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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 372 Research Studies Displayed
Adams C, Wortley P, Chamberlain A
Declining COVID-19 case-fatality in Georgia, USA, March 2020 to March 2021: a sign of real improvement or a broadening epidemic?
This article examined whether declines in the crude US COVID-19 case fatality ratio is due to improved clinical care and/or other factors. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between report month and mortality among confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases and hospitalized cases in Georgia from March 2020 through March 2021. Mortality risk was lowest in November 2020 compared to August 2020 and remained lower until March 2021. Among hospitalized cases, mortality risk increased in December 2020 and January 2021 before declining in March 2021. The authors concluded that improved clinical management may have contributed to lower mortality risk.
Citation: Adams C, Wortley P, Chamberlain A . Declining COVID-19 case-fatality in Georgia, USA, March 2020 to March 2021: a sign of real improvement or a broadening epidemic? Ann Epidemiol 2022 Aug;72:57-64. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2022.05.008..
Keywords: COVID-19, Public Health, Mortality
King C, Cook R, Korthuis PT
Causes of death in the 12 months after hospital discharge among patients with opioid use disorder.
This study described causes of death in the year post-discharge among hospitalized patients with Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). Data was analyzed from participants at least 18 years old with Medicaid insurance, who had a diagnosis of OUD during a general hospital admission in Oregon. Findings showed that hospitalized patients with OUD were at high risk of death, from drug and non-drug related causes, in the year after discharge. Recommendations included future research considering not only overdose, but a more comprehensive definition of drug-related death in understanding post-discharge mortality among hospitalized patients with OUD.
Citation: King C, Cook R, Korthuis PT . Causes of death in the 12 months after hospital discharge among patients with opioid use disorder. J Addict Med 2022 Jul-Aug;16(4):466-69. doi: 10.1097/adm.0000000000000915..
Keywords: Mortality, Hospital Discharge, Hospitals, Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health
Lindell RB, Fitzgerald JC, Rowan CM
The use and duration of preintubation respiratory support is associated with increased mortality in immunocompromised children with acute respiratory failure.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to examine the relationship between preintubation respiratory support and outcomes in pediatric patients with acute respiratory failure and to evaluate the impact of immunocompromised (IC) diagnoses on outcomes. The study utilized data from the Virtual Pediatric Systems database which included 82 centers, and focused on patients intubated in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) ranging in age from 1 month old to 17 years of age who received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for more than or equal to 24 hours. Of the 5,348 PICU intubations across 82 centers, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) or both were used before intubation in 34% (1,825) of patients. Fifty percent of the patients had no IC diagnosis. The researchers found that exposure to HFNC was associated with greater odds of PICU mortality when compared with patients intubated without prior support. When analyzing subgroups of IC status, preintubation support was related to higher odds of PICU mortality in IC patients and HCT patients when compared with IC/ HCT patients intubated without prior respiratory support. A duration of HFNC/NIPPV of more than 6 hours was associated with increased mortality in IC HCT patients. Rates of preintubation HFNC/NIPPV use and PICU mortality varied between the 82 centers. The researchers concluded that greater duration of exposure to HFNC/NIPPV prior to IMV is associated with increased mortality in HCT patients, and preintubation exposure to HFNC and/or NIPPV in IC pediatric patients is associated with increased odds of PICU mortality, independent of the severity of the illness.
Citation: Lindell RB, Fitzgerald JC, Rowan CM . The use and duration of preintubation respiratory support is associated with increased mortality in immunocompromised children with acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med 2022 Jul;50(7):1127-37. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000005535..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Respiratory Conditions, Mortality, Critical Care
Admon LK, Ford ND, Ko JY
Trends and distribution of in-hospital mortality among pregnant and postpartum individuals by pregnancy period.
The purpose of this study was to examine long-term trends in inpatient death rates among pregnant and postpartum individuals and proportion of deaths by pregnancy period (antenatal, delivery, and postpartum). The researchers examined patterns of inpatient mortality during pregnancy-associated hospitalizations utilizing data from the National Inpatient Sample for 1994 to 2015 and 2017 to 2019. The study found that between 1994 and 2015, among 84,181,338 hospitalizations an estimated 12,654 inpatient deaths occurred among pregnant and postpartum individuals with a mean age of 29.37. Inpatient deaths during delivery hospitalizations decreased from 10.6 deaths per 100 000 delivery hospitalizations to 4.7 deaths per 100 000 delivery hospitalizations between 1994 to 1995 and 2014 to 2015. The rate of inpatient deaths in antenatal and postpartum periods remained unchanged between 1994 to 1995 and 2014 to 2015. The researchers concluded that resources directed toward improving quality of care at obstetric delivery have been associated with decreased rates of severe morbidity and may be associated with decreased mortality, but additional efforts need to be directed toward antenatal and postpartum hospitalizations.
Citation: Admon LK, Ford ND, Ko JY . Trends and distribution of in-hospital mortality among pregnant and postpartum individuals by pregnancy period. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jul;5(7):e2224614. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.24614..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Maternal Care, Mortality, Pregnancy, Women, Hospitals
Newgard CD, Lin A, Caughey AB
Falls in older adults requiring emergency services: mortality, use of healthcare resources, and prognostication to one year.
The purpose of this study was to assess the prognoses, healthcare use, transitions to skilled nursing or hospice, and mortality of older, community-living adults after a fall. The researchers conducted a secondary analysis of all adults in 7 Northwest U.S. counties greater than or equal to 65 years of age who had been transported to one of 51 hospitals after a fall. The study analyzed Medicare claims, state trauma registry data, state inpatient data, and death records for outcomes which included healthcare use, new claims for skilled nursing and hospice for one year, and mortality. The researchers found that in 3,159 older adults there were 147 deaths within 30 days and 665 deaths within one year, and the following predictors of mortality: respiratory diagnosis, serious brain injury, having a baseline disability, or a score of greater than or equal to 2 on the Charlson Comorbidity Index. The study concluded that in the year after experiencing a fall, community-living older adults who require ambulance transport to the hospital have increases in institutionalized living, the utilization of health care, and mortality.
Citation: Newgard CD, Lin A, Caughey AB . Falls in older adults requiring emergency services: mortality, use of healthcare resources, and prognostication to one year. West J Emerg Med 2022 May 14;23(3):375-85. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2021.11.54327..
Keywords: Elderly, Falls, Emergency Department, Mortality, Healthcare Utilization
Cimiotti JP, Becker ER, Li Y
Association of registered nurse staffing with mortality risk of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with sepsis.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if registered nurse workload was related with mortality in Medicare beneficiaries admitted to an acute care hospital with sepsis. The researchers evaluated the records of Medicare beneficiaries ages 65 to 99 years with a primary diagnosis of sepsis that was present on admission to 1 of 1958 nonfederal, general acute care hospitals that had data on CMS SEP-1 scores and registered nurse workload. Researchers utilized 2018 data from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, CMS Hospital Compare, and Medicare claims. The patient outcome of interest was mortality within 60 days of admission. The study found that 702,140 Medicare beneficiaries with a mean age of 78.2 years, 51% of whom were women, had a diagnosis of sepsis. In a multivariable regression model, each additional registered nurse hour per patient day (HPPD) was associated with a 3% decrease in the odds of 60-day mortality. The researchers concluded that hospitals which provide more registered nurse hours of care could possibly decrease the likelihood of mortality in Medicare beneficiaries with sepsis.
Citation: Cimiotti JP, Becker ER, Li Y . Association of registered nurse staffing with mortality risk of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with sepsis. JAMA Health Forum 2022 May;3(5):e221173. doi: 10.1001/jamahealthforum.2022.1173..
Keywords: Sepsis, Mortality, Provider: Nurse, Nursing, Workforce
Riviello ED, Dechen T, O'Donoghue AL
Assessment of a crisis standards of care scoring system for resource prioritization and estimated excess mortality by race, ethnicity, and socially vulnerable area during a regional surge in COVID-19.
Researchers analyzed the association of a crisis standards of care (CSOC) scoring system with resource prioritization and estimated excess mortality by race, ethnicity, and residence in a socially vulnerable area during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data from 6 hospitals in greater Boston, Massachusetts, they found that a CSOC priority score resulted in lower prioritization of Black patients to receive scarce resources. Also, a model using a random lottery resulted in more estimated excess deaths overall without improving equity by race.
Citation: Riviello ED, Dechen T, O'Donoghue AL . Assessment of a crisis standards of care scoring system for resource prioritization and estimated excess mortality by race, ethnicity, and socially vulnerable area during a regional surge in COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Mar;5(3):e221744. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.1744..
Keywords: COVID-19, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Mortality, Public Health, Vulnerable Populations
Auty SG, Griffith KN
Medicaid expansion and drug overdose mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
This study examined trends in overdose mortality nationally and by state Medicaid expansion status from 2013 to 2020. Using data from the CDC’s WONDER database, findings showed that the increase in drug or opioid overdose deaths experienced during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic was similar in states with and without Medicaid expansion.
Citation: Auty SG, Griffith KN . Medicaid expansion and drug overdose mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Drug Alcohol Depend 2022 Mar 1;232:109340. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109340..
Keywords: COVID-19, Medicaid, Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Mortality, Public Health
Cohen B, Sanabria E, Liu J
Predicting healthcare-associated infections, length of stay, and mortality with the nursing intensity of care index.
The purpose of this study was to develop, validate, and utilize a simulation model to predict healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), length of stay (LOS), and patient mortality, as well as evaluate whether the variation in incidence of HAIs was dependent upon the adequacy of unit staffing levels. The researchers analyzed data from all patients discharged from four different types of New York City hospitals within a single healthcare network between 2012-2016 (N=562,435). The researchers developed a simulation model to estimate the daily probability rates of 5 different HAIs, length of stay, and mortality, and modeled staffing adequacy based on nursing care supply (as indicated by total nurse staffing) and nursing care demand (indicated using the Nursing Intensity of Care Index.) The study results indicated that the model predictions were within 95% confidence intervals of the actual outcomes. The authors reported that the incidence of HAI was the highest when total nurse staffing (supply) was lowest and nursing care intensity (demand) was highest.
Citation: Cohen B, Sanabria E, Liu J . Predicting healthcare-associated infections, length of stay, and mortality with the nursing intensity of care index. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2022 Mar;43(3):298-305. doi: 10.1017/ice.2021.114..
Keywords: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Provider: Nurse, Inpatient Care, Mortality
Merkow RP, Massarweh NN
Looking beyond perioperative morbidity and mortality as measures of surgical quality.
The authors discussed the problems with a contemporaneous focus on morbidity and mortality as surgical quality measures and offered potential alternative options which could better refine and evolve surgical quality measurement, including process measures, value-based measures, patient-centered measures, and health equity.
Citation: Merkow RP, Massarweh NN . Looking beyond perioperative morbidity and mortality as measures of surgical quality. Ann Surg 2022 Feb;275(2):e281-e83. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000004966..
Keywords: Surgery, Quality Measures, Quality of Care, Mortality
Feyman Y, Auty SG, Tenso K
County-level impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on excess mortality among U.S. veterans: a population-based study.
This study investigated the county-level impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on excess mortality among U.S. veterans. The authors queried Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data on demographics and comorbidities for 11.4 million enrollees during 2016-2020. Eight mortality prediction models at the county-level were used including Poisson, Poisson quasi-likelihood, negative binomial, and generalized estimating equations. All models demonstrated excellent agreement between observed and predicted mortality. An excess mortality rate of 13% in 2020 was found, which corresponds to 50,299 excess deaths. Despite mortality risk factors of veterans, their excess mortality rate was slightly lower than the general population.
Citation: Feyman Y, Auty SG, Tenso K . County-level impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on excess mortality among U.S. veterans: a population-based study. Lancet Reg Health Am 2022 Jan;5:100093. doi: 10.1016/j.lana.2021.100093.
Keywords: COVID-19, Veterans, Mortality
Song Zhang, Zhang X, Patterson LJ
Racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalization outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This study assessed assess racial and ethnic differences in hospitalization outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic among Medicare beneficiaries. Medicare claims from the Social Security Administration was used to determine in-hospital mortality and mortality inclusive of discharges to hospice and discharges to postacute care. Over 31 million Medicare recipients in the database were analyzed with over 14 million hospitalizations from January 2019 to February 2021. There was a decline in non-COVID-19 and an emergence of COVID-19 hospitalizations among beneficiaries of different racial and ethnic minority groups through February 2021. In-hospital mortality was not significantly different among Black patients relative to White patients but was 3.5 percentage points higher among Hispanic patients and other racial and ethnic minority groups. There were disparities in discharges to hospice and postacute care as well.
Citation: Song Zhang, Zhang X, Patterson LJ . Racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalization outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Health Forum 2021 Dec 23;2(12):e214223. doi: 10.1001/jamahealthforum.2021.4223..
Keywords: COVID-19, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Medicare, Hospitalization, Outcomes, Mortality
Rhee TG, Sint K, Olfson M
Association of ECT with risks of all-cause mortality and suicide in older Medicare patients.
This observational study examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on suicide and all-cause mortality risk in Medicare psychiatric patients age 65 or older. Patients receiving ECT were exact matched to control subjects in a 1-to-3 ratio on age, gender, principal hospital diagnosis, past-year psychiatric hospitalizations, past-year suicide attempts, and Elixhauser comorbidity index. A total of 10,46 patients were in the ECT group and 31,160 in the control group. Compared with the control group, patients receiving ECT had lower all-cause mortality for up to 1 year following hospital discharge. For death by suicide, ECT was associated with short-lived effects which waned over time.
Citation: Rhee TG, Sint K, Olfson M . Association of ECT with risks of all-cause mortality and suicide in older Medicare patients. Am J Psychiatry 2021 Dec;178(12):1089-97. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2021.21040351..
Keywords: Elderly, Behavioral Health, Mortality, Treatments
Ching JH, Owens DK, Trafton JA
Impact of treatment duration on mortality among Veterans with opioid use disorder in the United States Veterans Health Administration.
This study used simulation of a Veterans Health Administration cohort to identify the opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment durations necessary for the elevated mortality risks during treatment transitions balanced by reductions in mortality while receiving medication-assisted treatment (MAT) with methadone or buprenorphine. A simulated cohort of 10,000 individuals with OUD was created by using parameters obtained through calibration and published meta-analyses of studies from North America, Europe, and Australia. Methadone treatment for 4 months or longer or buprenorphine for 2 months or longer resulted in 54 and 65 fewer deaths relative to not receiving MAT for the same duration. The authors estimated shorter treatment durations necessary to achieve net mortality benefits of 2 months or longer for methadone and 1 month or longer for buprenorphine. Necessary treatment increased more with smaller mortality reductions on treatment with larger relative risks during treatment transitions.
AHRQ-funded; HS027935; HS026128.
Citation: Ching JH, Owens DK, Trafton JA . Impact of treatment duration on mortality among Veterans with opioid use disorder in the United States Veterans Health Administration. Addiction 2021 Dec;116(12):3494-503. doi: 10.1111/add.15574.
AHRQ-funded; HS027935; HS026128..
AHRQ-funded; HS027935; HS026128..
Keywords: Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Veterans, Mortality
Ingraham NE, King S, Proper J
Morbidity and mortality trends of pancreatitis: an observational study.
The authors assessed temporal trends of incidence, complications, management, and outcomes for acute pancreatitis in hospitalized patients at the national level. Using HCUP data, they found that the incidence of pancreatitis, from 2008 to 2015, has increased whereas inpatient mortality has decreased.
Citation: Ingraham NE, King S, Proper J . Morbidity and mortality trends of pancreatitis: an observational study. Surg Infect 2021 Dec;22(10):1021-30. doi: 10.1089/sur.2020.473..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Digestive Disease and Health, Mortality
Orth J, Li Y, Simning A
Nursing home residents with dementia: association between place of death and patient safety culture.
This study examined the association of place of death and patient safety culture among nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. The authors examined the estimated effects of patient safety culture (PSC) among 11,957 long-stay NH residents with dementia, aged 65+ who died in NHs or hospitals shortly following discharge from one of 800 US NHs in 2017. Residents with dementia in NHs with higher PSC scores in communication openness had lower odds of in-hospital death, with the strongest effect in NHs located in states with higher minimum NH nurse staffing requirements.
Citation: Orth J, Li Y, Simning A . Nursing home residents with dementia: association between place of death and patient safety culture. Gerontologist 2021 Nov 15;61(8):1296-306. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnaa188..
Keywords: Elderly, Dementia, Nursing Homes, Mortality, Patient Safety
Alagoz O, Lowry KP, Kurian AW
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer mortality in the US: estimates from collaborative simulation modeling.
This study’s objective was to project the impact of COVID-19 on future breast cancer mortality between 2020 and 2030. Three established Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network breast cancer models were used to model reductions in mammography screening use, delays in symptomatic cancer diagnosis, and reduced use of chemotherapy for women with early-stage disease for the first 6 months of the pandemic with return to prepandemic patterns after that time. The models project by 2030 950 cumulative excess breast cancers deaths related to reduced screening, 1314 deaths associated with delayed diagnosis of symptomatic cases, and 151 deaths associated with reduced chemotherapy use in women with hormone positive, early-stage cancer.
Citation: Alagoz O, Lowry KP, Kurian AW . Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer mortality in the US: estimates from collaborative simulation modeling. J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Nov 2;113(11):1484-94. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djab097..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Mortality, Women
Greenwood-Ericksen M, Kamdar N, Lin P
Association of rural and critical access hospital status with patient outcomes after emergency department visits among Medicare beneficiaries.
This study compared 30-day mortality rates after emergency department (ED) visits to rural or critical access hospitals (CAHs) compared to urban hospitals for Medicare beneficiaries. A 20% sample of Medicare beneficiaries was used from January 2011 to October 31, 2015. The primary outcome measured was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcome examined was ED visits with and without rehospitalization. Mortality rates were comparable with both groups, although patients in rural EDs experienced more transfers and less hospitalization.
Citation: Greenwood-Ericksen M, Kamdar N, Lin P . Association of rural and critical access hospital status with patient outcomes after emergency department visits among Medicare beneficiaries. JAMA Netw Open 2021 Nov;4(11):e2134980. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.34980..
Keywords: Hospitals, Rural Health, Urban Health, Emergency Department, Mortality, Outcomes
Arntson E, Dimick JB, Nuliyalu U
Changes in hospital-acquired conditions and mortality associated with the hospital-acquired condition reduction program.
This study evaluated changes in Hospital-Acquired Conditions (HACs) and 30-day mortality after the announcement of the Centers for Medicare and Medicare Services’ Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program (HACRP) in August 2013. The authors evaluated models to test for changes in HACs and 30-day mortality before and after the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and after the HACRP. Fee-for-service Medicare claims from 2009 to 2015 were used. The HAC rate declined after the ACA was passed and declined further after the HACRP announcement. However, 30-day mortality rates were unchanged.
Citation: Arntson E, Dimick JB, Nuliyalu U . Changes in hospital-acquired conditions and mortality associated with the hospital-acquired condition reduction program. Ann Surg 2021 Oct 1;274(4):e301-e07. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000003641..
Keywords: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Hospitals, Mortality, Medicare, Payment, Prevention, Patient Safety
Bongiovanni T, Hernandez S, Ledesma Y
Surviving traumatic injury, only to die of acute drug poisoning: should trauma centers be a path for intervention?
This study’s objective was to determine the incidence and characteristics of and risk factors for trauma patients suffering death by unintentional drug overdose. This retrospective chart review was conducted on all admitted trauma patients 18 years or older at the only level-1 trauma center in the San Francisco area from 2012 to 2012, matched with unintentional overdose decedents from the California death registry. Of 9,860 patients residing in San Francisco at the time of their trauma during the study period 1,418 died, 107 (0.3/100 person-years) from unintentional overdose. Overdose decedents were 84% male, 50% white, with a mean age of 48 years. Twenty percent of deaths occurred within 3 months of hospitalization, and 40% were attributed to a prescription opioid.
AHRQ-funded; HS026383; 233201500020I.
Citation: Bongiovanni T, Hernandez S, Ledesma Y . Surviving traumatic injury, only to die of acute drug poisoning: should trauma centers be a path for intervention? Surgery 2021 Oct;170(4):1249-54. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2021.03.003.
AHRQ-funded; HS026383; 233201500020I..
AHRQ-funded; HS026383; 233201500020I..
Keywords: Trauma, Medication, Risk, Mortality
Stevens JP, Dechen T, Schwartzstein RM
Association of dyspnoea, mortality and resource use in hospitalised patients.
As many as one in 10 patients experience dyspnoea at hospital admission but the relationship between dyspnoea and patient outcomes is unknown. In this study, the investigators sought to determine whether dyspnoea on admission predicts outcomes. They conducted a retrospective cohort study in a single, academic medical centre. They analysed 67 362 consecutive hospital admissions with available data on dyspnoea, pain and outcomes.
Citation: Stevens JP, Dechen T, Schwartzstein RM . Association of dyspnoea, mortality and resource use in hospitalised patients. Eur Respir J 2021 Sep 2;58(3). doi: 10.1183/13993003.02107-2019..
Keywords: Respiratory Conditions, Mortality, Outcomes
Papaleontiou M, Norton EC, Reyes-Gastelum D
Competing causes of death in older adults with thyroid cancer.
Understanding the impact of comorbidities and competing risks of death when caring for older adults with thyroid cancer is key for personalized management. The objective of this study was to determine whether older adults with thyroid cancer are more likely to die from thyroid cancer or other etiologies and determine patient factors associated with each.
Citation: Papaleontiou M, Norton EC, Reyes-Gastelum D . Competing causes of death in older adults with thyroid cancer. Thyroid 2021 Sep;31(9):1359-65. doi: 10.1089/thy.2020.0929..
Keywords: Elderly, Cancer, Mortality
Klein IA, Rosenberg SM, Reynolds KL
Impact of cancer history on outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
Researchers investigated whether a current cancer diagnosis or cancer history is an independent risk factor for death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. They found that patients with a history of cancer hospitalized for COVID-19 had similar mortality to matched hospitalized patients with COVID-19 without cancer, and a lower risk of complications, while patients with active cancer or recent cancer treatment had a similar risk for adverse outcomes compared with survivors of cancer. They concluded that active cancer, systemic cancer therapy, and a cancer history are not independent risk factors for death from COVID-19 among hospitalized patients, and hospitalized patients without cancer are more likely to have severe COVID-19.
Citation: Klein IA, Rosenberg SM, Reynolds KL . Impact of cancer history on outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Oncologist 2021 Aug;26(8):685-93. doi: 10.1002/onco.13794..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer, Risk, Mortality, Hospitalization, Outcomes
Dixon BE, Grannis SJ, Lembcke LR
The synchronicity of COVID-19 disparities: statewide epidemiologic trends in SARS-CoV-2 morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality among racial minorities and in rural America.
Researchers sought to examine trends in COVID-19 morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality over time for minority and rural populations, especially during the U.S. fall surge. Data were taken from a statewide cohort of adult residents in Indiana tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The researchers found that, by the fall of 2020, hospitalization and mortality rates in rural areas surpassed those of urban areas, and gaps between black/brown and white populations narrowed. Cumulative morbidity and mortality were highest among minority groups and in rural communities. They concluded that the synchronicity of disparities in COVID-19 by race and geography suggested that health officials explicitly measure disparities and adjust mitigation as well as vaccination strategies to protect those sub-populations with greater disease burden.
Citation: Dixon BE, Grannis SJ, Lembcke LR . The synchronicity of COVID-19 disparities: statewide epidemiologic trends in SARS-CoV-2 morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality among racial minorities and in rural America. PLoS One 2021 Jul 23;16(7):e0255063. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0255063..
Keywords: COVID-19, Disparities, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Hospitalization, Mortality, Rural Health
Chandran A, Xu C, Gross J
A web-based tool for quantification of potential gains in life expectancy by preventing cause-specific mortality.
In collaboration with the Baltimore City Health Department, the authors aimed to develop a web-based tool to estimate the potential lives saved and gains in life expectance (LE) in specific neighborhoods following interventions targeting achievable reductions in preventable deaths. Using the PROLONGER (ImPROved LONGEvity through Reductions in Cause-Specific Deaths) tool, they found that, if heart disease deaths could be reduced by 20% in a given neighborhood in Baltimore City, there could be up to a 2.3-year increase in neighborhood LE. Further, the neighborhoods with highest expected LE increase are not the same as those with highest heart disease mortality burden or lowest overall life expectancies. They concluded that focusing programs based on potential LE impact at the neighborhood level could lend new information for targeting of place-based public health interventions.
Citation: Chandran A, Xu C, Gross J . A web-based tool for quantification of potential gains in life expectancy by preventing cause-specific mortality. Front Public Health 2021 Jul 1;9:663825. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.663825..
Keywords: Mortality, Health Information Technology (HIT)