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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 25 of 963 Research Studies Displayed
Schnipper JL, Reyes Nieva H, Yoon C
What works in medication reconciliation: an on-treatment and site analysis of the MARQUIS2 study.
The objective of this study was to assess the association of patient exposure to system-level intervention and receipt based on the results of the second Multicenter Medication Reconciliation Quality Improvement Study, which demonstrated a marked reduction in medication discrepancies per patient. Researchers conducted an on-treatment analysis of system-level interventions at 17 North American hospitals. The patient-level interventions most associated with discrepancy reductions were receipt of a best-possible medication history of admitted patients in the ED and admission and discharge medication reconciliation by a trained clinician. System-level interventions were also associated with a minor reduction in discrepancies for the average patient. The researchers concluded that these findings might be used to help hospitals and health systems prioritize interventions to improve medication safety during care transitions.
Citation: Schnipper JL, Reyes Nieva H, Yoon C . What works in medication reconciliation: an on-treatment and site analysis of the MARQUIS2 study. BMJ Qual Saf 2023 Aug; 32(8):457-69. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2022-014806..
Keywords: Medication, Medication: Safety, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Patient Safety, Hospital Discharge
Rome D, Sales A, Cornelius T
Impact of telemedicine modality on quality metrics in diverse settings: implementation science-informed retrospective cohort study.
The objective of this study was to assess telemedicine uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic and impact of visit modality on primary care quality metrics in diverse, low socioeconomic status settings. Research was informed by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework. Researchers found that there were marginally better quality metrics for in-person care versus video and phone visits, and that de-adoption of telemedicine was marked within 2 years in the study population. They concluded that the impact of visit modality on quality outcomes, provider and patient preferences, and technological barriers in historically marginalized settings should be considered.
Citation: Rome D, Sales A, Cornelius T . Impact of telemedicine modality on quality metrics in diverse settings: implementation science-informed retrospective cohort study. J Med Internet Res 2023 Jul 26; 25:e47670. doi: 10.2196/47670..
Keywords: Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Implementation, Quality Measures, Quality of Care
Silver CM, Yang AD, Shan Y
Changes in surgical outcomes in a Statewide Quality Improvement Collaborative with introduction of simultaneous, comprehensive interventions.
Researchers investigated whether a comprehensive quality improvement program implemented simultaneously across hospitals at the formation of a quality improvement collaborative (QIC) would improve patient outcomes. They analyzed risk-adjusted rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality for patients who had undergone surgery at hospitals in the Illinois Surgical Quality Improvement Collaborative (ISQIC); analyses compared ISQIC hospitals with hospitals in the NSQIP Participant Use File (PUF). Although complication rates decreased at both ISQIC and PUF hospitals, findings showed that participation in ISQIC was associated with a significantly greater improvement in death or serious morbidity. The researchers concluded that these results emphasize the potential of QICs to improve patient outcomes.
Citation: Silver CM, Yang AD, Shan Y . Changes in surgical outcomes in a Statewide Quality Improvement Collaborative with introduction of simultaneous, comprehensive interventions. J Am Coll Surg 2023 Jul 1; 237(1):128-38. doi: 10.1097/xcs.0000000000000679..
Keywords: Surgery, Outcomes, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Hospitals
Smith DC, Phillippi JC, Tilden EL
Comparing cesarean birth utilization between US hospitals: a demonstration of the robson ten-group classification system for use in quality improvement and benchmarking.
The objective of this study was to describe the application and utility of the World Health Organization-endorsed Robson Ten-Group Classification System (TGCS) to compare hospital-level cesarean births rates for use in quality improvement and benchmarking. The authors conducted a descriptive, secondary data analysis of the Consortium on Safe Labor dataset using data from births from 2002-08 at 12 sites across the US. Results showed a variation in use of cesarean birth, labor induction, and trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) across the 12 sites. The authors concluded that TGCS provides a method for between-hospital comparisons and adoption of TGCS in the US would provide an effective benchmarking tool to assist in reducing the use of cesarean birth and increasing the support of TOLAC.
Citation: Smith DC, Phillippi JC, Tilden EL . Comparing cesarean birth utilization between US hospitals: a demonstration of the robson ten-group classification system for use in quality improvement and benchmarking. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2023 Jul-Sep; 37(3):214-22. doi: 10.1097/jpn.0000000000000670..
Keywords: Hospitals, Healthcare Utilization, Maternal Care, Women, Quality Improvement, Quality Measures, Quality of Care
Stierman EK, O'Brien BT, Stagg J
AHRQ Author: Fabiyi CA, Chew E, Harding B, Mistry KB
Statewide perinatal quality improvement, teamwork, and communication activities in Oklahoma and Texas.
The objective of this study was to describe perinatal quality improvement activities, specifically the implementation of Alliance for Innovation on Maternal Health (AIM) patient safety bundles and use of teamwork and communication tools in obstetric units. Researchers conducted a survey of AIM-enrolled hospitals in Oklahoma and Texas and gathered data on obstetric unit organization and QI processes. Their findings showed that adoption of QI processes varied and also highlighted the need to reinforce support for rural obstetric units, which often face greater barriers to implementing patient safety and QI processes than urban units. The researchers concluded that this has implications for implementing future perinatal QI initiatives.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 233201500020I.
Citation: Stierman EK, O'Brien BT, Stagg J . Statewide perinatal quality improvement, teamwork, and communication activities in Oklahoma and Texas. Qual Manag Health Care 2023 Jul-Sep; 32(3):177-88. doi: 10.1097/qmh.0000000000000407..
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Teams, Communication, Maternal Care, Quality of Care
Teixeira da Silva D, Makeneni S, Wall H
Measuring quality STI care among adolescent female primary care patients in Philadelphia.
The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a cross-setting, sexually transmitted infection (STI) Care Continuum to improve STI care quality, to assess adherence to guideline-recommended care, and to standardize progress measurement toward National Strategic goals. Review of the CDC STI treatment guidelines identified seven distinct steps of care for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis; researchers used Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey data to estimate step 1, and electronic health record data for steps 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7. The researchers concluded that local application of an STI Care Continuum identified STI testing, retesting, and HIV testing as areas for improvement. Similar methods may be applied to target resources, standardize data collection and reporting, and improve STI care quality.
Citation: Teixeira da Silva D, Makeneni S, Wall H . Measuring quality STI care among adolescent female primary care patients in Philadelphia. Sex Transm Infect 2023 Jun; 99(4):272-75. doi: 10.1136/sextrans-2022-055623..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Sexual Health, Infectious Diseases, Primary Care, Women, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Quality Measures, Quality of Care
Griesemer I, Birken SA, Rini C
Mechanisms to enhance racial equity in health care: developing a model to facilitate translation of the ACCURE intervention.
The purpose of this study was to explore the Accountability for Cancer Care through Undoing Racism and Equity (ACCURE) program, which altered systems of care at two United States cancer centers and eliminated the Black-White racial disparity in treatment completion in patients with early-stage breast and lung cancer. The study objective was to identify and document critical characteristics of ACCURE to enable translation of the intervention to other care settings. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 participants who were involved in the design and implementation of ACCURE. The study found that participants described transparency and accountability as mechanisms of change that were operationalized through ACCURE's key features. Intervention features were designed to improve either institutional transparency or accountability of the care system to community values and patient needs for minimally biased, tailored communication, and support.
Citation: Griesemer I, Birken SA, Rini C . Mechanisms to enhance racial equity in health care: developing a model to facilitate translation of the ACCURE intervention. SSM Qual Res Health 2023 Jun; 3:100204. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmqr.2022.100204..
Keywords: Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Auerbach AD, Astik GJ, O'Leary KJ
Prevalence and causes of diagnostic errors in hospitalized patients under investigation for COVID-19.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians were required to address a disease with continuously changing traits while simultaneously complying with changes in care (e.g., physical distancing) that could contribute to diagnostic errors (DEs). The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of DEs and their causes in patients hospitalized under investigation (PUI) for COVID-19. The researchers randomly selected up to 8 cases per site per month for evaluation, with each case evaluated by two clinicians to determine whether a DE occurred, and whether any diagnostic process faults took place. The study found that wo hundred and fifty-seven patient charts were evaluated, of which 14% contained a DE. Patients with and without DE were statistically similar in socioeconomic factors, comorbidities, risk factors for COVID-19, and COVID-19 test turnaround time and eventual positivity. The most common diagnostic process issues contributing to DE were problems with clinical assessment, testing choices, history taking, and physical examination. Diagnostic process issues related with COVID-19 policies and procedures were not related with DE risk. 35.9% of patients with errors and 5.4% of patients overall suffered harm or death due to diagnostic error.
Citation: Auerbach AD, Astik GJ, O'Leary KJ . Prevalence and causes of diagnostic errors in hospitalized patients under investigation for COVID-19. J Gen Intern Med 2023 Jun; 38(8):1902-10. doi: 10.1007/s11606-023-08176-6..
Keywords: COVID-19, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Hospitals, Inpatient Care, Quality of Care
Lake ET, Staiger D, Smith JG
The association of missed nursing care with very low birthweight infant outcomes.
This study examined the association of missed nursing care and health outcomes of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The authors used 2016 hospital administrative discharge abstracts for VLBW newborns (n = 7,595) and NICU registered nurse survey responses (n = 6,963) from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. Mortality, morbidity, and length of stay (LOS) was examined in 190 sample hospitals from 19 states in all regions. There was a significant association between higher odds of bloodstream infection and longer LOS, but not mortality or severe intraventricular hemorrhage and missed nursing care.
Citation: Lake ET, Staiger D, Smith JG . The association of missed nursing care with very low birthweight infant outcomes. Med Care Res Rev 2023 Jun; 80(3):293-302. doi: 10.1177/10775587221150950..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Quality Indicators (QIs), Nursing, Newborns/Infants, Outcomes, Healthcare Utilization, Quality of Care
Ye S, Li D, Yu T
The impact of surgical volume on hospital ranking using the standardized infection ratio.
Researchers investigated the effect of surgical volume on the accuracy of identifying poorly performing hospitals. Their research was based on the standardized infection ratio, and they applied their proposed method to data from HCA Healthcare from 2014-2016 on surgical site infections in colon surgery patients. They concluded that minimum surgical volumes and predicted events criteria are required to make hospital evaluation reliable, and that these criteria may vary by overall prevalence and between-hospital variability.
Citation: Ye S, Li D, Yu T . The impact of surgical volume on hospital ranking using the standardized infection ratio. Sci Rep 2023 May 10; 13(1):7624. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-33937-y..
Keywords: Hospitals, Surgery, Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Provider Performance, Quality of Care
Lindner SR, Balasubramanian B, Marino M
Estimating the cardiovascular disease risk reduction of a quality improvement initiative in primary care: findings from EvidenceNOW.
The purpose of this study was to estimate decreases in 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk associated with EvidenceNOW, an initiative spanning multiple states that sought to improve cardiovascular preventive care by providing supportive interventions such as practice facilitation to address the “ABCS”: (A)spirin for high-risk patients, (B)lood pressure control for hypertensive people, (C)holesterol management, and (S)moking screening and cessation counseling. The researchers conducted an analytic modeling study that combined 1) data from 1,278 EvidenceNOW practices collected from 2015 to 2017; (2) patient-level information of 1,295 individuals who participated in the 2015 to 2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; and (3) 10-year ASCVD risk prediction equations. The study found the average 10-year ASCVD risk of these patients before intervention was 10.11%. Improvements in ABCS due to EvidenceNOW reduced their 10-year ASCVD risk to 10.03% which would prevent 3,169 ASCVD events over 10 years and $150 million in 90-day direct medical costs.
Citation: Lindner SR, Balasubramanian B, Marino M . Estimating the cardiovascular disease risk reduction of a quality improvement initiative in primary care: findings from EvidenceNOW. J Am Board Fam Med 2023 May 8; 36(3):462-76. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2022.220331R1..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Primary Care, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Blood Pressure
McGowan M, D'Amico M, Kang M
A survey of patient-centered practices in perinatal quality collaboratives.
This research brief shows the results of a web-based survey of US perinatal quality collaborative (PQC) leaders to explore patient-centered practices for quality improvement (QI) initiatives. The survey consisted of multiple-choice questions including procedures for soliciting community input through community advisory boards, (CABs), social media, surveys, and town halls and measures to capture individual patient experiences, including patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and patient-reported experience measures (PREMs). Over one third (35%) of the 40 PQCs responded with over half reporting an active CAB, with the most common participants including community members. CAB recruitment was most often performed by existing PQC members or leaders. Only half of CABs offered their members compensation. Four organizations used no patient-centered strategies, and only two collected PREMs. In total 12 out of 14 respondents provided at least one free survey response. The respondents highlighted how patient engagement is a powerful tool for shaping diverse aspects of PQCs, from “birth equity” to “how to engage community and patients.”
Citation: McGowan M, D'Amico M, Kang M . A survey of patient-centered practices in perinatal quality collaboratives. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2023 May; 161(2):670-71. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.14636..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Maternal Care, Quality of Care
Quigley DD, Slaughter ME, Qureshi N
Associations of pediatric nurse burnout with involvement in quality improvement.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of inpatient pediatric nurse burnout with their perceptions on the importance of quality at the hospital, and with patient experience measurement, quality improvement (QI), unit culture, and staffing. The researchers implemented a cross-sectional study at an urban children's hospital and surveyed pediatric nurses about their perceptions including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The study found that 27% of pediatric nurses reported burnout. Nurses who possessed greater confidence in patient experience measurement, received frequent patient experience performance reports, felt included in QI, and experienced QI efforts as integrated into patient care reported not being burned out when compared to those reporting burnout. Higher levels of open communication among nurses and unit-level teamwork were also related with lack of burnout, and a higher QI workload was related with burnout.
Citation: Quigley DD, Slaughter ME, Qureshi N . Associations of pediatric nurse burnout with involvement in quality improvement. J Pediatr Nurs 2023 May-Jun; 70:e9-e16. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2022.11.001..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Burnout, Provider: Nurse, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Chandanabhumma PP, Zhou S, Fetters MD
Expanding our methodological toolbox to improve quality: the role of mixed-methods evaluations.
This article discusses ways that using mixed-methods studies can enhance quality improvement interventions instead of relying solely on quantitative evidence. Mixed-methods design helped to advance an evidence-based, customizable infection prevention toolkit for durable left ventricular assist device therapy. Strengths of using mixed-methods studies include: (1) the use of qualitative research methodologies (eg, eliciting patient or clinician perspectives on barriers and facilitators of best practices) and (2) integrating qualitative and quantitative data and analyses to understand more fully effective strategies for achieving optimal care and outcomes for these patients across diverse settings. The study: 1) used quantitative clinical data merged with Medicare claims to evaluate interhospital variability in the incidence of infection; 2) used qualitative methods to understand local practice patterns across low- and high-performing centers; and 3) integrated both data sources to gain a comprehensive understanding of the overall findings.
Citation: Chandanabhumma PP, Zhou S, Fetters MD . Expanding our methodological toolbox to improve quality: the role of mixed-methods evaluations. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2023 May; 16(5):e009629. doi: 10.1161/circoutcomes.122.009629..
Keywords: Research Methodologies, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Sanghavi P, Chen Z
Underreporting of quality measures and associated facility characteristics and racial disparities in US nursing home ratings.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nursing home characteristics and reporting of 2 of 3 specific clinical outcomes reported by the Nursing Home Care Compare (NHCC) website: major injury falls and pressure ulcers. The researchers of this quality improvement study utilized hospitalization data for all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2017. Hospital admission claims for major injury falls and pressure ulcers were linked with facility-reported evaluations at the nursing home resident level. For each linked hospital claim, it was determined whether the nursing home had reported the event and rates of reporting were computed. To evaluate whether nursing homes reported similarly on both measures, the researchers estimated the relationship between reporting of major injury falls and pressure ulcers within a nursing home, and explored racial and ethnic disparities that could otherwise explain the associations. The study sample included 13,179 nursing homes where 131,000 residents experienced major injury fall or pressure ulcer hospitalizations. Of the 98,669 major injury fall hospitalizations, 60.0% were reported, and of the 39,894 stage 3 or 4 pressure ulcer hospitalizations, 67.7% were reported. Underreporting for both conditions was pervasive, with 69.9% and 71.7% of nursing homes having reporting rates less than 80% for major injury fall and pressure ulcer hospitalizations, respectively. Lower reporting rates had few correlations with facility characteristics other than racial and ethnic composition. Facilities with high vs low fall reporting rates had significantly more White residents (86.9% vs 73.3%), and facilities with high vs low pressure ulcer reporting rates had significantly fewer White residents (69.7% vs 74.9%).
Citation: Sanghavi P, Chen Z . Underreporting of quality measures and associated facility characteristics and racial disparities in US nursing home ratings. JAMA Netw Open 2023 May; 6(5):e2314822. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.14822..
Keywords: Quality Measures, Quality of Care, Elderly, Disparities, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Nursing Homes, Pressure Ulcers, Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Quality Indicators (QIs), Long-Term Care
McHugh M, Philbin S, Carroll AJ
An approach to evaluating multisector partnerships to support evidence-based quality improvement in primary care.
This study’s goal was to describe an approach for evaluating the development and effectiveness of a multisector partnership using data from the first year of the Healthy Hearts for Michigan (HH4M) Cooperative, a multisector partnership of nine organizations tasked with designing and implementing evidence-based QI strategies for hypertension management and tobacco cessation in 50 rural primary care practices. A 49-item survey focused on factors that facilitate or hinder multisector partnerships, drawing on implementation science and partnership, engagement, and collaboration research was developed. All 44 members of the HH4M Cooperative (79.5% response rate) were surveyed, interviews conducted with 14 members. Having a clear purpose and trust and respect among members were the strengths reported. A need for common terminology, clarification of roles and functions, and improvement in communication across workgroups were areas for improvement. The Cooperative’s biggest challenge was the lack of engagement from physician practices due to capacity constraints, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Citation: McHugh M, Philbin S, Carroll AJ . An approach to evaluating multisector partnerships to support evidence-based quality improvement in primary care. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2023 Apr;49(4):199-206. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2023.01.002.
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Evidence-Based Practice, Primary Care, Quality of Care, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Bilimoria KY, McGee MF, Williams MV
Development of the Illinois Surgical Quality Improvement Collaborative (ISQIC): implementing 21 components to catalyze statewide improvement in surgical care.
In 2014, a distinctive learning collaborative was established by 56 hospitals in Illinois, known as the Illinois Surgical Quality Improvement Collaborative (ISQIC). The purpose of this study is to present an overview of ISQIC's initial three years, focusing on 1) the formation and financing of the collaborative, 2) the 21 approaches employed for quality improvement (QI) support, 3) maintaining the collaborative, and 4) ISQIC as a foundation for innovative QI research. ISQIC integrates 21 elements that promote QI, targeting the hospital, the surgical QI team, and the perioperative microsystem. These elements were derived from existing evidence, a comprehensive needs assessment of the hospitals, previous experiences from surgical and non-surgical QI collaboratives, and interviews with QI professionals. The elements span five domains: guided implementation (e.g., mentors, coaches, statewide QI projects), education (e.g., process improvement (PI) curriculum), comparative performance reports for hospitals and surgeons (e.g., process, outcomes, costs), networking (e.g., venues for sharing QI experiences and best practices), and financing (e.g., for the overall program, pilot grants, and incentive payments for improvement). The study found that the 21 unique ISQIC components enabled hospitals to utilize their data effectively for the implementation of QI initiatives and enhancement of care. Formal (QI/PI) training, mentorship, and coaching were provided to hospitals as they implemented solutions. Hospitals were funded for the program and collaborated on statewide quality initiatives. Knowledge gained in one hospital was disseminated to all participating hospitals through conferences, webinars, and toolkits, fostering a collective learning environment aimed at improving and ensuring safer care for surgical patients in Illinois. Over the first three years, surgical outcomes in Illinois showed improvement.
Citation: Bilimoria KY, McGee MF, Williams MV . Development of the Illinois Surgical Quality Improvement Collaborative (ISQIC): implementing 21 components to catalyze statewide improvement in surgical care. Ann Surg Open 2023 Mar;4(1):e258. doi: 10.1097/as9.0000000000000258.
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Surgery, Quality of Care
Ervin JN, Vitous CA, Wells EE
Rescue Improvement Conference: a novel tool for addressing failure to rescue.
The objective of this study was to understand the effectiveness of the Rescue Improvement Conference, a forum that addresses failure to rescue (FTR). FTR is the phenomenon where delayed recognition or response to surgical complications leads to a progressive cascade of adverse events culminating in patient death. The authors used 5 indicators of effectiveness: educational value, conference takeaways, discussion time, changes to surgical practice, and opportunities for improvement and conducted semi-structured interviews. The results showed that conference felt that the Rescue Improvement Conference was effective in all five indicators. The authors concluded that the conference has the potential to support other surgical departments in developing system-level strategies to recognize and manage postoperative complications that contribute to FTR.
AHRQ-funded; HS024403; HS023621.
Citation: Ervin JN, Vitous CA, Wells EE . Rescue Improvement Conference: a novel tool for addressing failure to rescue. Ann Surg 2023 Feb; 277(2):233-37. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000004832..
Keywords: Surgery, Adverse Events, Patient Safety, Quality of Care, Quality Improvement
Beaulieu ND, Chernew ME, McWilliams JM
Organization and performance of US health systems.
The objectives of this evidence review were to identify and describe health systems in the US, to assess differences between physicians and hospitals in and outside of health systems, and to compare quality and cost of care delivered by physicians and hospitals in and outside of health systems. A total of 580 health systems in a great variety of sizes were identified; prices for physician, hospital services, and total spending were assessed in 2018 commercial claims data. Health system physicians and hospitals were shown to deliver a large portion of medical services. Clinical quality performance and patient experience measures were slightly better in systems; however, spending and prices were significantly higher, especially in small practices. The authors concluded that slight quality differentials in combination with large price differentials suggested that health systems have not realized their potential for better care at equal or lower cost.
Citation: Beaulieu ND, Chernew ME, McWilliams JM . Organization and performance of US health systems. JAMA 2023 Jan 24; 329(4):325-35. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.24032..
Keywords: Health Systems, Healthcare Delivery, Provider Performance, Quality Measures, Quality of Care, Hospitals
Diaz A, Lindau ST, Obeng-Gyasi S
Association of hospital quality and neighborhood deprivation with mortality after inpatient surgery among Medicare beneficiaries.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare postoperative mortality among Medicare beneficiaries based on the level of neighborhood deprivation where they live and the hospital quality where they received care. The researchers examined outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries undergoing one of five common surgical procedures (colon resection, coronary artery bypass, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, or incisional hernia repair) between 2014 and 2018. Hospital quality was assigned using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Star Rating. Each beneficiary's neighborhood was identified at the census tract level and sorted into quintiles based on its Area Deprivation Index score. A risk matrix across hospital quality and neighborhood deprivation was created to determine the relative contribution of each to mortality after surgery. Data were analyzed from June 1 to December 31, 2021. The study included 1,898,829 Medicare beneficiaries. Patients from all neighborhood deprivation group quintiles sought care at hospitals across hospital quality levels. Thirty-day risk-adjusted mortality varied across high- and low-quality hospitals and across the least and most deprived neighborhoods. When combined, comparing patients from the least deprived neighborhoods going to high-quality hospitals vs patients from the most deprived neighborhoods going to low-quality hospitals, the variation increased further. The researchers concluded that both a patient's neighborhood and the hospital where they received treatment were associated with the risk of death after commonly performed inpatient surgical procedures. The associations of these factors on mortality may be additive. Efforts to address variation in postoperative mortality should include both hospital quality improvement and addressing drivers of neighborhood deprivation.
Citation: Diaz A, Lindau ST, Obeng-Gyasi S . Association of hospital quality and neighborhood deprivation with mortality after inpatient surgery among Medicare beneficiaries. JAMA Netw Open 2023 Jan; 6(1):e2253620. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.53620..
Keywords: Hospitals, Quality of Care, Surgery, Mortality, Social Determinants of Health
Rojas JC, Chokkara S, Zhu M
Care quality for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the readmission penalty era.
The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the quality of care for patients hospitalized for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after the implementation of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) which levied financial penalties on hospitals for excessive COPD readmissions. The researchers reviewed the records from 995 U.S. hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database, evaluating patients older than 40 years of age hospitalized for COPD. The study included 662,842 pre-HRRP (January 2010-September 2014) and 285,508 post-HRRP (October 2014-December 2018) admissions, and found that recommended care increased at a rate of 0.16% per month pre-HRRP and 0.01% per month post-HRRP. Nonrecommended care decreased at a rate of 0.15% per month pre-HRRP and 0.13% per month post-HRRP. Ideal care increased at a rate of 0.24% per month pre-HRRP and 0.11% per month post-HRRP. The researchers concluded that after HRRP implementation, the pre-HRRP trends toward improving care quality for inpatient COPD care slowed.
Citation: Rojas JC, Chokkara S, Zhu M . Care quality for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the readmission penalty era. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2023 Jan; 207(1):29-37. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202203-0496OC..
Keywords: Respiratory Conditions, Quality of Care, Hospital Readmissions, Chronic Conditions
Sullivan CE, Day SW, Ivankova N
Establishing nursing-sensitive quality indicators for pediatric oncology: an international mixed methods Delphi study.
The purpose of this study was to create an initial core set of Nursing-sensitive indicators (NSIs) for international pediatric oncology nursing that would be important, actionable, and feasible to measure across different resource settings and countries. The researchers utilized purposive snowball sampling to identify 122 expert pediatric oncology nurses from 43 countries for participation. In round 1, the panelists identified five potential NSIs and constructs. These results were applied to round 2 in which panelists chose their top 10 NSIs and constructs and ranked them according to importance to patient care quality. Those results were then applied to round 3, in which panelists ranked the top 10 NSIs and constructs by order of importance for the particular population, then rated each NSI/Construct for actionability and feasibility of measurement. The study identified the preliminary core set of NSIs and constructs identified by the expert panel, and ranked them in the following order of importance: safe chemotherapy administration and handling, infection prevention/control, pediatric oncology nursing orientation program, early warning score system/recognition of patient deterioration, chemotherapy/biotherapy education/course, pain assessment/management, symptom assessment/management, patient and family education, palliative/end of life care, and continuing nursing education/competency. The study reported that all NSIs and constructs were rated as actionable; all constructs except palliative/end of life care were rated as feasible to measure. The researchers concluded that initial core NSIs and constructs offer improved insight into typical features of international pediatric oncology nursing practice that are important, actionable, and feasible for quality measurement.
Citation: Sullivan CE, Day SW, Ivankova N . Establishing nursing-sensitive quality indicators for pediatric oncology: an international mixed methods Delphi study. J Nurs Scholarsh 2023 Jan; 55(1):388-400. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12798..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality of Care, Nursing, Cancer
Liao JM, Wang E, Isidro U
The association between bundled payment participation and changes in medical episode outcomes among high-risk patients.
This research evaluated whether the association between participation in bundled payments for medical conditions and episode outcomes differed for clinically high-risk versus other patients in regard to length of stay (LOS) at skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Participants included 471,421 Medicare patients hospitalized at bundled payment and propensity-matched non-participating hospitals. Primary outcomes were SNF LOS and 90-day unplanned readmissions. SNF length of stay was differentially lower among frail patients, patients with advanced age (>85 years), and those with prior institutional post-acute care provider utilization compared to non-frail, younger, and patients without prior utilization, respectively. Bundled payment participation was also associated with differentially greater SNF LOS among disabled patients. It was not associated with differential changes in readmissions in any high-risk group but was associated with changes in quality, utilization, and spending measures for some groups.
Citation: Liao JM, Wang E, Isidro U . The association between bundled payment participation and changes in medical episode outcomes among high-risk patients. Healthcare 2022 Dec 12; 10(12). doi: 10.3390/healthcare10122510..
Keywords: Payment, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Risk, Policy
Collins CR, Abel MK, Shui A
Preparing for participation in the centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' bundle care payment initiative-advanced for major bowel surgery.
This study aimed to assess where the largest opportunities for care improvement lay with the bundled payment reimbursement model and how best to identify patients at high risk of suffering costly complications, including hospital readmission. The authors used a cohort of patients from 2014 and 2016 who met inclusion criteria for the Major Bowel Bundled Payment Program and performed a cost analysis to identify opportunities for improved care efficiency. Using the results, they identified readmissions as a target for improvement and then assessed whether the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program surgical risk calculator (ACS NSQIP SRC) could accurately identify patients within the bundled payment population who were at high risk of readmission using a logistic regression model. Patients who were readmitted within 90-days post-surgery were 2.53 times more likely to be high-cost (>$60,000) then non-readmitted patients. However, the ACS NSQIP SRC did not accurately predict patients at high risk of readmission within the first 30 days post-surgery.
Citation: Collins CR, Abel MK, Shui A . Preparing for participation in the centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' bundle care payment initiative-advanced for major bowel surgery. Perioper Med 2022 Dec 9;11(1):54. doi: 10.1186/s13741-022-00286-9..
Keywords: Provider Performance, Payment, Hospital Readmissions, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Surgery, Medicare, Medicaid
Liao JM, Huang Q, Wang E
Performance of physician groups and hospitals participating in bundled payments among Medicare beneficiaries.
This cohort study compared how physician group practices (PGPs) performed in bundled payments compared with hospitals. The authors used 2011 to 2018 Medicare claims data to compare the association of participants in the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BCPI) initiative with episode outcomes. Primary outcome was 90-day total episode spending. The total sampled comprised data from 1,288,781 Medicare beneficiaries, of whom mean age was 76.2 years, 59.7% women, and 85.5% White, with 592,071 individuals receiving care from 6405 physicians in in BPCI-participating PGPs and 24,758 propensity-matched physicians in non-BPCI-participating PGPs. For PGPs, BPCI participation was associated with greater reductions in episode spending for surgical (difference, -$1648 to -$1088) but not for medical episodes (difference, -$410 to $206). Hospital participation in BPCI was associated with greater reductions in episode spending for both surgical ($1345 to -$675) and medical -$1139 to -$386) episodes.
Citation: Liao JM, Huang Q, Wang E . Performance of physician groups and hospitals participating in bundled payments among Medicare beneficiaries. JAMA Health Forum 2022 Dec 2; 3(12):e224889. doi: 10.1001/jamahealthforum.2022.4889..
Keywords: Provider Performance, Payment, Hospitals, Medicare, Quality of Care