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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 583 Research Studies Displayed
Senft Everson N, Klein WMP, Lee SS
Dispositional optimism and optimistic bias: associations with cessation motivation, confidence, and attitudes.
This study tested whether 2 conceptually overlapping constructs, dispositional optimism (generalized positive expectations) and optimistic bias (inaccurately low risk perceptions), may have different implications for smoking treatment engagement. A cohort of predominantly Black, low-income Southern Community Cohort study smokers (n=880) were surveyed on their dispositional optimism and pessimism, comparative lung cancer risk, and information to calculate objective lung cancer risk. Perceived risk was categorized as accurate, optimistically-biased, or pessimistically-biased. The Life Orientation Test-Revised subscales was used with 0 = neutral, and 12 = high optimism/pessimism. Mean dispositional optimism/pessimism scores were 8.41 and 5.65 respectively. Perceived lung cancer risk was 38% accurate, with 27% optimistically-biased and 35% pessimistically-biased. Accuracy was unrelated to dispositional optimism, though optimistically biased smokers had higher dispositional pessimism. Dispositional optimism was associated with higher confidence and favorable precision treatment attitudes. Lower motivation and less favorable precision treatment attitudes were shown for those with optimistically-biased (vs. accurate) risk perception.
Citation: Senft Everson N, Klein WMP, Lee SS . Dispositional optimism and optimistic bias: associations with cessation motivation, confidence, and attitudes. Health Psychol 2022 Sep;41(9):621-29. doi: 10.1037/hea0001184..
Keywords: Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use, Behavioral Health
Calcaterra SL, Martin M, Bottner R
Management of opioid use disorder and associated conditions among hospitalized adults: a consensus statement from the Society of Hospital Medicine.
This paper discusses the findings of a Society of Hospital Medicine working group convened to develop a Consensus Statement on the management of opioid use disorder (OUD) and associated conditions among hospitalized adults. The statement is intended for clinicians practicing medicine in the inpatient setting (e.g., hospitalists, primary care physicians, family physicians, advanced practice nurses, and physician assistants) and is intended to apply to hospitalized adults at risk for, or diagnosed with, OUD. The first step of the working group to develop the statement was to conduct a systematic review of relevant guidelines and compose a draft statement based on extracted recommendations. In the next step the working group obtained feedback on the draft statement from external experts in addiction medicine, SHM members, professional societies, harm reduction organizations and advocacy groups, and peer reviewers. This iterative development process resulted in a final Consensus Statement consisting of 18 recommendations covering the following topics: (1) identification and treatment of OUD and opioid withdrawal, (2) perioperative and acute pain management in patients with OUD, and (3) methods to optimize care transitions at hospital discharge for patients with OUD.
Citation: Calcaterra SL, Martin M, Bottner R . Management of opioid use disorder and associated conditions among hospitalized adults: a consensus statement from the Society of Hospital Medicine. J Hosp Med 2022 Sep;17(9):744-56. doi: 10.1002/jhm.12893..
Keywords: Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Inpatient Care
Calcaterras SL, Bottner R, Martin M
Management of opioid use disorder, opioid withdrawal, and opioid overdose prevention in hospitalized adults: a systematic review of existing guidelines.
This study evaluated the quality and content of existing guidelines for in-hospital opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment and management. A literature search was done on several databases, websites of relevant societies and advocacy organizations, and selected international search engines. Nineteen guidelines published between January 2010 and June 2020 met the selection criteria. The majority of guidelines were based on observational studies or expert consensus. They recommended the use of nonstigmatizing language among patients with OUD; to assess patients with unhealthy opioid use for OUD using the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Diseases-5th Edition criteria; use of methadone or buprenorphine to treat OUD and opioid withdrawal; use of multimodal, nonopioid therapy, and when needed, short-acting opioid analgesics in addition to buprenorphine or methadone, for acute pain management; ensuring linkage to ongoing methadone or buprenorphine treatment; referring patients to psychosocial treatment; and ensuring access to naloxone for opioid overdose reversal.
Citation: Calcaterras SL, Bottner R, Martin M . Management of opioid use disorder, opioid withdrawal, and opioid overdose prevention in hospitalized adults: a systematic review of existing guidelines. J Hosp Med 2022 Sep;17(9):679-92. doi: 10.1002/jhm.12908..
Keywords: Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Inpatient Care
Bowden CF, Simmel C, Mendez A
The complexity of psychotropic medication prescription and treating trauma among youth in foster care: perspectives from the lived experience.
The purpose of this study was to examine stakeholders' perspectives of the relationship between psychotropic medications and trauma informed care (TIC) for youth in foster care. The researchers recruited foster caseworkers, prescribing clinicians, caregivers, and alumni of the foster care system and conducted semi-structured individual and group interviews. Data were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a directed content analysis approach. Five themes emerged across the recorded and transcribed data within stakeholder groups: 1) acknowledging trauma; 2) role of psychotropic medication; 3) psychosocial resources; 4) additional supports; and, 5) training and education. Stakeholders identified TIC as an important component of mental health services for youth in foster care. Most stakeholders felt that psychotropic medication was overused in treating trauma. Respondents suggested including additional supportive team members to help guide youth through the mental health treatment system and stated the importance of support from individuals with common lived experiences. The study concluded that there is a need for: improved training and education for stakeholders, additional sources of support for youth in foster care, and an overall system that emphasizes trauma-sensitive clinical interactions and psychosocial supports.
Citation: Bowden CF, Simmel C, Mendez A . The complexity of psychotropic medication prescription and treating trauma among youth in foster care: perspectives from the lived experience. Adm Policy Ment Health 2022 Sep;49(5):821-33. doi: 10.1007/s10488-022-01203-4..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Vulnerable Populations, Behavioral Health, Trauma, Medication
Huffstetler AN, Epling J, Krist AH
The need for electronic health records to support delivery of behavioral health preventive services.
In this article the authors discuss adaptations to electronic health records to improve behavioral health preventive services. They recommend a refocus in digital health away from best business practices that help EHR vendors and toward best health-related practice in order to improve patient care and make work easier for clinicians.
Citation: Huffstetler AN, Epling J, Krist AH . The need for electronic health records to support delivery of behavioral health preventive services. JAMA 2022 Aug 23;328(8):707-08. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.13391..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Behavioral Health, Prevention, Healthcare Delivery
Hails KA, Petts RA, Hostutler CA
COVID-19 distress, negative parenting, and child behavioral problems: the moderating role of parent adverse childhood experiences.
This study’s objective was to test a moderated mediation model to determine whether families’ COVID-19-related distress is associated with young children's emotional/behavioral functioning via negative parenting, and whether these relationships vary based on parents' adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Participants were 267 parents recruited from five primary care sites across the United States with children ages 1.5-5 years. Internet questionnaires were completed on measures including demographics, parent ACEs, negative parenting, parent mental health, and COVID-19 distress. Negative parenting significantly mediated the relationship between COVID-19 distress and child emotional/behavioral problems. The model accounted for 42% variance in child emotional/behavioral problems.
Citation: Hails KA, Petts RA, Hostutler CA . COVID-19 distress, negative parenting, and child behavioral problems: the moderating role of parent adverse childhood experiences. Child Abuse Negl 2022 Aug;130(Pt 1):105450. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105450..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Behavioral Health, Stress
Newton H, Busch SH, Brunette MF
Innovations in care delivery for patients with serious mental illness among accountable care organizations.
The objective of this study was to examine whether and how organizations participating in accountable care organization (ACO) contracts integrate primary care and treatment for patients with serious mental illness. The study used the 2017-2018 National Survey of ACOs to measure ACO-reported use of three integrated care strategies. Of the 399 respondents who answered the survey, 76% reported using at least one integrated care strategy in at least one location. Use of care managers was most common followed by use of patient registry and colocation of a primary care clinician in a specialty mental health setting. Respondents with the largest Medicaid contract or largest commercial contract included quality measures specific to serious mental illness were more likely to use the integrated care delivery strategies.
Citation: Newton H, Busch SH, Brunette MF . Innovations in care delivery for patients with serious mental illness among accountable care organizations. Psychiatr Serv 2022 Aug;73(8):889-96. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.202000484..
Keywords: Innovations and Emerging Issues, Healthcare Delivery, Behavioral Health
Cutler GJ, Bergmann KR, Doupnik SK
Pediatric mental health emergency department visits and access to Inpatient care: a crisis worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic.
The purpose of this study was to explore the author’s previous research findings on trends in pediatric emergency department (ED) visits for mental health (MH) vs non-mental health in light of more recent related data corresponding with the COVID-19 pandemic. The study found that recent research supports the dramatic increase in pediatric MH ED visits found in the author’s previous research and provides additional evidence that the increase has been driven by specific MH diagnoses. The researchers conclude that depressive disorders, self-harm behavior, and non-alcohol substance use disorders should be prioritized for the development of ED- and hospital-based strategies, and that EDs, hospitals, health systems, and the government urgently need to increase capacity for MH services and identify innovative solutions to improve access to high quality MH care for children.
Citation: Cutler GJ, Bergmann KR, Doupnik SK . Pediatric mental health emergency department visits and access to Inpatient care: a crisis worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic. Acad Pediatr 2022 Aug;22(6):889-91. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.015..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Behavioral Health, Emergency Department, Access to Care, Public Health, Inpatient Care
Khouja T, Zhou J, Gellad WF
Serious opioid-related adverse outcomes associated with opioids prescribed by dentists.
This study’s objective was to evaluate adverse outcomes and persistent opioid use (POU) after opioid prescriptions by dentists, based on whether opioids were overprescribed or within recommendations. A cross-sectional analysis of adults with dental visit and corresponding opioid prescription from 2011 to 2017 within a nationwide commercial claims database was conducted. As per CDC guidelines, opioid overprescribing was defined as >120 morphine milligram equivalents. Of 633,387 visits, 16.6% had POU and 2.6% experienced an adverse outcome. POU was higher when opioids were overprescribed with visits associated with mild pain and those with substance use disorders having the highest risk of both outcomes.
Citation: Khouja T, Zhou J, Gellad WF . Serious opioid-related adverse outcomes associated with opioids prescribed by dentists. Pain 2022 Aug 1;163(8):1571-80. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002545..
Keywords: Opioids, Dental and Oral Health, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Practice Patterns, Pain, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Marks MR, Dux MC, Rao V
Treatment patterns of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic brain injury.
Investigators examined psychotropic medication use and psychotherapy patterns among individuals diagnosed with anxiety disorders and PTSD post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). They found that receipt of pharmacotherapy pre- and post-TBI was considerably more common than receipt of psychotherapy. Individuals diagnosed with anxiety were 66% less likely to receive psychotherapy compared with individuals diagnosed with PTSD. Overall, psychotropic medication use and rates of antidepressant prescription use in the anxiety group were higher compared to those in the PTSD group.
Citation: Marks MR, Dux MC, Rao V . Treatment patterns of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2022 Summer;34(3):247-53. doi: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.21040104..
Keywords: Anxiety, Behavioral Health, Trauma, Brain Injury, Treatments, Practice Patterns, Medication
Kagarmanova A, Sparkman H, Laiteerapong N
Improving the management of chronic pain, opioid use, and opioid use disorder in older adults: study protocol for i-cope study.
This article describes a protocol for an upcoming study on the planned implementation and evaluation of I-COPE (Improving Chicago Older Adult Opioid and Pain Management through Patient-centered Clinical Decision Support and Project ECHO®) to improve care for older adults with chronic pain, opioid use, and opioid use disorder (OUD). The study will be implemented in 35 clinical sites across the metropolitan Chicago area for patients aged ≥ 65 with chronic pain, opioid use, or OUD who receive primary care at one of the clinics. I-COPE includes the integration of patient-reported data on symptoms and preferences, clinical decision support tools and shared decision making into routine primary care. Primary care providers will be trained on the tools through web-based videos and an optional Project ECHO® course, entitled "Pain Management and OUD in Older Adults." A framework called RE-AIM will be used to assess the I-COPE implementation. Outcomes considered effective include an increased variety of recommended pain treatments, decreased prescriptions of higher-risk pain treatments, and decreased patient pain scores. Outcomes will be evaluated at 6 and 12 months after implementation, and PCPs participating in Project ECHO® will be evaluated on changes in knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy using pre- and post-course surveys.
Citation: Kagarmanova A, Sparkman H, Laiteerapong N . Improving the management of chronic pain, opioid use, and opioid use disorder in older adults: study protocol for i-cope study. Trials 2022 Jul 27;23(1):602. doi: 10.1186/s13063-022-06537-w..
Keywords: Elderly, Pain, Chronic Conditions, Opioids, Medication, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Decision Making, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Jakubowski A, Rath C, Harocopos A
Implementation of buprenorphine services in NYC syringe services programs: a qualitative process evaluation.
This article discusses a study that investigated the barriers to and facilitators of implementing syringe service programs (SSPs) for providing buprenorphine treatment access to people with opioid use disorder (OUD) who are reluctant to seek care elsewhere. The study looked at the program ran by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) that funded the creation of nine SSPs that developed “low-threshold” buprenorphine services as part of a multipronged initiative to lower opioid-related overdose rates. Barriers identified included gaps in staff knowledge and comfort communicating with participants about buprenorphine, difficulty hiring buprenorphine providers, managing tension between harm reduction and traditional OUD treatment philosophies, and financial constraints. Implementation facilitators included receiving technical assistance from DOHMH, having designated buprenorphine coordinators, offering other supportive services to participants, and telehealth to bridge gaps in provider availability. Three key recommendations were made including: (1) health departments should provide support for SSPs in training staff, building health service infrastructure, and developing policies and procedures, (2) SSPs should designate a buprenorphine coordinator and ensure regular training on buprenorphine for frontline staff, and (3) buprenorphine providers should be selected or supported to use a harm reduction approach to buprenorphine treatment.
Citation: Jakubowski A, Rath C, Harocopos A . Implementation of buprenorphine services in NYC syringe services programs: a qualitative process evaluation. Harm Reduct J 2022 Jul 10;19(1):75. doi: 10.1186/s12954-022-00654-0..
Keywords: Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Medication
Newton H, Beetham T, Busch SH
Association of access to crisis intervention teams with county sociodemographic characteristics and state Medicaid policies and Its implications for a new mental health crisis lifeline.
This study’s objective was to assess county-level access to crisis intervention teams (CIS) for acute mental health issues in 2015 and 2020 and its association with area characteristics and state policies in 2020. This cross-sectional study included 10,430 facilities from the 2015 National Directory of Mental Health Treatment Facilities and 10,591 facilities from the 2020 National Directory of Mental Health Treatment Facilities, from 3142 US counties. Area measures included suicide, drug-related overdose mortality, rurality, and demographic characteristics. State-level policies included enactment of 5 Medicaid policies prior to 2020 and 2 recent policies intended to assist implementation of the 988 telephone lifeline. Most US residents (88%) lived in a county that had at least 1 facility offering CIT, although half of all US counties had no CIT facility. Counties without vs those with CIT access were less likely to be in states that expanded Medicare and in states that allow Medicaid to pay for short-term stays in psychiatric hospitals. Residents of counties without CIT access were more likely to be older (>55 years) and uninsured and were more likely to be rural.
Citation: Newton H, Beetham T, Busch SH . Association of access to crisis intervention teams with county sociodemographic characteristics and state Medicaid policies and Its implications for a new mental health crisis lifeline. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jul;5(7):e2224803. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.24803..
Keywords: Medicaid, Behavioral Health, Access to Care, Policy
King C, Cook R, Korthuis PT
Causes of death in the 12 months after hospital discharge among patients with opioid use disorder.
This study described causes of death in the year post-discharge among hospitalized patients with Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). Data was analyzed from participants at least 18 years old with Medicaid insurance, who had a diagnosis of OUD during a general hospital admission in Oregon. Findings showed that hospitalized patients with OUD were at high risk of death, from drug and non-drug related causes, in the year after discharge. Recommendations included future research considering not only overdose, but a more comprehensive definition of drug-related death in understanding post-discharge mortality among hospitalized patients with OUD.
Citation: King C, Cook R, Korthuis PT . Causes of death in the 12 months after hospital discharge among patients with opioid use disorder. J Addict Med 2022 Jul-Aug;16(4):466-69. doi: 10.1097/adm.0000000000000915..
Keywords: Mortality, Hospital Discharge, Hospitals, Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health
Korthuis PT, Cook RR, Lum PJ
HIV clinic-based extended-release naltrexone versus treatment as usual for people with HIV and opioid use disorder: a non-blinded, randomized non-inferiority trial.
Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) treatment medications can improve outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and also reduce opioid use. The purpose of the study was to determine if outpatient naltrexone treatment could also reduce opioid use and improve outcomes for HIV. The researchers reported that enrollment was stopped early because of slower than expected recruitment, resulting in 114 final participants with untreated OUD and HIV, with 62% positive for fentanyl, 60% positive for cocaine, and 47% positive for other opioids at the baseline. The intervention compared treatment as usual (TAU) of methadone or buprenorphine with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) on group differences in viral suppression at 24 weeks and past 30-day use of opioids at 24 weeks. The study reported that at 24 weeks the outcome of viral suppression was similar for TAU and XR-NTX, and that fewer XR-NTX participants initiated medication than TAU participants. The outcome of previous 30-day use of opioids was similar for TAU as compared to XR-NTX. Of those participants who did initiate medication, those administered XR-NTX experienced less days of opioid use when compared with TAU in the prior 30 days. The researchers reported that the study evidence was not conclusive but did support that XR-NTX is not inferior to TAU for HIV viral suppression, and that study participants who started XR-NTX used less opioids at 24 weeks than participants who were administered TAU.
Citation: Korthuis PT, Cook RR, Lum PJ . HIV clinic-based extended-release naltrexone versus treatment as usual for people with HIV and opioid use disorder: a non-blinded, randomized non-inferiority trial. Addiction 2022 Jul;117(7):1961-71. doi: 10.1111/add.15836..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Medication, Treatments, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice
Ward MJ, Shuster JL, Mohr NM
Implementation of telehealth for psychiatric care in VA emergency departments and urgent care clinics.
The purpose of this AHRQ-funded, mixed-methods study was to evaluate an emergency telehealth intervention in emergency department (ED) and urgent care clinic (UCC) settings within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in March 2020. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework was utilized to compare the 3 months preimplementation of the telehealth intervention (December 1, 2019 through February 29, 2020) with the 3 months postimplementation of the telehealth intervention (April 1, 2020 through June 30, 2020), and then assess sustainability through January 31, 2021. Qualitative data from surveys and semistructured interviews were conducted and analyze. The telemental health intervention was used in 83% (319) of unscheduled mental health consultations in the postimplementation phase, with no adverse trends in length of stay, 7-day revisits, or 30-day mortality. In the sustainability phase, use of the intervention was high with 82% (n = 1,010) of all unscheduled mental health consultations performed by telemental health. The study concluded that the use of unscheduled telemental health intervention was highly acceptable and sustainable in ED and UCC settings and did not impact the safety and efficacy of mental health consultations.
Citation: Ward MJ, Shuster JL, Mohr NM . Implementation of telehealth for psychiatric care in VA emergency departments and urgent care clinics. Telemed J E Health 2022 Jul;28(7):985-93. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2021.0263..
Keywords: COVID-19, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Behavioral Health, Emergency Department, Veterans
Jakubowski A, Norton BL, Hayes BT
Low-threshold buprenorphine treatment in a syringe services program: program description and outcomes.
Investigators described the treatment philosophy, practices, and outcomes of a low-threshold syringe services program (SSP)-based buprenorphine program developed through an SSP-academic medical center partnership. They found that, in an SSP-based low-threshold buprenorphine treatment program, approximately one-third of patients continued buprenorphine treatment for 180 days or more, and buprenorphine adherence was high. They concluded that SSPs can be a pathway to buprenorphine treatment for patients at high risk for opioid-related harms.
Citation: Jakubowski A, Norton BL, Hayes BT . Low-threshold buprenorphine treatment in a syringe services program: program description and outcomes. J Addict Med 2022 Jul-Aug;16(4):447-53. doi: 10.1097/adm.0000000000000934..
Keywords: Medication, Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health
Ivlev I, Beil TL, Haynes JS
Rapid evidence review of digital cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents with depression.
This rapid evidence review was conducted to explore the benefits and harms of digital cognitive-behavioral therapy (dCBT) and the barriers to and facilitators of implementing dCBT for adolescents. An extensive literature review was done through December 6, 2021 for controlled trials conducted in settings highly applicable to the US. Additionally, the authors searched relevant systematic reviews for eligible studies. They identified 12 trials that examined the effects of nine dCBT programs. Overall, dCBT was slightly superior to other therapies in improving depression symptoms immediately, but not at a longer follow-up. There did not appear to be an increased risk for suicidal attempts or ideation with dCBT, however the number of events was very small. Potential barriers to implementing and maintaining dCBT included challenges engaging/retaining patients, developing infrastructure, and training therapists to facilitate dCBT. No data on harms or unintended negative consequences were reported in the included studies.
Citation: Ivlev I, Beil TL, Haynes JS . Rapid evidence review of digital cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents with depression. J Adolesc Health 2022 Jul;71(1):14-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.01.220..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Depression, Behavioral Health, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Singh AN, Sanchez V, Kenzie ES
Improving screening, treatment, and intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in primary care through clinic, practice-based research network, and health plan partnerships: protocol of the ANTECEDENT study.
This study evaluates tailored implementation support to increase screening, brief intervention, referral to treatment (SBIRT) and medication-assisted treatment for alcohol use disorder (MAUD) in primary care. It will explore how primary care clinics implement SBIRT and MAUD in routine practice and how practice facilitators vary implementation support across diverse clinic settings. It is anticipated that findings will inform how effectively to align implementation support to context, advance understanding of practice facilitator skill development over time, and ultimately improve detection and treatment of unhealthy alcohol use across diverse primary care clinics.
Citation: Singh AN, Sanchez V, Kenzie ES . Improving screening, treatment, and intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in primary care through clinic, practice-based research network, and health plan partnerships: protocol of the ANTECEDENT study. PLoS One 2022 Jun 28;17(6):e0269635. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0269635..
Keywords: Alcohol Use, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Primary Care, Care Management
Wyse JJ, Mackey K, Lovejoy TI
Expanding access to medications for opioid use disorder through locally-initiated implementation.
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe locally- and internally-developed approaches to improve patient access to medication treatment for opioid use disorder (MOUD). The researchers utilized the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to guide qualitative interviews and ethnographic observations to examine the planning, design, and implementation of a locally-initiated process to expand access to MOUD. The study found that a self-appointed local team successfully developed and implemented a Primary Care-based Buprenorphine Clinic and E-Consult Service to expand access to MOUD to patients across the health care system, including national and local policy changes, identifying appropriate and widely supported models of care delivery and consultation, and increasing staff investment in the efforts by including them in collaborative planning and problem-solving. The study concluded that a local team can plan, develop and build new processes of care that are customized to meet local needs and contribute to long-term sustainability in the community.
Citation: Wyse JJ, Mackey K, Lovejoy TI . Expanding access to medications for opioid use disorder through locally-initiated implementation. Addict Sci Clin Pract 2022 Jun 20;17(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s13722-022-00312-7..
Keywords: Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Medication, Access to Care, Practice Patterns, Implementation
Eiraldi R, McCurdy BL, Khanna MS
Development and evaluation of a remote training strategy for the implementation of mental health evidence-based practices in rural schools: pilot study protocol.
This paper describes a pilot study protocol to develop and evaluate a remote training strategy for the implementation of mental health evidence-based practices (EBPs) in rural schools. Rural schools are increasingly implementing multi-tier positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) to address school-climate problems. The study will use a mixed-methods approach for the development of the training platform, and a hybrid type 2, pilot randomized controlled trial to examine the implementation and student outcomes of two training strategies: Remote Video vs. Remote Video plus Coaching. The EPBs will be evaluated on appropriateness, feasibility, acceptability, usability, and preliminary student outcomes of the two online training strategies for the implementation of EPBs at PBIS Tier 2.
Citation: Eiraldi R, McCurdy BL, Khanna MS . Development and evaluation of a remote training strategy for the implementation of mental health evidence-based practices in rural schools: pilot study protocol. Pilot Feasibility Stud 2022 Jun 17;8(1):128. doi: 10.1186/s40814-022-01082-4..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Behavioral Health, Evidence-Based Practice, Rural Health, Training
Blanco C, Kato EU, Aklin WM
AHRQ Author: Kato EU, Tong ST, Bierman A, Meyers D
Research to move policy - using evidence to advance health equity for substance use disorders.
This paper discusses ways that evidence-based research can advance health equity for substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Racial and ethnic disparities in treatment access and outcomes have widened, despite substantial efforts to address the epidemic of overdose-related deaths in the US. Overdose rates are rising faster in Black, Latinx, and American Indian and Alaska Native populations than in White populations. Possible opportunities to address these disparities include addressing social determinants of health, implementing prevention measures, and supporting data science. The steps to ensure that research reduces disparities are to: 1) include members of underrepresented groups in the development of preventive interventions and treatments, 2) adequately recruit members of historically represented groups and ensure that studies are large enough to measure differences in outcomes according to race and ethnic group, 3) establish equitable partnerships with people who currently have or have had SUDS and their families and engage these groups in evidence production, 4) diversify the scientific workforce, and 4) have investigators measure the effects of policies and interventions on equity.
Citation: Blanco C, Kato EU, Aklin WM . Research to move policy - using evidence to advance health equity for substance use disorders. N Engl J Med 2022 Jun 16;386(24):2253-55. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2202740..
Keywords: Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Policy, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Social Determinants of Health
Zeng W, Jarawan E, Bajnauth D
AHRQ Author: Ding Y
COVID-19 and global mental health service delivery and financing.
The purpose of this AHRQ-authored letter was to characterize the state of global mental health needs, service delivery, and financing as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors report that the mental health aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic will likely be extended in duration and will both compound and deepen the social and economic disruptions that were already taking place prior to the pandemic. The authors conclude that the integration of mental health initiatives into both international and national emergency response strategies and public health strategies is important as governments enhance mental health service delivery and financing as a critical component of building more inclusive and resilient postpandemic health systems.
Citation: Zeng W, Jarawan E, Bajnauth D . COVID-19 and global mental health service delivery and financing. Public Health 2022 Jun;207:127-28. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2022.04.005..
Keywords: COVID-19, Healthcare Delivery, Behavioral Health
Cross WF, West JC, Crean HF
Measurement of primary care providers' suicide prevention skills following didactic education.
This study’s objective was to determine if didactic training by medical residents and nurse practitioner (NP) trainees increased their skills to assess and manage patients’ suicidal ideation, intent, and behaviors. Online didactic training was provided to 127 medical resident and NP trainees followed by a standardized patient interaction conducted to assess demonstrated suicide prevention skills (i.e., assessment of risk factors, protective factors, suicidal ideation and behavior, safety planning). Participants demonstrated only about half of the possible total skills in most domains and were least competent in assessing potential risk for suicide. Residents were rated significantly higher than NPs on observed skills.
Citation: Cross WF, West JC, Crean HF . Measurement of primary care providers' suicide prevention skills following didactic education. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2022 Jun;52(3):373-82. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12827..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Primary Care, Prevention, Education: Continuing Medical Education, Provider: Physician, Training
Meiselbach MK, Drake C, Saloner B
Medicaid managed care: access to primary care providers who prescribe buprenorphine.
This study examined variation in access to in-network buprenorphine-prescribing primary care providers that can treat opioid use disorder among Medicaid managed care enrollees. Approximately 32.2% of Medicaid enrollees had fewer than one in-network network buprenorphine-prescribing primary care providers per 100,000 county residents. There was on average a greater number of in-network buprenorphine-prescribing primary care providers in states with higher compared with lower overdose death rates, but most enrollees lived in areas with a shortage of these providers. The authors found that a 25 percent higher network participation rate by prescribers compared with nonprescribers could improve the probability that enrollees see a prescriber by approximately 25 percent.
Citation: Meiselbach MK, Drake C, Saloner B . Medicaid managed care: access to primary care providers who prescribe buprenorphine. Health Aff 2022 Jun;41(6):901-10. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2021.01719..
Keywords: Medicaid, Primary Care, Access to Care, Medication, Care Management, Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health