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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 515 Research Studies Displayed
Duan KI, Wong ES, Liao JM
Long-term trends in home respiratory medical equipment among U.S. Medicare patients.
The purpose of this study was to explore how respiratory durable medical equipment (DME) supply has changed since Medicare implemented the Competitive Bidding Program (CBP) in 2011and increased the scale of the program nationally in 2013 and 2016. The researchers analyzed all publicly available nationwide Medicare DME data from 2013 to 2019 and analyzed all respiratory DME included in the CBP (excluding accessories such as masks, tubing, and filters). The researchers found that the three highest-volume respiratory DME products were stationary oxygen concentrators, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, and gaseous portable oxygen. Decreases in suppliers across all items and increases in claims per supplier for the majority of items suggest greater market concentration of respiratory DME suppliers for Medicare beneficiaries. Even as the Medicare population expanded by 2.6% between 2013 and 2019, the number of patients receiving home oxygen decreased, results that could represent reduced access to home oxygen DME. Finally, in contrast to declines in use for most home oxygen items, the percentage of Medicare beneficiaries using portable oxygen concentrators and CPAP devices increased significantly. The researchers conclude that this analysis addresses a critical knowledge gap and highlights the need for future work evaluating how policies such as the CBP affect respiratory DME access and outcomes.
Citation: Duan KI, Wong ES, Liao JM . Long-term trends in home respiratory medical equipment among U.S. Medicare patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Aug 15;206(4):509-11. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202202-0238LE..
Keywords: Home Healthcare, Medicare, Respiratory Conditions
Nguyen JK, Sanghavi P
A national assessment of legacy versus new generation Medicaid data.
The purpose of the study was to review Medicaid legacy, Medicaid new generation, and Medicare claims across multiple states and compare performance on data analytic tasks. The researchers targeted the series of events that begins with a non-hospital-related medical emergency and ends with survival to discharge or death. Six data quality indicators were developed to evaluate the following: ambulance variables; code reporting for external cause of injury; linkage between claims; and death reporting on hospital discharge status codes. For death reporting on hospital discharge status codes the researchers estimated the severity of injuries and developed a model of its correlation with death in the Medicare population. The resulting model was utilized to compare reported versus expected deaths by level of injury severity in the Medicaid population. The study found that new generation Medicare claims had high performance across states and indicators, Medicaid legacy claims underperformed on multiple indicators in most states, and while new generation Medicaid claims outperformed Medicaid legacy claims on several indicators, conducting high-level analysis with that data will require substantial improvements.
Citation: Nguyen JK, Sanghavi P . A national assessment of legacy versus new generation Medicaid data. Health Serv Res 2022 Aug;57(4):944-56. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13937..
Keywords: Medicaid, Medicare, Care Management
Temkin-Greener H, Mao Y, McGarry B
Health care use and outcomes in assisted living communities: race, ethnicity, and dual eligibility.
The purpose of this study was to examine the type and quality of care received in residential long-term care setting by racial/ ethnic minorities or residents eligible for dual Medicare and Medicaid. With 2018 Medicare data, the researchers identified 255,564 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries over the age of 55 who were living in 24,108 assisted living facilities across the United States and evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and dual status with emergency room use, inpatient hospital admission, 30-day readmission, and placement in a nursing home. The study found variations within and across assisted living facilities for racial/ethnic minority and dual residents, suggesting that outcome disparities are the most significant by dual eligibility status instead of only race/ ethnicity. The researchers concluded that these results can be used to inform and guide future research, as well as healthcare providers and policy makers.
Citation: Temkin-Greener H, Mao Y, McGarry B . Health care use and outcomes in assisted living communities: race, ethnicity, and dual eligibility. Med Care Res Rev 2022 Aug;79(4):500-10. doi: 10.1177/10775587211050189..
Keywords: Elderly, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Long-Term Care, Medicare
Waters TM, Burns N, Kaplan CM
Combined impact of medicare's hospital pay for performance programs on quality and safety outcomes is mixed.
The authors examined the combined impact of Medicare's pay for performance (P4P) programs on clinical areas and populations targeted by the programs, as well as those outside their focus. Using HCUP data, and consistent with previous studies for individual programs, they detected minimal, if any, effect of Medicare's hospital P4P programs on quality and safety. They recommended a redesigning of the P4P programs before continuing to expand them.
Citation: Waters TM, Burns N, Kaplan CM . Combined impact of medicare's hospital pay for performance programs on quality and safety outcomes is mixed. BMC Health Serv Res 2022 Jul 28;22(1):958. doi: 10.1186/s12913-022-08348-w..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Medicare, Payment, Provider Performance, Hospitals, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality Measures, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Patient Safety
Chao GF, Chhabra KR, Yang J
Bariatric surgery in Medicare patients: examining safety and healthcare utilization in the disabled and elderly.
The purpose of this study was to compare safety and healthcare use after sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in a national Medicare cohort. The researchers analyzed Medicare claims from 2012-2017 for 30,105 bariatric surgery patients receiving benefits due to age or disability and compared all outcomes between sleeve and bypass for each benefit group at 30 days, 1 year, and 3 years. The study found that among the disabled patients (n = 21,595), sleeve gastrectomy was associated with lower 3-year ED utilization, complications, reinterventions, rehospitalizations, and mortality. Cumulative expenditures were $46,277 after sleeve gastrectomy and $48,211 after gastric bypass. Among the elderly (n = 8510), sleeve was associated with lower 3-year ED utilization, complications, reinterventions, and rehospitalizations. Expenditures were $38,632 after sleeve gastrectomy and $39,270 after gastric bypass. Procedure treatment effect significantly differed by benefit group for paraesophageal hernia repair, revision, and mortality. The study concluded that healthcare utilization benefits of sleeve over bypass are maintained across Medicare elderly populations and Medicare disabled subpopulations.
Citation: Chao GF, Chhabra KR, Yang J . Bariatric surgery in Medicare patients: examining safety and healthcare utilization in the disabled and elderly. Ann Surg 2022 Jul 1;276(1):133-39. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000004526..
Keywords: Obesity: Weight Management, Obesity, Surgery, Medicare, Elderly, Disabilities
Zrelak PA, Utter GH, McDonald KM
Incorporating harms into the weighting of the revised Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety for Selected Indicators Composite (Patient Safety Indicator 90).
The purpose of this study was to reweight AHRQ’s Patient Safety for Selected Indicators Composite (Patient Safety Indicator 90) from weights based solely on the frequency of component Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) to those that incorporate excess harm reflecting patients' preferences for outcome-related health states. Findings showed that including harms in the weighting scheme changed individual component weights from the original frequency-based weighting. In the reweighted composite, PSIs 11, 13, and 12 contributed the greatest harm. The investigators concluded that reformulation of PSI 90 with harm-based weights is feasible and results in satisfactory reliability and discrimination.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290201200003I.
Citation: Zrelak PA, Utter GH, McDonald KM . Incorporating harms into the weighting of the revised Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety for Selected Indicators Composite (Patient Safety Indicator 90). Health Serv Res 2022 Jun;57(3):654-67. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13918..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Patient Safety, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality Measures, Quality of Care, Adverse Events, Medicare
Andino JJ, Zhu Z, Surapaneni M
Interstate telehealth use by Medicare beneficiaries before and after COVID-19 licensure waivers, 2017-20.
This study analyzed trends in interstate telehealth use by Medicaid beneficiaries during 2017-2020, which covers the period both directly before and during the first year of the pandemic. Although the volume of interstate telehealth use increased in 2020, out-of-state telehealth only made up 0.8% of all outpatient visits, and 5% of all telehealth visits overall. For individual states, out-of-state telehealth made up between 0.2-9.3% of all outpatient visits. Most out-of-state telehealth visits were used for established patient care, and a higher percentage of out-of-state telehealth users lived in rural areas compared with beneficiaries who stayed with in-state care (28% versus 23%).
Citation: Andino JJ, Zhu Z, Surapaneni M . Interstate telehealth use by Medicare beneficiaries before and after COVID-19 licensure waivers, 2017-20. Health Aff 2022 Jun;41(6):838-45. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2021.01825.
Keywords: Telehealth, COVID-19, Health Information Technology (HIT), Medicare, Healthcare Delivery
Anderson KE, Polsky D, Dy S
Prescribing of low- versus high-cost Part B drugs in Medicare Advantage and traditional Medicare.
The purpose of this study was to compare Medicare Advantage (MA) coverage with traditional Medicare (TM) coverage as it relates to whether MA is associated with greater efficiency of prescribing Part B drugs. The authors sampled 20% of all 2016 outpatient and carrier TM claims and MA encounter records and Master Beneficiary Summary File data and analyzed whether MA enrollees more often received the low-cost Part B drug compared to TM enrollees. Four clinical scenarios were evaluated where multiple, similarly effective drugs exist: (1) anti-VEGF agents to treat macular degeneration, (2) bone resorption inhibitors for osteoporosis, (3) bone resorption inhibitors for malignant neoplasms, and (4) intravenous iron for iron deficiency anemia. The researchers estimated spending differences if TM prescribing aligned with MA prescribing and evaluated whether differences between MA and TM prescribing patterns were due to differences in the hospitals and provider practices who treat MA and TM enrollees or differences in how those hospitals and provider practices engage with their MA vs TM patients. The researchers found that more MA enrollees received the low-cost drug vs. TM enrollees in all 4 clinical scenarios, and that if TM prescribing matched that of ME prescribing, there would be a spending savings of 6% to 20% for each of the 4 scenarios. The study concluded that in 4 clinical scenarios in which similarly or equally effective treatment options exist, MA enrollees were more likely than TM enrollees to receive low-cost Part B drugs.
Citation: Anderson KE, Polsky D, Dy S . Prescribing of low- versus high-cost Part B drugs in Medicare Advantage and traditional Medicare. Health Serv Res 2022 Jun;57(3):537-47. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13912..
Keywords: Medication, Medicare, Healthcare Costs
Wang J, Mao Y, McGarry B
Post-acute care transitions and outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries in assisted living communities.
This study examined the post-acute care transitions among assisted living (AL) residents and their association with outcomes in the first 30 and 60 days after hospital discharge. Findings showed that the most common post-acute care referral was to skilled nursing facilities (SNF), followed by home without home health care (HHC), home with HHC, and others. Compared to discharge home without HHC, discharge to SNF was associated with a lower likelihood of ED visits and hospital readmissions, and higher likelihood of long-stay nursing home placement and mortality. Discharge home with HHC was associated with a higher likelihood of hospital readmissions and a lower likelihood of long-stay nursing home placement than discharge home without HHC. The results were similar within the first 30 days and 60 days after hospital discharge.
Citation: Wang J, Mao Y, McGarry B . Post-acute care transitions and outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries in assisted living communities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2022 May;70(5):1429-41. doi: 10.1111/jgs.17669..
Keywords: Elderly, Medicare, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care
Valdez S, Jacobson M
Assessing the quality of SK&A's office-based physician database for identifying oncologists.
Investigators assessed the quality of SK&A's office-based physician database by capturing oncologists who bill the Medicare fee-for-service program. Using 2017 data, they found that nearly 74% of the oncologists in Medicare claims can be found in the SK&A data, with higher rates when weighted by patients, service volume, or spending.
Citation: Valdez S, Jacobson M . Assessing the quality of SK&A's office-based physician database for identifying oncologists. Med Care Res Rev 2022 Apr;79(2):317-27. doi: 10.1177/10775587211013628..
Keywords: Medicare, Provider: Physician
Taylor K, Diaz A, Nuliyalu U
Association of dual Medicare and Medicaid eligibility with outcomes and spending for cancer surgery in high-quality hospitals.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether treatment at high-quality hospitals mitigates dual-eligibility-associated disparities in outcomes and spending for cancer surgery. Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older who underwent colectomy, rectal resection, lung resection, or pancreatectomy were evaluated. The findings indicate that, even among the highest-quality hospitals, dual-eligibility patients had poorer outcomes and higher spending. Dually eligible patients were more likely to be discharged to a facility and thus incurred higher post-acute care costs. Although treatment at high-quality hospitals is associated with reduced differences in outcomes, dual-eligibility patients remain at high risk for adverse post-operative outcomes as well as increased readmissions and post-acute care use.
Citation: Taylor K, Diaz A, Nuliyalu U . Association of dual Medicare and Medicaid eligibility with outcomes and spending for cancer surgery in high-quality hospitals. JAMA Surg 2022 Apr;157(4):e217586. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2021.7586..
Keywords: Cancer, Surgery, Medicare, Medicaid, Outcomes, Hospitals
Jacobs PD, Abdus S
AHRQ Author: Jacobs PD, Abdus S
Changes in preventive service use by race and ethnicity after Medicare eligibility in the United States.
Researchers examined whether widespread eligibility for Medicare at age 65 narrows disparate preventive service use by race and ethnicity. Using MEPS data and examining six preventive services, they found that, for non-Hispanic Black adults, preventive service use increased after age 65. Further, for all four preventive health measures that were lower for Hispanic adults compared with non-Hispanic White adults prior to age 65, service use was indistinguishable between these groups after reaching the Medicare eligibility age. They concluded that Medicare eligibility appeared to reduce most racial and ethnic disparities in preventive service use.
Citation: Jacobs PD, Abdus S . Changes in preventive service use by race and ethnicity after Medicare eligibility in the United States. Prev Med 2022 Apr;157:106996. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.106996..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Medicare, Prevention, Access to Care, Disparities, Health Insurance
Everson J, Adler-Milstein JR, Hollingsworth JM
Dispersion in the hospital network of shared patients is associated with less efficient care.
The purpose of this study was to examine the level of distribution of patient-sharing networks across U.S. hospitals and its relationship with 3 measures of care delivered by hospitals that were likely to relate to coordination. The researchers utilized data from 2016 Medicare Fee-for-Service claims to measure the volume of patients that hospitals treated in common, and then calculated a measure of dispersion for each hospital. The relationship between network dispersion, Medicare spending per beneficiary, readmission rates, and emergency department (ED) throughput rates were then estimated. The study reported that hospitals with more dispersed networks had greater spending rates but not higher admission rates or slower ED processes. Among hospitals with less resources, more dispersion was associated with higher readmission rates and slower ED processes. The researchers concluded that dispersed interhospital networks create difficulties in coordinating patients who are treated at multiple hospitals, and that the structure of patient-sharing networks may be an overlooked factor that influences the delivery of care in health care organizations.
AHRQ-funded; HS026395, HS024525, HS024728, HS024454.
Citation: Everson J, Adler-Milstein JR, Hollingsworth JM . Dispersion in the hospital network of shared patients is associated with less efficient care. Health Care Manage Rev 2022 Apr-Jun;47(2):88-99. doi: 10.1097/hmr.0000000000000295..
Keywords: Medicare, Hospitals, Care Coordination, Healthcare Delivery
Herrin J, Yu H, Venkatesh AK
Identifying high-value care for Medicare beneficiaries: a cross-sectional study of acute care hospitals in the USA.
Investigators sought to define hospital value and identify the characteristics of hospitals which provide high-value care. Participants were Medicare beneficiaries with claims included in CMS Overall Star Ratings or in publicly available Medicare spending per beneficiary data. The researchers found that there are high quality hospitals that are not high value, and a number of factors are strongly associated with being low or high value. They suggested that their findings can inform efforts of policymakers and hospitals to increase the value of care.
AHRQ-funded; HS022882; HS026980.
Citation: Herrin J, Yu H, Venkatesh AK . Identifying high-value care for Medicare beneficiaries: a cross-sectional study of acute care hospitals in the USA. BMJ Open 2022 Mar 31;12(3):e053629. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053629..
Keywords: Medicare, Quality of Care, Hospitals
Behr CL, Joynt Maddox KE, Meara E
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody distribution to high-risk Medicare beneficiaries, 2020-2021.
The authors assessed how the limited supply of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) therapy was allocated to patients at highest risk of severe disease. They found that, among non-hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries with a COVID-19 diagnosis between November 2020 and August 2021, only 7.2% received mAb therapy. In many cases, patients at the highest risk of severe disease were the least likely to receive mAb therapy, with extreme variation geographically. Their analysis did not account for patient vaccination status or observed disease severity, which could influence clinicians’ decisions.
Citation: Behr CL, Joynt Maddox KE, Meara E . Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody distribution to high-risk Medicare beneficiaries, 2020-2021. JAMA 2022 Mar 8;327(10):980-83. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.1243..
Keywords: COVID-19, Medicare, Medication
Hua CL, Thomas KS, Bunker JN
Dementia diagnosis in the hospital and outcomes among patients with advanced dementia documented in the Minimum Data Set.
This retrospective cohort study examined the association between a dementia diagnosis listed on a hospital claim and patient outcomes among individuals with a Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessment. The cohort was comprised of hospitalized patients aged 66 years and older with advanced dementia noted on an MDS assessment completed within 120 days prior to their first hospitalization in 2017. Among 120,989 patients with advanced dementia and a nursing home stay, 90.6% had a dementia diagnosis on their hospital claims. Documentation of a dementia diagnosis was associated with lower use of intensive care unit or coronary care unit, use of invasive mechanical ventilation, and 30-day mortality. These patients also had a shorter hospital length of stay.
Citation: Hua CL, Thomas KS, Bunker JN . Dementia diagnosis in the hospital and outcomes among patients with advanced dementia documented in the Minimum Data Set. J Am Geriatr Soc 2022 Mar;70(3):846-53. doi: 10.1111/jgs.17564..
Keywords: Dementia, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Medicare, Hospitals, Neurological Disorders
Presskreischer R, Steinglass JE, Anderson KE
Eating disorders in the U.S. Medicare population.
This cross-sectional study explored the prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and health care spending for Medicare enrollees with eating disorders. A representative 20% sample of 2016 Medicare inpatient, outpatient, carrier, and home health fee-for-service claims and Medicare Advantage encounter records was used. The sample included almost 12 million Medicare enrollees of whom 0.15% had an eating disorder diagnosis. A greater proportion of individuals diagnosed with an eating disorder diagnosis were female, under age 65, and dually eligible for Medicaid due to disability or low-income qualification than those without a diagnosis. Individuals with eating disorders had higher rates of comorbid conditions, with the greatest differences in cardiac arrythmias, arthritis, and thyroid conditions. Spending was $29,456 for enrollees with eating disorders compared to $7,418 without.
Citation: Presskreischer R, Steinglass JE, Anderson KE . Eating disorders in the U.S. Medicare population. Int J Eat Disord 2022 Mar;55(3):362-71. doi: 10.1002/eat.23676..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Medicare, Healthcare Costs
Rodriguez HP, Ciemins EL, Rubio K
Physician practices with robust capabilities spend less on Medicare beneficiaries than more limited practices.
Researchers used data from the 2017 National Survey of Healthcare Organizations and Systems to examine the association of practice-level capabilities with process measures of quality, utilization, and spending. They found that quality and utilization did not differ by practice-level capabilities. Physician practice locations with robust capabilities spent less on Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries but delivered quality of care comparable to the quality delivered in locations with low or mixed capabilities.
Citation: Rodriguez HP, Ciemins EL, Rubio K . Physician practices with robust capabilities spend less on Medicare beneficiaries than more limited practices. Health Aff 2022 Mar;41(3):414-23. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2021.00302..
Keywords: Healthcare Costs, Medicare, Provider: Physician
Hussaini SMQ, Gupta A, Anderson KE
Utilization of filgrastim and infliximab biosimilar products in Medicare Part D, 2015-2019.
This research letter describes a cross-sectional study that investigated whether the use of biosimilar drugs was associated with reduced spending in Medicare Part D. This study evaluated utilization trends for filgrastim which is a drug used to treat cancer, and infliximab, a drug used for autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. From 2015 to 2019, filgrastim claims increased by 15% and infliximab increased by 41%. Annual spending share on filgrastim biosimilars went from 2% in 2015 to 56% in 2019. The share for infliximab increased from less than 1% to 3.6%. Total annual Medicare Part D spending on filgrastim decreased by only 7% from 2015 to 2019, while spending on infliximab total annual Part D spending increased by 17% despite biosimilar competition.
Citation: Hussaini SMQ, Gupta A, Anderson KE . Utilization of filgrastim and infliximab biosimilar products in Medicare Part D, 2015-2019. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Mar;5(3):e221117. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.1117..
Keywords: Medicare, Medication
Adler-Milstein J, Linden A, Bernstein S
Longitudinal participation in delivery and payment reform programs among US primary care organizations.
The purpose of this retrospective, observational study was to assess longitudinal primary care organization participation patterns in large-scale reform programs and to identify organizational characteristics associated with multiprogram participation. Medicare claims were used to identify organizations that delivered primary care services. Findings showed that no program achieved more than 50% participation; 36% of organizations did not participate in any program; 50% participated in one; 13% in two; and 1% in all three. Larger organizations, those with younger providers, those with more primary care providers, and those with larger Medicare patient panels were more likely to participate in more programs.
Citation: Adler-Milstein J, Linden A, Bernstein S . Longitudinal participation in delivery and payment reform programs among US primary care organizations. Health Serv Res 2022 Feb;57(1):47-55. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13646..
Keywords: Primary Care, Medicare, Healthcare Delivery
Markovitz AA, Ryan AM, Peterson TA
ACO awareness and perceptions among specialists versus primary care physicians: a survey of a large Medicare Shared Savings program.
This research letter describes a survey that was conducted to compare accountable care organization (ACO) awareness and perceptions among specialists versus primary care physicians (PCPs). The survey was administered in 2018 to clinicians in the Physician Organization of Michigan ACO, which was the largest Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) in Michigan and among the ten largest nationally at the time. The analysis focused on 1022 non-pediatrician physician respondents practicing within 10 provider organizations. Physician respondents included PCPs (23%) and specialists (77%). The most common specialty was internal medicine (20%), followed by surgeons (14%). Specialists were less likely to be aware of ACO participation and incentives. They were also 25% less likely to know they were in an ACO compared to PCPs. In addition, specialists were 18% less likely to know their ACO was accountable for both spending and quality or that their ACO had lowered spending in the previous year. This difference in perception may help to explain ACOs’ modest impact on spending and quality.
Citation: Markovitz AA, Ryan AM, Peterson TA . ACO awareness and perceptions among specialists versus primary care physicians: a survey of a large Medicare Shared Savings program. J Gen Intern Med 2022 Feb;37(2):492-94. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06556-w..
Keywords: Primary Care, Healthcare Costs, Medicare, Provider: Physician
Wickwire EM, Bailey MD, Somers VK
CPAP adherence is associated with reduced inpatient utilization among older adult Medicare beneficiaries with pre-existing cardiovascular disease.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on health care utilization among a nationally representative and sample of older adults with multiple morbidities and pre-existing cardiovascular disease and subsequently diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea in the United States. The investigators concluded that in this nationally representative sample of older Medicare beneficiaries with multiple morbidities and relative to low adherers, high adherers demonstrated reduced inpatient utilization.
Citation: Wickwire EM, Bailey MD, Somers VK . CPAP adherence is associated with reduced inpatient utilization among older adult Medicare beneficiaries with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2022 Jan;18(1):39-45. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.9478..
Keywords: Elderly, Medicare, Sleep Problems, Cardiovascular Conditions, Patient Adherence/Compliance, Hospitalization
Song Zhang, Zhang X, Patterson LJ
Racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalization outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This study assessed assess racial and ethnic differences in hospitalization outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic among Medicare beneficiaries. Medicare claims from the Social Security Administration was used to determine in-hospital mortality and mortality inclusive of discharges to hospice and discharges to postacute care. Over 31 million Medicare recipients in the database were analyzed with over 14 million hospitalizations from January 2019 to February 2021. There was a decline in non-COVID-19 and an emergence of COVID-19 hospitalizations among beneficiaries of different racial and ethnic minority groups through February 2021. In-hospital mortality was not significantly different among Black patients relative to White patients but was 3.5 percentage points higher among Hispanic patients and other racial and ethnic minority groups. There were disparities in discharges to hospice and postacute care as well.
Citation: Song Zhang, Zhang X, Patterson LJ . Racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalization outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Health Forum 2021 Dec 23;2(12):e214223. doi: 10.1001/jamahealthforum.2021.4223..
Keywords: COVID-19, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Medicare, Hospitalization, Outcomes, Mortality
Wilcock AD, Joshi S, Escarce J
Luck of the draw: role of chance in the assignment of Medicare readmissions penalties.
Pay-for-performance programs are one strategy used by health plans to improve the efficiency and quality of care delivered to beneficiaries. Under such programs, providers are often compared against their peers in order to win bonuses or face penalties in payment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact luck can have on the assessment of performance, the researchers investigated its role in assigning penalties under Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Policy (HRRP), a program that penalizes hospitals with excess readmissions.
Citation: Wilcock AD, Joshi S, Escarce J . Luck of the draw: role of chance in the assignment of Medicare readmissions penalties. PLoS One 2021 Dec 21;16(12):e0261363. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0261363..
Keywords: Medicare, Payment, Hospital Readmissions, Provider Performance, Quality of Care
Sood N, Yang Z, Huckfeldt P
Geographic variation in Medicare fee-for-service health care expenditures before and after the passage of the Affordable Care Act.
This cross-section study examined geographic variation in Medicare fee-for-service health care expenditures before and after the passage of the Affordable Care Act. The study included all fee-for-service Medicare enrollees aged 65 and older from 2007 to 2018 using data from the Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File. Hospital referral regions (HRRs) were grouped in each year into deciles (10 equal groups) based on per-beneficiary total spending. Geographic variation was stable from 2007 to 2011 and declined steadily from 2012 through 2018. In specific spending categories, only home health had statistically significant reductions in geographic variation. The ratio of home health spending among HRRs in the top to bottom deciles of total Medicare spending fell from 5.14 in 2007 to 3.45 in 2018.
Citation: Sood N, Yang Z, Huckfeldt P . Geographic variation in Medicare fee-for-service health care expenditures before and after the passage of the Affordable Care Act. JAMA Health Forum 2021 Dec;2(12):e214122. doi: 10.1001/jamahealthforum.2021.4122..
Keywords: Medicare, Policy, Healthcare Costs, Payment