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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 7 of 7 Research Studies Displayed
Luther M, Poppert Cordts KM, Williams CN
Sleep disturbances after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and association with recovery.
This is a systematic review to quantify sleep wake disturbances (SWD) after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). These SWD can place children at risk for worse outcomes since sleep is needed for brain development and healing after injury. They also evaluated interventions for SWD and the association between SWD and other post-traumatic outcomes. Literature was searched from 1999-2019 evaluating sleep or fatigue in children hospitalized for TBI. Two independent reviewers assessed quality of the studies using the Newcastle-Ottowa Score for observational studies. Out of 966 identified articles, 126 full text articles were reviewed and 24 studies were included. Studies showed at least 20% of children with TBI had some degree of SWD including trouble falling or staying asleep, fatigue, daytime fatigue, and nightmares. SWD was negatively correlated with cognitive, behavioral, and quality of life outcomes. There was moderate-high risk of bias for all studies due to small sample size and lack of validated or objective SWD measures.
Citation: Luther M, Poppert Cordts KM, Williams CN . Sleep disturbances after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and association with recovery. Sleep 2020 Oct;43(10):zsaa083. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsaa083..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Sleep Problems, Brain Injury, Neurological Disorders, Trauma, Risk, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Quality of Life, Evidence-Based Practice
Probst MA, Gupta M, Hendey GW
Prevalence of intracranial injury in adult patients with blunt head trauma with and without anticoagulant or antiplatelet use.
In this study, the investigators determined the prevalence of significant intracranial injury among adults with blunt head trauma who are receiving preinjury anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications. The investigators concluded that patients receiving preinjury warfarin or a combination of aspirin and clopidogrel were at increased risk for significant intracranial injury, but not those receiving aspirin alone. They suggested that clinicians should have a low threshold for neuroimaging when evaluating patients receiving warfarin or a combination of aspirin and clopidogrel.
Citation: Probst MA, Gupta M, Hendey GW . Prevalence of intracranial injury in adult patients with blunt head trauma with and without anticoagulant or antiplatelet use. Ann Emerg Med 2020 Mar;75(3):354-64. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.10.004..
Keywords: Brain Injury, Injuries and Wounds, Blood Thinners, Medication, Medication: Safety, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Risk
Glass NE, Vadlamani A, Hwang F
Bleeding and thromboembolism after traumatic brain injury in the elderly: a real conundrum.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence of bleeding, recurrent traumatic brain injury (TBI), and thromboembolic (TE) events after an initial TBI in older adults and to identify which factors contribute to this risk. The researchers found that, among Medicare patients hospitalized with TBI, the incidence of TE events was significantly higher than that of bleeding or recurrent TBI. They identified specific risk factors of bleeding and TE events, which may guide care of older adults after TBI.
Citation: Glass NE, Vadlamani A, Hwang F . Bleeding and thromboembolism after traumatic brain injury in the elderly: a real conundrum. J Surg Res 2019 Mar;235:615-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2018.10.021..
Keywords: Brain Injury, Blood Clots, Elderly, Trauma, Injuries and Wounds, Risk, Adverse Events
Albrecht JS, Barbour L, Abariga SA
Risk of depression after traumatic brain injury in a large national sample.
The goal of this study was to estimate the risk of depression post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adults 18 years of age and older and to identify risk factors associated with developing depression post-TBI. Claims data for privately insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees was used. Results showed that history of neuropsychiatric disturbances pre-TBI was the strongest predictor of depression post-TBI. The risk of depression increases substantially post-TBI. Groups at increased risk include those with a history of neuropsychiatric disturbances, older adults, and men. This study highlights the importance of long-term monitoring for depression post-TBI.
Citation: Albrecht JS, Barbour L, Abariga SA . Risk of depression after traumatic brain injury in a large national sample. J Neurotrauma 2019 Jan 15;36(2):300-07. doi: 10.1089/neu.2017.5608..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health, Brain Injury, Trauma, Risk
Albrecht JS, Al Kibria G, Gruber-Baldini A
Risk of mortality in individuals with hip fracture and traumatic brain injury.
Researchers estimated the prevalence of TBI (traumatic brain injury) with individuals hospitalized with hip fracture and their all-cause mortality. The population studied were Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older from 2006 to 2010. They concluded that there was a higher risk of death with individuals who had TBI than those who had only a hip fracture.
Citation: Albrecht JS, Al Kibria G, Gruber-Baldini A . Risk of mortality in individuals with hip fracture and traumatic brain injury. J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Jan;67(1):124-27. doi: 10.1111/jgs.15661..
Keywords: Brain Injury, Injuries and Wounds, Mortality, Risk, Trauma
Chenoweth JA, Johnson MA, Shook L
Prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage after blunt head trauma in patients on pre-injury dabigatran.
Dabigatran etexilate was the first direct-acting oral anticoagulant approved in the United States. The researchers aimed to determine the prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage for patients on dabigatran presenting to a Level I trauma center. The intracranial hemorrhage prevalence in their study was similar to previous reports for patients on warfarin.
Citation: Chenoweth JA, Johnson MA, Shook L . Prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage after blunt head trauma in patients on pre-injury dabigatran. West J Emerg Med 2017 Aug;18(5):794-99. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2017.5.33092.
Keywords: Blood Thinners, Brain Injury, Trauma, Risk, Medication
Humble SS, Wilson LD, McKenna JW
Tracheostomy risk factors and outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury.
The researchers sought to determine risk factors associated with tracheostomy placement after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent outcomes among those who did and did not receive a tracheostomy. They concluded that age and insurance status are independently associated with tracheostomy placement, but not with mortality after severe TBI. Tracheostomy placement is associated with increased survival after severe TBI.
Citation: Humble SS, Wilson LD, McKenna JW . Tracheostomy risk factors and outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2016;30(13-14):1642-47. doi: 10.1080/02699052.2016.1199915.
Keywords: Adverse Events, Brain Injury, Outcomes, Risk, Trauma