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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 7 of 7 Research Studies Displayed
Montoya-Williams D, Passarella M, Lorch SA
The impact of paid family leave in the United States on birth outcomes and mortality in the first year of life.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of paid family leave in California on statewide rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, post-neonatal mortality, and overall infant mortality. Probabilistic methods were used to match records of live birth with maternal and newborn hospital records; only singleton births were included in the study. Rates of infant health outcomes before and after implementation of the 2004 policy in California were compared with rates in two states that had no paid family leave policy. Findings showed that implementation of paid family leave policies in California was associated with a 12-percent reduction in post-neonatal mortality after adjusting for maternal and neonatal factors.
Citation: Montoya-Williams D, Passarella M, Lorch SA . The impact of paid family leave in the United States on birth outcomes and mortality in the first year of life. Health Serv Res 2020 Oct;55(Suppl 2):807-14. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13288..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Pregnancy, Mortality, Policy, Outcomes, Labor and Delivery
Chang SH, Wang M, Liu X
Racial/ethnic disparities in access and outcomes of simultaneous liver-kidney transplant among liver transplant candidates with renal dysfunction in the United States.
Since the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) allocation system was implemented, the proportion of simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLKT) has increased significantly. The investigators study whether racial/ethnic disparities exist in access to SLKT and post-SLKT survival. The investigators concluded that in the MELD era, racial/ethnic differences exist in access and survival of SLKT for patients with renal dysfunction at listing for LT.
Citation: Chang SH, Wang M, Liu X . Racial/ethnic disparities in access and outcomes of simultaneous liver-kidney transplant among liver transplant candidates with renal dysfunction in the United States. Transplantation 2019 Aug;103(8):1663-74. doi: 10.1097/tp.0000000000002574..
Keywords: Access to Care, Disparities, Kidney Disease and Health, Outcomes, Policy, Transplantation
Kahn JM, Davis BS, Yabes JG
Association between state-mandated protocolized sepsis care and in-hospital mortality among adults with sepsis.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between New York State sepsis regulations and the outcomes of patients hospitalized with sepsis. Results showed that, in New York State, mandated protocolized sepsis care was associated with a greater decrease in sepsis mortality compared with sepsis mortality in control states (Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New Jersey) that did not implement sepsis regulations. The authors add that, because baseline mortality rates differ between New York and the comparison states, it is uncertain whether these findings will be generalizable to other states.
Citation: Kahn JM, Davis BS, Yabes JG . Association between state-mandated protocolized sepsis care and in-hospital mortality among adults with sepsis. JAMA 2019 Jul 16;322(3):240-50. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.9021..
Keywords: Guidelines, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Hospitalization, Mortality, Outcomes, Policy, Sepsis
Chui PW, Parzynski CS, Ross JS
Association of statewide certificate of need regulations with percutaneous coronary intervention appropriateness and outcomes.
This study sought to characterize the association between state certificate of need (CON) regulations and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) appropriateness. The investigators found that states with CON had lower proportions of rarely appropriate PCI s, but the absolute differences were small. The investigators note that the findings suggest that CON regulations alone may not limit rarely appropriate PCI among patients with and without acute coronary syndrome.
Citation: Chui PW, Parzynski CS, Ross JS . Association of statewide certificate of need regulations with percutaneous coronary intervention appropriateness and outcomes. J Am Heart Assoc 2019 Jan 22;8(2):e010373. doi: 10.1161/jaha.118.010373..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Heart Disease and Health, Policy, Surgery
Law AC, Stevens JP, Hohmann S
Patient outcomes after the introduction of statewide ICU nurse staffing regulations.
The objective of this study was to assess whether Massachusetts legislation directed at ICU nurse staffing was associated with improvements in patient outcomes. The investigators found that state regulation of patient-to-nurse staffing with the aid of patient complexity scores in intensive care was not associated with either increased nurse staffing or changes in patient outcomes.
Citation: Law AC, Stevens JP, Hohmann S . Patient outcomes after the introduction of statewide ICU nurse staffing regulations. Crit Care Med 2018 Sep 4;46(10):1563-69. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000003286..
Keywords: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Policy, Nursing, Outcomes, Patient Safety
Sjoding MW, Cooke CR
The importance of rigorous evaluation of quality measurement programs.
The authors comment on a study evaluating a California program to determine whether public reporting of ICU mortality rates improved patient outcomes. They argue that as these programs move from public reporting to pay-for-performance as a primary mechanism for incentivizing improvement, the research community must ensure they are both fair and effective.
Citation: Sjoding MW, Cooke CR . The importance of rigorous evaluation of quality measurement programs. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2015 Jan;12(1):107-8. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201412-588ED..
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Public Reporting, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Policy, Outcomes
Davis AE, Mehrotra S, Ladner DP
Changes in geographic disparity in kidney transplantation since the final rule.
The researchers assessed the significance of changes of geographic disparities for four metrics since the 1998 adoption of HHS Final Rule’s emphasizing objective priority criteria: waiting times, transplant rates, pre-transplant mortality, and organ quality. They found that the ranges of the four metrics have worsened by approximately 30% or more after the Final Rule at both the regional and donor service area levels.
Citation: Davis AE, Mehrotra S, Ladner DP . Changes in geographic disparity in kidney transplantation since the final rule. Transplantation 2014 Nov 15;98(9):931-6. doi: 10.1097/tp.0000000000000446..
Keywords: Transplantation, Disparities, Policy, Outcomes