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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 9 of 9 Research Studies Displayed
O'Donoghue A, Dechen T, O'Donoghue A, Dechen T, Pavlova W W
Reopening businesses and risk of COVID-19 transmission.
In this paper, the authors used anonymized cell-phone data to quantify the potential risk of COVID-19 transmission in business establishments by building a Business Risk Index that measures transmission risk over time. They used two metrics, visits per square foot and the average duration of visits from January 2020 to June 2020. They found that an increase in a county's average Business Risk Index is associated with an increase in positive COVID-19 cases in 1 week. Their risk index provides a way for policymakers and hospital decision-makers to monitor the potential risk of COVID-19 transmission from businesses based on the frequency and density of visits to businesses.
Citation: O'Donoghue A, Dechen T, O'Donoghue A, Dechen T, Pavlova W W . Reopening businesses and risk of COVID-19 transmission. NPJ Digit Med 2021 Mar 16;4(1):51. doi: 10.1038/s41746-021-00420-9..
Keywords: COVID-19, Community-Acquired Infections, Public Health, Risk
Ye S, Hiura G, Fleck E
Hospital readmissions after implementation of a discharge care program for patients with COVID-19 illness.
The surge of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations in New York City required rapid discharges to maintain hospital capacity. The objective of this study was to determine whether lenient provisional discharge guidelines with remote monitoring after discharge resulted in safe discharges home for patients hospitalized with COVID-19 illness. The investigators found that lenient discharge criteria in conjunction with remote monitoring after discharge were associated with a rate of early readmissions after COVID-related hospitalizations that was comparable to the rate of readmissions after other reasons for hospitalization before the COVID pandemic.
AHRQ-funded; HS024262; HS025198.
Citation: Ye S, Hiura G, Fleck E . Hospital readmissions after implementation of a discharge care program for patients with COVID-19 illness. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Mar;36(3):722-29. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06340-w..
Keywords: COVID-19, Hospital Discharge, Hospital Readmissions, Hospitals, Public Health, Hospitalization, Risk
Bramante CT, Ingraham NE, Murray TA
Metformin and risk of mortality in patients hospitalised with COVID-19: a retrospective cohort analysis.
This study examined whether metformin use by patients with diagnosed with type 2 diabetes had reduced mortality when hospitalized for COVID-19. Pharmacy claims data from UnitedHealth Group’s Clinical Discovery Claims Database was used. Patient data were included if they were aged 18 years or older; had type 2 diabetes or obesity (defined based on claims); at least 6 months of continuous enrolment in 2019; and admission to hospital for COVID-19 confirmed by PCR; manual chart review by UHG; or reported from the hospital to UHG. Metformin was not associated with significant reduction in mortality among men, but there was an association with decreased mortality in women.
Citation: Bramante CT, Ingraham NE, Murray TA . Metformin and risk of mortality in patients hospitalised with COVID-19: a retrospective cohort analysis. Lancet Healthy Longev 2021 Jan;2(1):e34-e41. doi: 10.1016/s2666-7568(20)30033-7..
Keywords: COVID-19, Hospitalization, Medication, Mortality, Risk, Diabetes, Chronic Conditions, Public Health, Infectious Diseases
Selden TM, Berdahl TA
AHRQ Author: Selden TM, Berdahl TA
Risk of severe COVID-19 among workers and their household members.
Using prepandemic MEPS data, the investigators examined the prevalence of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). They then estimated how many adults at increased risk of severe COVID-19 held essential jobs and could not work at home (WAH) or who lived in households with such workers.
Citation: Selden TM, Berdahl TA . Risk of severe COVID-19 among workers and their household members. JAMA Intern Med 2021 Jan;181(1):120-22. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6249..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), COVID-19, Risk, Public Health, Infectious Diseases
Temkin-Greener H, Guo W, Mao Y
COVID-19 pandemic in assisted living communities: results from seven states.
The purpose of this observational study was to describe variations in COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths among assisted living (AL) residents and examine their associations with key AL characteristics. The investigators concluded that ALs with a higher proportion of minorities had more COVID-19 cases. Many of the previously identified individual risk factors were also present in this vulnerable population.
AHRQ-funded; HS024923; HS026893; HS026893.
Citation: Temkin-Greener H, Guo W, Mao Y . COVID-19 pandemic in assisted living communities: results from seven states. J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Dec;68(12):2727-34. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16850..
Keywords: Elderly, Public Health, COVID-19, Nursing Homes, Vulnerable Populations, Risk
Selden TM, Berdahl TA, Fang Z
AHRQ Author: Selden TM, Berdahl TA, Fang Z
The risk of severe COVID-19 within households of school employees and school-age children.
Across the United States, school districts are grappling with questions of whether and how to reopen elementary and secondary schools in the 2020-21 academic year. Using pre-pandemic household data, the authors examined how often persons at risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were connected to schools, either as employees or by living in the same households as school employees or school-age children.
Citation: Selden TM, Berdahl TA, Fang Z . The risk of severe COVID-19 within households of school employees and school-age children. Health Aff 2020 Nov;39(11):2002-09. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01536..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Public Health, Risk, Infectious Diseases
Misra-Hebert AD, Ji X, Nowacki AS
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers' risk of infection and outcomes in a large, integrated health system.
Researchers assessed healthcare workers (HCW) risk for COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Participants were individuals who had tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large academic healthcare system. The study found that, in a large healthcare system, HCW had similar odds for testing positive, but lower odds of hospitalization, compared to non-HCW. Patient-facing HCW had higher odds of a positive test.
Citation: Misra-Hebert AD, Ji X, Nowacki AS . Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers' risk of infection and outcomes in a large, integrated health system. J Gen Intern Med 2020 Nov;35(11):3293-301. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06171-9..
Keywords: COVID-19, Risk, Provider: Health Personnel, Public Health, Healthcare Delivery, Infectious Diseases
Abrams EM, Greenhawt M
Risk communication during COVID-19.
This article focuses on ways the healthcare community can best communicate risk of COVID-19 to the public. Poor risk communication results in hoarding behavior which can lead to lack of medications and personal protective equipment. Utilizing social media channels to ensure an ongoing consistent media presence is one potential way to ensure appropriate risk communication. Including all stakeholders in broader public health messaging is also important.
Citation: Abrams EM, Greenhawt M . Risk communication during COVID-19. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Jun;8(6):1791-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.04.012..
Keywords: COVID-19, Communication, Risk, Public Health, Emergency Preparedness
Vaidyanathan A, Saha S, Vicedo-Cabrera AM
AHRQ Author: Elixhauser A
Assessment of extreme heat and hospitalizations to inform early warning systems.
The purpose of this study was to conduct multistate analyses to explore associations between heat and all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations, in order to inform the design and development of heat-health early warning systems. Researchers used a two-stage analysis to estimate heat-health risk relationships between heat index and hospitalizations, then used the results to identify heat index ranges that corresponded with a significant heat-attributable burden and compared these to National Weather Service (NWS) heat alert criteria used during the same time period. The study’s conclusions suggest that locally specific health evidence can inform and calibrate heat alert criteria.
Citation: Vaidyanathan A, Saha S, Vicedo-Cabrera AM . Assessment of extreme heat and hospitalizations to inform early warning systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Mar 19;116(12):5420-27. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1806393116..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Hospitalization, Public Health, Risk