper is a case study with questions and answers related to healthy diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors.
Citation: Mills J, O'Dowd N . Healthy diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Am Fam Physician 2021 Oct 1;104(4):411-12..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Prevention, Lifestyle Changes, Risk, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Case Study
Montgomery JR, Waits SA, Dimick JB
Perioperative risks of sleeve gastrectomy versus roux-en-Y gastric bypass among patients with chronic kidney disease: a review of the MBSAQIP database.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with chronic kidney disease experienced higher rates of perioperative complications after roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) compared to sleeve gastrectomy. The investigators concluded that among well-matched cohorts of RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy patients, incidence of primary outcomes were similar. Among secondary outcomes, only acute kidney injury was statistically-significantly higher among RYGB patients; however, the E-value for this difference was small and relatively weak confounder(s) could abrogate the statistical difference.
Citation: Montgomery JR, Waits SA, Dimick JB . Perioperative risks of sleeve gastrectomy versus roux-en-Y gastric bypass among patients with chronic kidney disease: a review of the MBSAQIP database. Ann Surg 2021 Oct 1;274(4):e328-e35. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000003627..
Keywords: Surgery, Obesity, Kidney Disease and Health, Risk, Chronic Conditions
Bongiovanni T, Hernandez S, Ledesma Y
Surviving traumatic injury, only to die of acute drug poisoning: should trauma centers be a path for intervention?
This study’s objective was to determine the incidence and characteristics of and risk factors for trauma patients suffering death by unintentional drug overdose. This retrospective chart review was conducted on all admitted trauma patients 18 years or older at the only level-1 trauma center in the San Francisco area from 2012 to 2012, matched with unintentional overdose decedents from the California death registry. Of 9,860 patients residing in San Francisco at the time of their trauma during the study period 1,418 died, 107 (0.3/100 person-years) from unintentional overdose. Overdose decedents were 84% male, 50% white, with a mean age of 48 years. Twenty percent of deaths occurred within 3 months of hospitalization, and 40% were attributed to a prescription opioid.
AHRQ-funded; HS026383; 233201500020I.
Citation: Bongiovanni T, Hernandez S, Ledesma Y . Surviving traumatic injury, only to die of acute drug poisoning: should trauma centers be a path for intervention? Surgery 2021 Oct;170(4):1249-54. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2021.03.003.
AHRQ-funded; HS026383; 233201500020I..
AHRQ-funded; HS026383; 233201500020I..
Keywords: Trauma, Medication, Risk, Mortality
Halawi MJ, Gronbeck C, Metersky ML
AHRQ Author: Eldridge N
Time trends in patient characteristics and in-hospital adverse events for primary total knee arthroplasty in the United States: 2010-2017.
This study looked at trends in patient characteristics and in-hospital adverse events (AEs) for primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) from 2010 to 2017. A total of 14,057 primary TKAs captured by the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System was retrospectively reviewed. Risk factors that increased included obesity prevalence, tobacco smoking, and renal disease. There were reductions in coronary artery disease and chronic warfarin use. Inpatient AEs decreased from 4.9% to 2.5%, primarily driven by reductions in anticoagulant-associated AEs, including major bleeding and hematomas, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, and venous thromboembolism.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290201800005C.
Citation: Halawi MJ, Gronbeck C, Metersky ML . Time trends in patient characteristics and in-hospital adverse events for primary total knee arthroplasty in the United States: 2010-2017. Arthroplast Today 2021 Oct;11:157-62. doi: 10.1016/j.artd.2021.08.010..
Keywords: Surgery, Orthopedics, Adverse Events, Risk