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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 624 Research Studies Displayed
Marino M, Solberg L, Springer R
Cardiovascular disease preventive services among smaller primary care practices.
This cross-sectional study utilized linear regression modeling to examine the association of aspirin use, blood pressure control, and smoking-cessation support performance with practice characteristics that included structural attributes, practice capacity and contextual characteristics, health information technology, and patient panel demographics. Findings showed that, on average, practice performance on aspirin use, blood pressure control, and smoking-cessation support quality measures was 64% for aspirin, 63% for blood pressure, and 62% for smoking-cessation support. Practice characteristics associated with aspirin use, blood pressure control, and smoking-cessation support performance included ownership, rurality, and disruptions.
Citation: Marino M, Solberg L, Springer R . Cardiovascular disease preventive services among smaller primary care practices. Am J Prev Med 2022 May;62(5):e285-e95. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2021.10.011..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Primary Care, Prevention
Huang J, Graetz I, Millman A
Primary care telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic: patient's choice of video versus telephone visit.
The goal of this study was to examine the association between patient characteristics and primary care telemedicine choice among integrated delivery system patients self-scheduling visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings showed that patients of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, or living in low socioeconomic status or low internet access neighborhoods were less likely to schedule video visits. Also, patients 65 years or older, with prior video visit experience or mobile portal access, or visiting their own personal provider were more likely to schedule video visits. While video adoption was substantial in all patient groups examined, differences in telemedicine choice suggested the persistence of a digital divide.
Citation: Huang J, Graetz I, Millman A . Primary care telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic: patient's choice of video versus telephone visit. JAMIA Open 2022 Apr;5(1):ooac002. doi: 10.1093/jamiaopen/ooac002..
Keywords: COVID-19, Primary Care, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Access to Care
Perry CK, Linder S, Hall J
How type of practice ownership affects participation with quality improvement external facilitation: findings from EvidenceNOW.
This study examined how practice ownership influences participation in external facilitation using data from EvidenceNOW. The authors collected data from practices on practice characteristics and ownership type via surveys and from facilitators on the number of hours, encounters, and months each practice had with a facilitator via facilitation logs. Semi-structured interviewers with EvidenceNOW leadership (n = 12) and facilitators (n = 51) were conducted, and facilitators (n = 64) were observed for patterns of facilitation. In the fully adjusted model, differences by ownership were non-significant. Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) however, had significantly less participation in facilitation than clinician-owned practices for the measures number of encounters and number of months with encounters.
Citation: Perry CK, Linder S, Hall J . How type of practice ownership affects participation with quality improvement external facilitation: findings from EvidenceNOW. J Gen Intern Med 2022 Mar;37(4):793-801. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-07204-7..
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Primary Care, Practice Improvement
Bierman AS, Tong ST, McNellis RJ
AHRQ Author: Bierman AS, Tong ST, McNellis RJ
Realizing the dream: the future of primary care research.
In this article, the authors discussed the primary care research central to successful primary care transformation and to realizing the vision of a high-performing US health system to serve effectively all Americans and their communities while advancing health equity.
Citation: Bierman AS, Tong ST, McNellis RJ . Realizing the dream: the future of primary care research. Ann Fam Med 2022 Mar-Apr;20(2):170-74. doi: 10.1370/afm.2788..
Keywords: Primary Care, Healthcare Delivery, Evidence-Based Practice, Healthcare Systems, Learning Health Systems, Patient-Centered Healthcare
Reese TJ, Schlechter CR, Kramer H
Implementing lung cancer screening in primary care: needs assessment and implementation strategy design.
This study explored the implementation of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) in primary care. The study’s two goals included exploring the implementation of lung cancer screening primary care in the context of integrating a decision aid into the electronic health record and a designing of implementation strategies that target hypothesized mechanics of change and context-specific barriers. The two phases included a Qualitative Analysis phase including semi-structured interviews with primary care physicians to elicit key task behaviors, and an Implementation Strategy Design phase consisting of defining implementation strategies and hypothesizing causal pathways to improve screening with a decision aid. Fourteen interviews were conducted and out of that 3 key task behaviors and four behavioral determinants emerged. Strategies included increasing provider self-efficacy toward performing shared decision making and using the decision aid, improving provider performance expectancy, increasing social influence, and addressing key facilitators to using the decision aid.
Citation: Reese TJ, Schlechter CR, Kramer H . Implementing lung cancer screening in primary care: needs assessment and implementation strategy design. Transl Behav Med 2022 Feb 16;12(2):187-97. doi: 10.1093/tbm/ibab115..
Keywords: Cancer: Lung Cancer, Cancer, Primary Care, Screening, Implementation, Decision Making
Adler-Milstein J, Linden A, Bernstein S
Longitudinal participation in delivery and payment reform programs among US primary care organizations.
The purpose of this retrospective, observational study was to assess longitudinal primary care organization participation patterns in large-scale reform programs and to identify organizational characteristics associated with multiprogram participation. Medicare claims were used to identify organizations that delivered primary care services. Findings showed that no program achieved more than 50% participation; 36% of organizations did not participate in any program; 50% participated in one; 13% in two; and 1% in all three. Larger organizations, those with younger providers, those with more primary care providers, and those with larger Medicare patient panels were more likely to participate in more programs.
Citation: Adler-Milstein J, Linden A, Bernstein S . Longitudinal participation in delivery and payment reform programs among US primary care organizations. Health Serv Res 2022 Feb;57(1):47-55. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13646..
Keywords: Primary Care, Medicare, Healthcare Delivery
Markovitz AA, Ryan AM, Peterson TA
ACO awareness and perceptions among specialists versus primary care physicians: a survey of a large Medicare Shared Savings program.
This research letter describes a survey that was conducted to compare accountable care organization (ACO) awareness and perceptions among specialists versus primary care physicians (PCPs). The survey was administered in 2018 to clinicians in the Physician Organization of Michigan ACO, which was the largest Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) in Michigan and among the ten largest nationally at the time. The analysis focused on 1022 non-pediatrician physician respondents practicing within 10 provider organizations. Physician respondents included PCPs (23%) and specialists (77%). The most common specialty was internal medicine (20%), followed by surgeons (14%). Specialists were less likely to be aware of ACO participation and incentives. They were also 25% less likely to know they were in an ACO compared to PCPs. In addition, specialists were 18% less likely to know their ACO was accountable for both spending and quality or that their ACO had lowered spending in the previous year. This difference in perception may help to explain ACOs’ modest impact on spending and quality.
Citation: Markovitz AA, Ryan AM, Peterson TA . ACO awareness and perceptions among specialists versus primary care physicians: a survey of a large Medicare Shared Savings program. J Gen Intern Med 2022 Feb;37(2):492-94. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06556-w..
Keywords: Primary Care, Healthcare Costs, Medicare, Provider: Physician
Burstein DS, Liss DT, Linder JA
Association of primary care physician compensation incentives and quality of care in the United States, 2012-2016.
AHRQ-funded; 233201500020I; HS026506; HS028127.
Citation: Burstein DS, Liss DT, Linder JA . Association of primary care physician compensation incentives and quality of care in the United States, 2012-2016. J Gen Intern Med 2022 Feb;37(2):359-66. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-06617-8..
Keywords: Primary Care, Payment, Quality of Care
Wright JH, Owen J, Eells TD
Effect of computer-assisted cognitive behavior therapy vs usual care on depression among adults in primary care: a randomized clinical trial.
Computer-assisted cognitive behavior therapy (CCBT) has been proposed as a method for improving access to effective psychotherapy, reducing cost, and increasing the convenience and efficiency of treatment for depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether clinician-supported CCBT is more effective than treatment as usual (TAU) in primary care patients with depression and to examine the feasibility and implementation of CCBT in a primary care population with substantial numbers of patients with low income, limited internet access, and low levels of educational attainment.
Citation: Wright JH, Owen J, Eells TD . Effect of computer-assisted cognitive behavior therapy vs usual care on depression among adults in primary care: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Feb;5(2):e2146716. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.46716..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health, Primary Care, Treatments, Comparative Effectiveness
Bronstein JM, Huang L, Shelley JP
Primary care visits and ambulatory care sensitive diabetes hospitalizations among adult Alabama Medicaid beneficiaries.
This retrospective cohort study described patterns of care use for Alabama Medicaid adult beneficiaries with diabetes and the association of primary care utilization and ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) diabetes hospitalizations. Alabama Medicaid claims data from January 2010 to April 2018 for 52, 549 covered adults aged 19-64 with diabetes was analyzed. Individuals were categorized by demographics, comorbidities, and health care use. Characteristics of the cohort with and without ACS hospitalization was reported. One third of the cohort had at least one ACS diabetes hospitalization over the observed periods. Hospital users tended to have multiple ACS hospitalizations as well as more comorbidities and pharmaceutical and other types of care use than those with no ACS hospitalizations. Having a primary care visit in one year was significantly associated with a reduced likelihood of ACS hospitalization in the following year.
Citation: Bronstein JM, Huang L, Shelley JP . Primary care visits and ambulatory care sensitive diabetes hospitalizations among adult Alabama Medicaid beneficiaries. Prim Care Diabetes 2022 Feb;16(1):116-21. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2021.10.005..
Keywords: Diabetes, Hospitalization, Medicaid, Primary Care
Cross DA, Stevens MA, Spivack SB
Survey of information exchange and advanced use of other health information technology in primary care settings: capabilities in and outside of the safety net.
This study’s aim was to estimate advanced use of health information technology (health IT) use in safety net versus nonsafety net primary care practices. The authors explored domains of patient engagement, population health management, and electronic information exchange. They examined organizational characteristics that may differently predict advanced use of IT across these settings. A cross-sectional analysis of a national survey of 1776 physician practices was conducted. Health IT use was found to be common across primary care practices, but advanced use of health IT functionalities ranged from only 30% to 50% use. A lag was found for advanced feature use with safety net practices. However, safety net practices who were members of a health system or practice network had comparable health IT capabilities to those in nonsafety net sites.
Citation: Cross DA, Stevens MA, Spivack SB . Survey of information exchange and advanced use of other health information technology in primary care settings: capabilities in and outside of the safety net. Med Care 2022 Feb;60(2):140-48. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001673.
Keywords: Health Information Exchange (HIE), Health Information Technology (HIT), Primary Care
Hysong Hysong, Arredondo K, Hughes AM
An evidence-based, structured, expert approach to selecting essential indicators of primary care quality.
The purpose of this article was to illustrate the application of an evidence-based, structured performance measurement methodology to identify, prioritize, and generate new measures of health care quality, using primary care as a case example. Subject matter experts identified three fundamental objectives: access, patient-health care team partnerships, and technical quality. The authors indicated that their article provides an actionable guide to applying their Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System, which can be adapted to the needs of various industries, including measure selection and modification from existing data sources, and proposing new measures.
Citation: Hysong Hysong, Arredondo K, Hughes AM . An evidence-based, structured, expert approach to selecting essential indicators of primary care quality. PLoS One 2022 Jan 18;17(1):e0261263. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0261263..
Keywords: Primary Care, Evidence-Based Practice, Quality Improvement, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality Measures, Quality of Care
Pestka DL, White KM, DeRoche KK
'Trying to fly the plane while we were building it'. applying a learning health systems approach to evaluate early-stage barriers and facilitators to implementing primary care transformation: a qualitative study.
This study’s objective was to examine the use of a learning health system (LHS) in primary care transformation (PCT) by utilizing the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to categorize implementation lessons. A large integrated health delivery system in Minnesota began implementation of a population management PCT in two of its 40 primary care clinics in May 2019. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted and observational field notes were taken. Inductive coding of the data was performed, and resultant codes were mapped to the CFIR. Seventeen codes emerged to describe care team members from the two clinics to adopt PCT occurring in each of the five CFIR domains (intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of individuals and process), with most codes occurring in the ‘inner setting’ domain.
Citation: Pestka DL, White KM, DeRoche KK . 'Trying to fly the plane while we were building it'. applying a learning health systems approach to evaluate early-stage barriers and facilitators to implementing primary care transformation: a qualitative study. BMJ Open 2022 Jan 3;12(1):e053209. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053209..
Keywords: Learning Health Systems, Healthcare Systems, Primary Care, Practice Improvement
Mojica CM, Gunn R, Pham R
An observational study of workflows to support fecal testing for colorectal cancer screening in primary care practices serving Medicaid enrollees.
This study was conducted to describe clinical workflows for fecal immunochemical tests/fecal occult blood tests (FIT/FOBT) in Oregon primary care practices and to identify specific workflow processes that might be associated with higher colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates. Findings showed that primary care practices with higher CRC screening rates among newly age-eligible Medicaid enrollees had more established visit-based and population outreach workflows to support identifying patients due for screening, FIT/FOBT distribution, reminders, and follow up. Higher CRC screening was associated with having medical assistants discuss and review FIT/FOBT screening and instructions with patients.
Citation: Mojica CM, Gunn R, Pham R . An observational study of workflows to support fecal testing for colorectal cancer screening in primary care practices serving Medicaid enrollees. BMC Cancer 2022 Jan 25;22(1):106. doi: 10.1186/s12885-021-09106-7..
Keywords: Workflow, Screening, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Primary Care, Vulnerable Populations
Ahern J, Singer S, Bhanja A
Considering dentists within the healthcare team: a cross-sectional, multi-state analysis of primary care provider and staff perspectives.
The authors used novel survey data to examine the extent to which primary care providers, other providers, and staff consider dentists part of the healthcare team, and assessed associated practice and individual characteristics. Their findings indicated that dentists are frequently not considered part of the healthcare team in primary care settings. Further, varied responses within practices suggested that provider and staff perceptions may pose challenges to integrating dentists into primary care. Respondents in practices with more integrated diabetes care management processes were more likely to consider dentists as part of the healthcare team, reflecting dental care recommendations made by the American Diabetes Association.
Citation: Ahern J, Singer S, Bhanja A . Considering dentists within the healthcare team: a cross-sectional, multi-state analysis of primary care provider and staff perspectives. J Gen Intern Med 2022 Jan;37(1):246-48. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06564-w..
Keywords: Primary Care, Provider: Health Personnel, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Care Coordination
Zittleman L, Curcija K, Nease DE
Increasing capacity for treatment of opioid use disorder in rural primary care practices.
Evidence supports treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) with buprenorphine in primary care practices (PCPs). Barriers that slow implementation of this treatment include inadequately trained staff. This study aimed to increase the number of rural PCPs providing OUD treatment with buprenorphine. This evaluation described the impact of a practice team training on the implementation and delivery of OUD treatment with buprenorphine in PCPs of rural Colorado.
Citation: Zittleman L, Curcija K, Nease DE . Increasing capacity for treatment of opioid use disorder in rural primary care practices. Ann Fam Med 2022 Jan-Feb;20(1):18-23. doi: 10.1370/afm.2757..
Keywords: Opioids, Rural Health, Primary Care, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Training, Implementation, Medication
Hemler JR, Edwards ST, Valenzuela S
The effects of major disruptions on practice participation in facilitation during a primary care quality improvement initiative.
This study explored the relationship between disruptions in primary care practices and practice participation in facilitated quality improvement (QI). Using data from EvidenceNOW, findings showed that disruptions are prevalent in primary care, but practices can continue participating in QI interventions, particularly when supported by a facilitator.
Citation: Hemler JR, Edwards ST, Valenzuela S . The effects of major disruptions on practice participation in facilitation during a primary care quality improvement initiative. J Am Board Fam Med 2022 Jan-Feb;35(1):124-39. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2022.01.210205..
Keywords: Primary Care, Practice Improvement, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Workforce
White AEC, Hood-Medland EA, Kravitz RL
Visit linearity in primary care visits for patients with chronic pain on long-term opioid therapy.
Physicians and patients report frustration after primary care visits for chronic pain. The need to shift between multiple clinical topics to address competing demands during visits may contribute to this frustration. This study created a novel measure, "visit linearity," to assess visit organization and examined whether visits that required less shifting back and forth between topics were associated with better patient and physician visit experiences.
Citation: White AEC, Hood-Medland EA, Kravitz RL . Visit linearity in primary care visits for patients with chronic pain on long-term opioid therapy. J Gen Intern Med 2022 Jan;37(1):78-86. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-06917-z..
Keywords: Opioids, Pain, Chronic Conditions, Primary Care, Medication
Ibemere SO, Tanabe P, Bonnabeau E
Awareness and use of the sickle cell disease toolbox by primary care providers in North Carolina.
The authors developed a decision support tool for sickle cell disease (SCD) for SCD management (SCD Toolbox) based on the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's SCD guidelines. Using data from primary care providers (PCPs) in North Carolina, they found that PCPs rarely co-managed with a specialist, had low awareness and use of the SCD Toolbox, and requested multiple formats for the toolbox.
Citation: Ibemere SO, Tanabe P, Bonnabeau E . Awareness and use of the sickle cell disease toolbox by primary care providers in North Carolina. J Prim Care Community Health 2021 Jan-Dec;12:21501327211049050. doi: 10.1177/21501327211049050..
Keywords: Sickle Cell Disease, Primary Care, Chronic Conditions, Decision Making, Evidence-Based Practice
Heller CG, Rehm CD, Parsons AH
The association between social needs and chronic conditions in a large, urban primary care population.
This study sought to understand the association between social needs and chronic health conditions using a screening tool and clinical data from Electronic Health Records. From April 2018 to December 2019, 33,550 adult patients completed a 10-item social needs screening tool during primary visits in Bronx and Westchester Counties, NY. A positive, cumulative association between social needs and each of the eight outcomes asked about was found. The relationship was strongest for elevated PHQ-2 (depression screening), alcohol/drug use disorder, and smoking. Those with 3 or greater social needs were 3.9 times more likely to have an elevated PHQ-2 than those without needs. Healthcare transportation challenges was associated with each condition and was the most strongly associated need with half of conditions in the fully-adjusted models. Examples included those with an alcohol/drug use disorder (84% more likely), and smokers (41% more likely).
Citation: Heller CG, Rehm CD, Parsons AH . The association between social needs and chronic conditions in a large, urban primary care population. Prev Med 2021 Dec;153:106752. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106752..
Keywords: Chronic Conditions, Urban Health, Primary Care, Low-Income, Social Determinants of Health, Screening
Neprash HT, Zink A, Sheridan B
The effect of Medicaid expansion on Medicaid participation, payer mix, and labor supply in primary care.
Citation: Neprash HT, Zink A, Sheridan B . The effect of Medicaid expansion on Medicaid participation, payer mix, and labor supply in primary care. J Health Econ 2021 Dec;80:102541. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2021.102541..
Keywords: Medicare, Healthcare Utilization, Primary Care, Workforce, Health Insurance
McClure JB, Lapham G
Tobacco quitline engagement and outcomes among primary care patients reporting use of tobacco or dual tobacco and cannabis: an observational study.
Researchers examined dual users of tobacco and cannabis and how this use impacts individuals' interest in or ability to stop smoking. They found that, although dual use of tobacco and cannabis is common among smokers seen in primary care and those enrolling in quitline care, it may not undermine tobacco quitline engagement or smoking cessation. They concluded that tobacco quitline care was equally engaging and effective among tobacco users and dual users of tobacco and cannabis.
Citation: McClure JB, Lapham G . Tobacco quitline engagement and outcomes among primary care patients reporting use of tobacco or dual tobacco and cannabis: an observational study. Subst Abus 2021;42(4):417-22. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2020.1846665..
Keywords: Tobacco Use, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Primary Care
Abraham CM, Zheng K, Norful AA
Use of multifunctional electronic health records and burnout among primary care nurse practitioners.
This study investigated whether there is an association with the use of multifunctional electronic health records (EHRs) with nurse practitioner (NP) burnout in primary care practices. The study used cross-sectional survey data secondary analysis collected from NPs in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The NPs completed surveys measuring burnout, use of multifunctional EHRs, demographics, and characteristics of their practice. Of 396 NPs included, 25.3% reported burnout, but the use of multifunctional EHRs did not increase primary care NP burnout.
Citation: Abraham CM, Zheng K, Norful AA . Use of multifunctional electronic health records and burnout among primary care nurse practitioners. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract 2021 Dec;33(12):1182-89. doi: 10.1097/jxx.0000000000000533..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Burnout, Provider: Nurse, Primary Care
Tobin JN, Cassells A, Weiss E
Integrating cancer screening and mental health services in primary care: protocol and baseline results of a patient-centered outcomes intervention study.
Citation: Tobin JN, Cassells A, Weiss E . Integrating cancer screening and mental health services in primary care: protocol and baseline results of a patient-centered outcomes intervention study. J Health Care Poor Underserved 2021;32(4):1907-34. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2021.0173..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Cancer, Behavioral Health, Primary Care, Depression, Women, Screening
Jonas DE, Barclay C, Grammer D
The STUN (STop UNhealthy) Alcohol Use Now trial: study protocol for an adaptive randomized trial on dissemination and implementation of screening and management of unhealthy alcohol use in primary care.
This paper describes a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of primary care practice facilitation and telehealth services on evidence-based screening, counseling, and pharmacotherapy for unhealthy alcohol use in primary care practices in North Carolina with 10 or fewer providers. The study will produce important evidence about the effect of practice facilitation on uptake of evidence-based screening, counseling, and pharmacotherapy for unhealthy alcohol use when delivered on a large scale to small and medium-sized practices. The results of this rigorously conducted evaluation are expected to have a positive impact by accelerating the dissemination and implementation of evidence related to unhealthy alcohol use into primary care practices.
Citation: Jonas DE, Barclay C, Grammer D . The STUN (STop UNhealthy) Alcohol Use Now trial: study protocol for an adaptive randomized trial on dissemination and implementation of screening and management of unhealthy alcohol use in primary care. Trials 2021 Nov 16;22(1):810. doi: 10.1186/s13063-021-05641-7..
Keywords: Alcohol Use, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Primary Care, Screening, Implementation