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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 6 of 6 Research Studies Displayed
Montoya-Williams D, Passarella M, Lorch SA
The impact of paid family leave in the United States on birth outcomes and mortality in the first year of life.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of paid family leave in California on statewide rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, post-neonatal mortality, and overall infant mortality. Probabilistic methods were used to match records of live birth with maternal and newborn hospital records; only singleton births were included in the study. Rates of infant health outcomes before and after implementation of the 2004 policy in California were compared with rates in two states that had no paid family leave policy. Findings showed that implementation of paid family leave policies in California was associated with a 12-percent reduction in post-neonatal mortality after adjusting for maternal and neonatal factors.
Citation: Montoya-Williams D, Passarella M, Lorch SA . The impact of paid family leave in the United States on birth outcomes and mortality in the first year of life. Health Serv Res 2020 Oct;55(Suppl 2):807-14. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13288..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Pregnancy, Mortality, Policy, Outcomes, Labor and Delivery
Auger KA, Shah SS, Richardson T
Association between statewide school closure and COVID-19 incidence and mortality in the US.
This study examined whether school closures between March and May due to the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with decreased COVID-19 incidence and mortality. States were examined in quartiles using the number of cases per 100,000 population. States with the lowest cumulative incidence had the most significant decline (-72%) in cases compared to states with the highest incidence (-49%). States that closed schools earlier had the largest reduction in incidence and mortality.
AHRQ-funded; HS024735, HS026763, HS025138.
Citation: Auger KA, Shah SS, Richardson T . Association between statewide school closure and COVID-19 incidence and mortality in the US. JAMA 2020 Sep;324(9):859-70. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.14348..
Keywords: COVID-19, Public Health, Children/Adolescents, Policy, Mortality
Kahn JM, Davis BS, Yabes JG
Association between state-mandated protocolized sepsis care and in-hospital mortality among adults with sepsis.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between New York State sepsis regulations and the outcomes of patients hospitalized with sepsis. Results showed that, in New York State, mandated protocolized sepsis care was associated with a greater decrease in sepsis mortality compared with sepsis mortality in control states (Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New Jersey) that did not implement sepsis regulations. The authors add that, because baseline mortality rates differ between New York and the comparison states, it is uncertain whether these findings will be generalizable to other states.
Citation: Kahn JM, Davis BS, Yabes JG . Association between state-mandated protocolized sepsis care and in-hospital mortality among adults with sepsis. JAMA 2019 Jul 16;322(3):240-50. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.9021..
Keywords: Guidelines, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Hospitalization, Mortality, Outcomes, Policy, Sepsis
Rees DI, Sabia JJ, Argys LM
With a little help from my friends: the effects of good samaritan and naloxone access laws on opioid-related deaths.
This study examined the effect of good Samaritan and naxolone access laws (NALs) on opioid-related mortality. Most states have adopted these laws, and the early adopters had the most negative association between NALs and overdose deaths. There was a negative but not statistically significant effect on opioid-related deaths for states with Good Samaritan laws.
Citation: Rees DI, Sabia JJ, Argys LM . With a little help from my friends: the effects of good samaritan and naloxone access laws on opioid-related deaths. J Law Econ 2019 Feb;62(1). doi: 10.1086/700703..
Keywords: Opioids, Mortality, Policy, Medication
Kennedy-Hendricks A, Richey M, McGinty EE
Opioid overdose deaths and Florida's crackdown on pill mills.
The researchers examined the effect on opioid overdose mortality of Florida state laws and law enforcement operations targeting "pill mills." They found that Florida's actions were associated with an estimated 1029 lives saved from prescription opioid overdose over a 34-month period, and estimated reductions in deaths grew over the intervention period.
Citation: Kennedy-Hendricks A, Richey M, McGinty EE . Opioid overdose deaths and Florida's crackdown on pill mills. Am J Public Health 2016 Feb;106(2):291-7. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2015.302953.
Keywords: Policy, Medication, Medication: Safety, Mortality, Opioids
Lyon SM, Wunsch H, Asch DA
Use of intensive care services and associated hospital mortality after Massachusetts healthcare reform.
This study examined the impact of increased insurance coverage on intensive care unit (ICU) usage and mortality in Massachusetts where health insurance reform had expanded coverage. It found that reform was not associated with either significant changes in ICU use or changed hospital mortality for ICU patients.
Citation: Lyon SM, Wunsch H, Asch DA . Use of intensive care services and associated hospital mortality after Massachusetts healthcare reform. Crit Care Med. 2014 Apr;42(4):763-70. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000044..
Keywords: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Health Insurance, Healthcare Utilization, Mortality, Policy