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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 9 of 9 Research Studies Displayed
Iroz CB, Dahl CM, Cassimatis IR
Prophylactic anticoagulation for preterm premature rupture of membranes: a decision analysis.
The objective of this study was to determine the optimal modality for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis during hospitalization for preterm premature rupture of membranes using a decision analysis model. The investigators concluded that their results did not support the routine use of prophylactic anticoagulation in women admitted to the hospital for preterm premature rupture of membranes.
Citation: Iroz CB, Dahl CM, Cassimatis IR . Prophylactic anticoagulation for preterm premature rupture of membranes: a decision analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 May;3(3):100311. doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2021.100311..
Keywords: Blood Clots, Blood Thinners, Prevention, Decision Making, Pregnancy, Maternal Care, Inpatient Care, Women, Medication
Feng Y, Pai CW, Seiler K
Inappropriate prescription of direct oral anticoagulant starter packs.
This study looked at the rates of inappropriate prescription of direct oral anticoagulant starter packs using a retrospective analysis of national outpatient pharmacy claims from 2015 to 2018. Inappropriate prescription is defined as a prescription without a venous thromboembolism diagnosis within the prior 45 days or a prescription with a prior starter pack fill within the past 45 days. A total of 3711 prescriptions were identified, representing 3634 unique patients. Mean patient age was 62.8 years and 50.4% were females. There were 770 (20.7%) prescriptions defined as potentially inappropriate. Patients prescribed inappropriate fills were likely to be slightly older than patients with appropriate fills (64.7 vs 62.4 years). There was no significant difference in race or geographic location among the two groups.
Citation: Feng Y, Pai CW, Seiler K . Inappropriate prescription of direct oral anticoagulant starter packs. Am J Med 2021 Mar;134(3):370-73.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.06.045..
Keywords: Blood Thinners, Medication, Blood Clots
Utter GH, Dhillon TS, Danielsen BH
Use of statewide administrative data to assess clinical outcomes: a retrospective cohort study of therapeutic anticoagulation for isolated calf vein thrombosis.
Single-center comparative effectiveness studies evaluating outcomes that can occur posthospitalization may become biased if outcomes diagnosed at other facilities are not ascertained. Administrative datasets that link patients' records across facilities may improve outcome ascertainment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether use of linked administrative data significantly augmented thromboembolic outcome ascertainment. The investigators concluded that use of linked hospital administrative data augmented detection of outcomes but imperfect linkage, nonspecific diagnoses, and documentation/coding errors introduced uncertainty regarding the accuracy of outcome ascertainment.
Citation: Utter GH, Dhillon TS, Danielsen BH . Use of statewide administrative data to assess clinical outcomes: a retrospective cohort study of therapeutic anticoagulation for isolated calf vein thrombosis. Med Care 2020 Jul;58(7):658-62. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001347.
Keywords: Blood Clots, Blood Thinners, Medication, Research Methodologies, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Yang AD, Hewitt DB, Blay E
Multi-institution evaluation of adherence to comprehensive postoperative VTE chemoprophylaxis.
The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the rate of failure to provide defect-free postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) chemoprophylaxis, (2) identify reasons for failure to provide defect-free VTE chemoprophylaxis, and (3) examine patient- and hospital-level factors associated with failure. The investigators concluded that in contrast to SCIP-VTE-2, their novel quality measure unmasked VTE chemoprophylaxis failures in 18% of colectomies. They found that most failures were due to patient refusals or ordering errors.
Citation: Yang AD, Hewitt DB, Blay E . Multi-institution evaluation of adherence to comprehensive postoperative VTE chemoprophylaxis. Ann Surg 2020 Jun;271(6):1072-79. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000003124..
Keywords: Patient Adherence/Compliance, Guidelines, Blood Clots, Blood Thinners, Medication, Medication: Safety, Patient Safety, Adverse Events
Abraham NS, Noseworthy PA, Inselman J
Risk of gastrointestinal bleeding increases with combinations of antithrombotic agents and patient age.
This study investigated whether age of patient and time frame increased the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in elderly patients being treated with anticoagulants, antiplatelets, or a combination of both therapies. This retrospective analysis used nationwide claims data from privately insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees who received anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet agents from October 1, 2010, through May 31, 2017. The final cohort included 311,211 patients who had a primary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, or venous thromboembolism. There was no significant different in the proportion of patients with GIB after anticoagulant or antiplatelet monotherapy, but combination therapy increased GIB risk. Advancing age was also associated with increasing 1-year probability of FIB, especially patients older than 75 years taking combination therapy.
Citation: Abraham NS, Noseworthy PA, Inselman J . Risk of gastrointestinal bleeding increases with combinations of antithrombotic agents and patient age. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Feb;18(2):337-46.e19. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2019.05.017..
Keywords: Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Medication, Adverse Events, Medication: Safety, Elderly, Blood Thinners, Blood Clots, Digestive Disease and Health
Borre ED, Goode A, Raitz G
Predicting thromboembolic and bleeding event risk in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a systematic review.
This systematic review compared the strength of tools to predict stroke and bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking blood thinners. Sixty-one studies were found to predict thromboembolic risk and 38 to predict bleeding risk.
Citation: Borre ED, Goode A, Raitz G . Predicting thromboembolic and bleeding event risk in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a systematic review. Thromb Haemost 2018 Dec;118(12):2171-87. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1675400..
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Stroke, Blood Clots, Blood Thinners, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Risk, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Wang SV, Huybrechts KF, Fischer MA
Generalized boosted modeling to identify subgroups where effect of dabigatran versus warfarin may differ: an observational cohort study of patients with atrial fibrillation.
The purpose of this study was to explore generalized boosted modeling (GBM) as a method for identifying subgroups with greater benefit or harm with dabigatran versus warfarin for treatment of atrial fibrillation. The investigators concluded that dabigatran's superiority to warfarin at prevention of thromboembolism may be greater in secondary than primary prevention. They indicated that in practice, secondary prevention patients are more often treated with warfarin.
Citation: Wang SV, Huybrechts KF, Fischer MA . Generalized boosted modeling to identify subgroups where effect of dabigatran versus warfarin may differ: an observational cohort study of patients with atrial fibrillation. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2018 Apr;27(4):383-90. doi: 10.1002/pds.4395..
Keywords: Blood Clots, Blood Thinners, Cardiovascular Conditions, Comparative Effectiveness, Evidence-Based Practice, Heart Disease and Health, Medication, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Prevention
Lau BD, Streiff MB, Kraus PS
Missed doses of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis at community hospitals: cause for alarm.
This study examined the rate of missed doses of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis at community hospitals in the Washington, DC and greater Baltimore metropolitan areas. This retrospective study included four hospitals within the Johns Hopkins Health System. Non-administration of VTE prophylaxis was found 10.9% to 15.0% of the time among the three community hospitals. About 43.6% of patients missed at least one dose in all four hospitals. The investigators weren’t able to categorize patients by specialty, however it has been reported that more doses are missed with medically ill patients than other hospitalized patients.
Citation: Lau BD, Streiff MB, Kraus PS . Missed doses of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis at community hospitals: cause for alarm. J Gen Intern Med 2018 Jan;33(1):19-20. doi: 10.1007/s11606-017-4203-y..
Keywords: Blood Clots, Prevention, Blood Thinners, Patient Adherence/Compliance, Medication, Hospitals
Wang SV, Franklin JM, Glynn RJ
Prediction of rates of thromboembolic and major bleeding outcomes with dabigatran or warfarin among patients with atrial fibrillation: new initiator cohort study.
The authors compared stratified event rates from randomized controlled trials with predicted event rates from models developed in observational data and assessed their ability to accurately capture observed rates of thromboembolism and major bleeding for patients treated with dabigatran or warfarin as part of routine care. They found that estimated rates of thromboembolism under dabigatran or warfarin treatment in randomized controlled trials were close to observed rates in routine care patients, but that rates of major bleeding were underestimated. They concluded that models developed in routine care patients can provide accurate, tailored estimates of risk and benefit under alternative treatment to enhance patient centered care.
Citation: Wang SV, Franklin JM, Glynn RJ . Prediction of rates of thromboembolic and major bleeding outcomes with dabigatran or warfarin among patients with atrial fibrillation: new initiator cohort study. BMJ 2016 May 24;353:i2607. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i2607.
Keywords: Blood Thinners, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Blood Clots, Patient Safety, Medication