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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 578 Research Studies Displayed
Davidson KW, Krist AH, Tseng CW
AHRQ Author: Mills J, Borsky A
Incorporation of social risk in US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and identification of key challenges for primary care.
The authors assessed how social risks have been considered in USPSTF recommendation statements and identified current gaps in evidence needed to expand the systematic inclusion of social risks in future recommendations. They concluded that their report serves as a benchmark and foundation for ongoing work to advance the goal of ensuring that health equity and social risks are incorporated into USPSTF methods and recommendations.
Citation: Davidson KW, Krist AH, Tseng CW . Incorporation of social risk in US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and identification of key challenges for primary care. JAMA 2021 Oct 12;326(14):1410-15. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.12833..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Primary Care, Social Determinants of Health, Risk, Evidence-Based Practice, Research Methodologies, Guidelines
Bierman AS, Wang J, O'Malley PG
AHRQ Author: Bierman AS, Wang J, O'Malley PG, Moss DK
Transforming care for people with multiple chronic conditions: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's research agenda.
This article describes issues addressing the needs of those with multiple chronic conditions and discusses the AHRQ research agenda.
Citation: Bierman AS, Wang J, O'Malley PG . Transforming care for people with multiple chronic conditions: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's research agenda. Health Serv Res 2021 Oct;56(Suppl 1):973-79. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13863..
Keywords: Chronic Conditions, Health Services Research (HSR), Healthcare Delivery, Quality of Care, Primary Care, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice
Lewis VA, Spivack S, Murray GF
FQHC designation and safety net patient revenue associated with primary care practice capabilities for access and quality.
Researchers assessed capabilities around access to and quality of care among primary care practices serving a high share of Medicaid and uninsured patients compared to practices serving a low share of these patients. Data from the National Survey of Healthcare Organizations and Systems was analyzed. They found that federally qualified health centers were more likely than other types of primary care practices (both safety net practices and other practices) to possess capabilities related to access and quality. However, safety net practices were less likely than non-safety net practices to possess health information technology capabilities.
Citation: Lewis VA, Spivack S, Murray GF . FQHC designation and safety net patient revenue associated with primary care practice capabilities for access and quality. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Oct;36(10):2922-28. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-06746-0..
Keywords: Safety Net, Vulnerable Populations, Primary Care, Access to Care, Uninsured, Medicaid, Quality of Care
Nederveld A, Phimphasone-Brady P, Connelly L
The joys and challenges of delivering obesity care: a qualitative study of US primary care practices.
The authors sought to explore the experience of providing obesity management among primary care clinicians and their team members involved with weight loss in primary care practices. They identified three primary themes: (1) clinicians and staff involved in obesity management in primary care believe that addressing obesity is an essential part of primary care services, (2) because providing obesity care can be challenging, many practices opt out of treatment, and (3) despite the challenges, many clinicians and others find treating obesity feasible, satisfying, and worthwhile. The authors concluded that, in order to improve the ability of clinicians and practice members to treat obesity, important changes in payment, education, and work processes are necessary.
Citation: Nederveld A, Phimphasone-Brady P, Connelly L . The joys and challenges of delivering obesity care: a qualitative study of US primary care practices. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Sep;36(9):2709-16. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06548-w..
Keywords: Obesity, Obesity: Weight Management, Primary Care, Medicare
Ye J, Zhang R, Bannon JE
Identifying practice facilitation delays and barriers in primary care quality improvement.
Practice facilitation is an effective approach to implementing quality improvement (QI) interventions in practice-based research networks (PBRNs). Regular facilitator-practice interactions are necessary for successful facilitation and missed engagements may hinder the process of practice improvement. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to characterize the dynamics of practice facilitation and examine facilitation delays and barriers, as well as their association with the achievement of QI program goals in a PBRN initiative.
Citation: Ye J, Zhang R, Bannon JE . Identifying practice facilitation delays and barriers in primary care quality improvement. J Am Board Fam Med 2020 Sep-Oct;33(5):655-64. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2020.05.200058..
Keywords: Practice Improvement, Primary Care, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Luo Z, Gritz M, Connelly L
A survey of primary care practices on their use of the intensive behavioral therapy for obese Medicare patients.
The objective of this study was to fill the gap in knowledge on systematic differences between primary care practices (PCP) that do or do not provide intensive behavioral therapy (IBT) for obese Medicare patients. The investigators concluded that although the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services established payment codes for PCPs to deliver IBT for obesity in 2011, very few providers submitted fee-for-service claims for these services after almost 10 years.
Citation: Luo Z, Gritz M, Connelly L . A survey of primary care practices on their use of the intensive behavioral therapy for obese Medicare patients. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Sep;36(9):2700-08. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-06596-w..
Keywords: Primary Care, Obesity, Behavioral Health, Medicare, Elderly
Quigley DD, Slaughter M, Qureshi N
Practices and changes associated with patient-centered medical home transformation.
Knowing which patient-centered medical home (PCMH) care delivery changes and quality improvement (QI) practices further PCMH implementation is essential. In this study, the investigators used the 2008-2017 National Committee of Quality Assurance (NCQA) PCMH directory of 15,188 primary care practices that received Level 1, 2, or 3 NCQA PCMH recognition to: 1.) construct a stratified national sample of 105 practices engaged in PCMH transformation and 2.) examine their QI practices and PCMH changes associated with PCMH transformation.
AHRQ-funded; HS016980; HS025920.
Citation: Quigley DD, Slaughter M, Qureshi N . Practices and changes associated with patient-centered medical home transformation. Am J Manag Care 2021 Sep;27(9):386-93. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2021.88740..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Primary Care, Practice Improvement, Healthcare Delivery, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Chen H, Upadhyay N, Lyu N
Association of primary and behavioral health integrated care upon pediatric mental disorder treatment.
This study’s objective was to examine whether linkage with mental health (MH) treatment differed across 3 different integrated care agreements (ICAs) following diagnosis for Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) or Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) given by primary care providers (PCPs) in the pediatric setting. The ICAs were categorized as PCPs who practiced alone (non-co-located); PCPs practiced with specialist outside the practice but co-located at the practice site; and employed specialists who were co-located. A total of 4203 incident ADHD and 298 incident MDD diagnoses were identified, of which 74% of ADHD cases and 67% of MDD cases received treatment within 90 days of diagnosis. Children with ADHD were twice as likely to receive treatment if they were diagnosed by non-co-located or co-affiliated PCPs than those diagnosed by non-co-located PCPs. Those treated children were also 2 times more likely to receive guideline recommended psychotherapy and treated at the diagnosing site versus elsewhere.
Citation: Chen H, Upadhyay N, Lyu N . Association of primary and behavioral health integrated care upon pediatric mental disorder treatment. Acad Pediatr 2021 Sep-Oct;21(7):1187-94. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.05.021..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Behavioral Health, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Primary Care, Healthcare Delivery, Depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Quigley DD, Qureshi N, AlMasarweh L
Using CAHPS patient experience data for patient-centered medical home transformation.
The purpose of this study was to examine how primary care practices used the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey and its patient-centered medical home (PCMH) items during their PCMH transition. The investigators concluded that CAHPS surveys were considered actionable for PCMH transformation and used in standardizing and coordinating care. The CAHPS PCMH items were considered integral to the continuous QI needed for moving beyond formal PCMH recognition and maximizing transformation.
AHRQ-funded; HS016980; HS025920.
Citation: Quigley DD, Qureshi N, AlMasarweh L . Using CAHPS patient experience data for patient-centered medical home transformation. Am J Manag Care 2021 Sep;27(9):e322-e29. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2021.88745..
Keywords: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), Patient Experience, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Primary Care, Practice Improvement, Healthcare Delivery, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Abraham CM, Zheng K, Norful AA
Primary care nurse practitioner burnout and perceptions of quality of care.
Researchers investigated the relationship between primary care nurse practitioner (NP) burnout on perceptions of care quality and if the practice environment moderated the relationship between burnout and care quality. This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data from 396 NPs; the practice environment was measured using the Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Organizational Climate Questionnaire. The researchers found that burnout was related to lower perceptions of care quality but favorable environments were related to higher perceptions of quality.
Citation: Abraham CM, Zheng K, Norful AA . Primary care nurse practitioner burnout and perceptions of quality of care. Nurs Forum 2021 Jul;56(3):550-59. doi: 10.1111/nuf.12579..
Keywords: Burnout, Provider: Nurse, Primary Care, Quality of Care
Pham-Singer H, Onakomaiya M, Cuthel A
Using a customer relationship management system to manage a quality improvement intervention.
HealthyHearts New York City (HHNYC), one of 7 cooperatives funded through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's EvidenceNOW initiative, evaluated the impact of practice facilitation on implementation of the Million Hearts guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. Tracking the intervention required a system to facilitate process data collection that was also user-friendly and flexible. Coupled with protocols and training, a strategically planned and customizable customer relationship management system (CRMS) was implemented to support the quality improvement intervention with 257 small independent practices.
Citation: Pham-Singer H, Onakomaiya M, Cuthel A . Using a customer relationship management system to manage a quality improvement intervention. Am J Med Qual 2021 Jul-Aug;36(4):247-54. doi: 10.1177/1062860620953214..
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Implementation, Evidence-Based Practice, Cardiovascular Conditions, Heart Disease and Health, Primary Care
Tung EL, De Marchis EH, Gottlieb LM
Patient experiences with screening and assistance for social isolation in primary care settings.
Social isolation is a known predictor of mortality that disproportionately affects vulnerable populations in the USA. Although experts began to recognize it as a public health crisis prior to 2020, the novel coronavirus pandemic has accelerated recognition of social isolation as a serious threat to health and well-being. The objectives of this study were to examine patient experiences with screening and assistance for social isolation in primary care settings, and to determine whether patient experiences with these activities were associated with the severity of reported social isolation.
AHRQ-funded; HS026664; HS026383.
Citation: Tung EL, De Marchis EH, Gottlieb LM . Patient experiences with screening and assistance for social isolation in primary care settings. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Jul;36(7):1951-57. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06484-9..
Keywords: COVID-19, Patient Experience, Primary Care
Hung DY, Mujal G, Jin A
Patient experiences after implementing lean primary care redesigns.
The authors examined the effect of Lean primary care redesigns on patient satisfaction with care and timeliness of care received. After implementation of Lean redesigns, they found that patients reported a 44.8 percent increase in satisfaction with the adequacy of time spent with care providers during office visits. They also reported 71.6 percent higher satisfaction with their care provider's ability to listen to their concerns and a 55.4 percent increase in perceived staff helpfulness at the visit. The amount of time elapsed between a patient request for a routine appointment and the scheduled visit day decreased. On the day of the visit, patient wait times to be seen also decreased gradually.
Citation: Hung DY, Mujal G, Jin A . Patient experiences after implementing lean primary care redesigns. Health Serv Res 2021 Jun;56(3):363-70. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13605..
Keywords: Patient Experience, Primary Care: Models of Care, Primary Care, Workflow, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Liss DT, Uchida T, Wilkes CL
General health checks in adult primary care: a review.
General health checks, also known as general medical examinations, periodic health evaluations, checkups, routine visits, or wellness visits, are commonly performed in adult primary care to identify and prevent disease. Although general health checks are often expected and advocated by patients, clinicians, insurers, and health systems, others question their value. Randomized trials and observational studies with control groups reported in prior systematic reviews and an updated literature review through March 2021 were included in this study.
AHRQ-funded; HS026506; HS028127.
Citation: Liss DT, Uchida T, Wilkes CL . General health checks in adult primary care: a review. JAMA 2021 Jun 8;325(22):2294-306. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.6524..
Keywords: Primary Care, Prevention
Simon CB, Klein JW, Bradley KA
Primary care patients with opioid use disorder have a high prevalence of pain and mental health and other substance use disorders.
One potential challenge of treating OUD in primary care is comorbidity. Mental health and substance use disorders and chronic pain are common in patients with Opioid Use Disorders (OUDs) in specialty OUD treatment settings and on confidential surveys, but the prevalence of such comorbidity in primary care patients with OUD has not been confirmed. This brief report addressed that gap.
Citation: Simon CB, Klein JW, Bradley KA . Primary care patients with opioid use disorder have a high prevalence of pain and mental health and other substance use disorders. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Jun;36(6):1799-801. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-05820-3..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Primary Care
Fung V, McCarthy S, Price M
Payment discrepancies and access to primary care physicians for dual-eligible Medicare-Medicaid beneficiaries.
This study examined whether the Affordable Care Act (ACA) primary care fee bump for dual-eligible Medicare-Medicaid beneficiaries impacted primary care physicians (PCP) acceptance of duals. The authors assessed differences in the likelihood that PCPs had dual caseloads of ≥10% or 20% in states with lower versus full dual reimbursement using linear probability models adjusted for physician and area-level traits. The proportion of PCPs with dual caseloads of ≥10% or 20% decreased significantly between 2012 and 2017. The fee bump was not consistently associated with increases in dual caseloads.
Citation: Fung V, McCarthy S, Price M . Payment discrepancies and access to primary care physicians for dual-eligible Medicare-Medicaid beneficiaries. Med Care 2021 Jun;59(6):487-94. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001525..
Keywords: Primary Care, Medicaid, Medicare, Health Insurance, Payment, Access to Care
Campbell NL, Holden RJ, Tang Q
Multicomponent behavioral intervention to reduce exposure to anticholinergics in primary care older adults.
This study tested the effectiveness of a multicomponent behavioral intervention to reduce the use of high-risk anticholinergic medications in primary care older adults. Ten primary care clinics within Eskenazi Health in Indianapolis were selected to test the intervention. The intervention included provider- and patient-focused components. The provider-focused component was a computerized decision support system alerting the presence of a high-risk anticholinergic and offering dose- and indication-specific alternatives; while the patient-focused component was a story-based video providing education and modeling an interaction with a healthcare provider. The intervention occurred from April 2019 through March 2020. A total of 552 older adults had primary care visits during the study period. Only 3 out of 259 provider-focused alerts led to a medication change. Of the 276 staff alerts, 4.7% were confirmed to activate the patient-focused intervention.
Citation: Campbell NL, Holden RJ, Tang Q . Multicomponent behavioral intervention to reduce exposure to anticholinergics in primary care older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jun;69(6):1490-99. doi: 10.1111/jgs.17121..
Keywords: Elderly, Medication, Primary Care, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Decision Making
Edwards ST, Marino M, Solberg LI
Cultural and structural features of zero-burnout primary care practices.
There have been a lot of studies on individual-level drivers of burnout in primary care settings, but none have focused on zero-burnout practices. This cross-sectional analysis survey used data from 715 small-to-medium-size primary care practices in the US participating in AHRQ’s EvidenceNOW initiative. The authors found that zero-burnout practices had higher levels of psychological safety and adaptive reserve. Zero-burnout practices also reported more quality improvement strategies compared with high-burnout practices. More zero-burnout practices were solo or clinician owned, and less commonly had participated in accountable care organizations or other demonstration projects.
Citation: Edwards ST, Marino M, Solberg LI . Cultural and structural features of zero-burnout primary care practices. Health Aff 2021 Jun;40(6):928-36. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.02391..
Keywords: Burnout, Primary Care
Cohen DJ, Sweeney SM, Miller WL
Improving smoking and blood pressure outcomes: the interplay between operational changes and local context.
This study identified conditions and operational changes linked to improvements in smoking and blood pressure (BP) outcomes in primary care using samples and interviews from a subset of 104 practices participating in EvidenceNOW, a multisite cardiovascular disease prevention initiative. The authors calculated Clinical Quality Measure improvements, with targets of 10-point or greater absolute improvements in the proportion of patients with smoking screening, and if relevant, counseling and the proportion of hypertensive patients with adequately controlled BP. Primary care staff were surveyed and interviewed. In clinician-owned practices, implementing a workflow to routinely screen and counsel patients on smoking cessation resources, or implementing a documentation change or a referral to a resource alone led to an improvement of at least 10 points in the smoking outcome. These improvements did not occur though in health- or hospital system-owned practices or in Federally Qualified Health Centers. BP outcome improved by at least 10 points among solo practices after medical assistants learned how to take an accurate BP. Among larger, clinician-owned practices, BP outcomes improvement took place when staff took a second BP measurement after the first measurement was elevated and when staff learned where to document this information in the electronic health record. For larger and health- and hospital system-owned practices, 50 or more hours of facilitation was needed to improve BP outcomes.
Citation: Cohen DJ, Sweeney SM, Miller WL . Improving smoking and blood pressure outcomes: the interplay between operational changes and local context. Ann Fam Med 2021 May-Jun;19(3):240-48. doi: 10.1370/afm.2668..
Keywords: Tobacco Use, Blood Pressure, Hypertension, Primary Care, Cardiovascular Conditions, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes
Goldberg DG, Soylu TG, Kitsantas P
Burnout among primary care providers and staff: evaluating the association with practice adaptive reserve and individual behaviors.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between practice adaptive reserve (PAR) and individual behavioral response to change and burnout among healthcare professionals in primary care. Using data from the EvidenceNOW Heart of Virginia Healthcare initiative, the study’s findings showed that, as organizational capacity for change increased, burnout in healthcare professionals decreased by 51%. As healthcare professionals showed improved response toward change, burnout decreased by 84%. Increased hours of work per week was associated with higher odds of burnout across healthcare professional groups.
Citation: Goldberg DG, Soylu TG, Kitsantas P . Burnout among primary care providers and staff: evaluating the association with practice adaptive reserve and individual behaviors. J Gen Intern Med 2021 May;36(5):1222-28. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06367-z..
Keywords: Burnout, Primary Care, Provider: Nurse, Provider: Clinician, Provider: Physician, Provider
Whaley CM, Zhao X, Richards M
Higher Medicare spending on imaging and lab services after primary care physician group vertical integration.
This study looked at the impact of direct ownership of physician practices by hospitals and health systems (vertical integration) on Medicare spending for imaging and lab services. A 100% sample of 2013-16 Medicare fee-for-service claims data was examined to determine if vertical integration was associated with changes in site of care and Medicare reimbursement rates for ten common diagnostic imaging and laboratory services. After vertical integration, the monthly number of diagnostic imaging tests per 1,000 attributed beneficiaries increased in a hospital setting by 26.3 per 1000, and the number performed in a nonhospital setting decreased by 24.8 per 1,000. Hospital-based laboratory tests increased by 44.5 per 1,000 and non-hospital-based laboratory tests decreased by 36.0 per 1,000. Average Medicare reimbursement rose by $6.38 for imaging tests and $0.57 for laboratory tests. This translates to $40.2 million increase for imaging and $32.9 million increase for laboratory tests in Medicare spending for the study period.
Citation: Whaley CM, Zhao X, Richards M . Higher Medicare spending on imaging and lab services after primary care physician group vertical integration. Health Aff 2021 May;40(5):702-09. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01006..
Keywords: Medicare, Healthcare Costs, Imaging, Primary Care
Linke SE, Kallenberg GR, Kronick R
Integrating "Exercise Is Medicine" into primary care workflow: a study protocol.
As a major contributor to the burden of most chronic diseases, insufficient physical activity (PA) creates a significant financial burden on the health care system. Exercise Is Medicine (EIM) is a global health initiative committed to the belief that PA is integral to the prevention and treatment of diseases and should be routinely assessed as a vital sign and treated in the health care setting. This paper described an in-progress embedded quality improvement (QI) project that integrated EIM into routine clinical practice.
Citation: Linke SE, Kallenberg GR, Kronick R . Integrating "Exercise Is Medicine" into primary care workflow: a study protocol. Transl Behav Med 2021 Apr 26;11(4):921-29. doi: 10.1093/tbm/ibaa088..
Keywords: Primary Care, Lifestyle Changes, Workflow, Healthcare Delivery
Kuo YF, Agrawal P, Chou LN
Assessing association between team structure and health outcome and cost by social network analysis.
Researchers sought to assess the impact of team structure composition and degree of collaboration among various providers on process and outcomes of primary care. Their findings showed that highly connected primary care practices with high collaborative care and less top-down MD-centered authority have lower odds of hospitalization, fewer emergency room admissions, and lower total spending. They concluded that these findings likely reflect better communication and more coordinated care of older patients.
Citation: Kuo YF, Agrawal P, Chou LN . Assessing association between team structure and health outcome and cost by social network analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Apr;69(4):946-54. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16962..
Keywords: Elderly, Teams, Healthcare Delivery, Primary Care, Primary Care: Models of Care, Care Coordination
Grove LR, Gertner AK, Swietek KE
Effect of enhanced primary care for people with serious mental illness on service use and screening.
This retrospective cohort study compared healthcare use and screening receipt of people with serious mental illness (SMI) newly receiving enhanced primary care to people with SMI newly receiving usual primary care. Outcome measures included outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, inpatient stays and dates, and recommended screenings 18 months after the initial visit. Enhanced primary care was associated with an increase of 1.2 primary care visits in the 18 months after the initial visit and decreases of 0.33 non-psychiatric inpatient days and 3.0 non-psychiatric inpatient days. There was no significant effect on psychiatric service and ED visits. Enhanced primary care increased the probability of preventive screenings such as glucose and HIV, decreased the probability of lipid screening, and had no effect on hemoglobin A1c and colorectal cancer screening.
Citation: Grove LR, Gertner AK, Swietek KE . Effect of enhanced primary care for people with serious mental illness on service use and screening. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Apr;36(4):970-77. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06429-2..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Primary Care: Models of Care, Primary Care, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Screening, Healthcare Utilization, Healthcare Delivery
Tanabe P, Blewer AL, Bonnabeau E
Dissemination of evidence-based recommendations for sickle cell disease to primary care and emergency department providers in North Carolina: a cost benefit analysis.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic condition affecting primarily individuals of African descent, who happen to be disproportionately impacted by poverty and who lack access to health care. Many providers do not feel prepared to care for individuals with SCD, despite the existence of evidence-based guidelines. The authors report the development of a SCD toolbox and the dissemination process to primary care and emergency department (ED) providers in North Carolina (NC). They report the effect of this dissemination on health-care utilization, cost of care, and overall cost-benefit.
Citation: Tanabe P, Blewer AL, Bonnabeau E . Dissemination of evidence-based recommendations for sickle cell disease to primary care and emergency department providers in North Carolina: a cost benefit analysis. J Health Econ Outcomes Res 2021 Apr 1;8(1):18-28. doi: 10.36469/jheor.2021.21535..
Keywords: Sickle Cell Disease, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Primary Care, Emergency Department, Tools & Toolkits