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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 7 of 7 Research Studies Displayed
Adams C, Chamberlain A, Wang Y
The role of staff in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in long-term care facilities.
The purpose of this study was to assess the role of long-term care facility (LTCF) staff in transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. From March 2020 to September the researchers evaluated residents and staff of 60 LTCFs in Georgia. The study found that after vaccines were first distributed to LTCFs in December 202, case counts, outbreak size and duration, and time-varying reproduction number [R(t)] declined rapidly. Staff cases were six times more infectious than resident cases, and unvaccinated resident cases were more infectious than vaccinated resident cases. The researchers concluded that staff were the primary drivers of COVID-19 transmission in LTCFs and vaccines slowed the transmission of the virus and contributed to a reduction in cases in LTCFs.
Citation: Adams C, Chamberlain A, Wang Y . The role of staff in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in long-term care facilities. Epidemiology 2022 Sep 1;33(5):669-77. doi: 10.1097/ede.0000000000001510..
Keywords: COVID-19, Respiratory Conditions, Long-Term Care, Public Health
Guo W, Li Y, Temkin-Greener H
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in assisted living communities: neighborhood deprivation and state social distancing policies matter.
Investigators examined the association between COVID-19 cases in assisted living communities (ALCs) and the proportion of Medicare-Medicaid (dual) eligible minority residents, neighborhood area deprivation, and state COVID-19 policy stringency. They found that ALCs with higher proportions of dual-eligible minority residents were more likely to have COVID-19 outbreaks within their communities. Further, ALCs located in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods, and in states with less stringent state social distancing policies, tended to have more COVID-19 cases.
Citation: Guo W, Li Y, Temkin-Greener H . Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in assisted living communities: neighborhood deprivation and state social distancing policies matter. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2022 Aug;43(8):1004-09. doi: 10.1017/ice.2022.46..
Keywords: COVID-19, Elderly, Long-Term Care, Policy, Public Health
Beeber AS, Hoben M, Leeman J
Developing a toolkit to improve resident and family engagement in the safety of assisted living: Engage-A stakeholder-engaged research protocol.
This paper describes an AHRQ-funded study protocol (Engage) to develop a toolkit for increasing resident and family engagement in assisted living (AL) safety. The study goals are to engage AL residents and family caregivers, AL staff, and other AL stakeholders to (1) identify common AL safety problems; (2) prioritize safety problems and identify and evaluate existing PFE interventions with the potential to address safety problems in the AL setting; and (3) develop a testable toolkit to improve PFE in AL safety. Methods, including qualitative interviews, a scoping review of persona and family engagement (PFE) interventions, and stakeholder panel meetings are discussed. The authors also detail how the protocol was modified to address the unique challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Citation: Beeber AS, Hoben M, Leeman J . Developing a toolkit to improve resident and family engagement in the safety of assisted living: Engage-A stakeholder-engaged research protocol. Res Nurs Health 2022 Aug;45(4):413-23. doi: 10.1002/nur.22232..
Keywords: Patient and Family Engagement, Patient Safety, Caregiving, Public Health, Long-Term Care
Montoya A, Jenq G, Mills JP
Partnering with local hospitals and public health to manage COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes.
In this study, the authors described, among short-term and long-term residents at three nursing homes (NHs) in Michigan, the outbreak identification process, universal testing, point prevalence of COVID-19, and subsequent containment efforts, outcomes, and challenges. They found that proactive and coordinated steps between NH medical directors and administrators, referral hospitals including their laboratories, and local public health officials were necessary to respond rapidly to an outbreak and to limit the transmission of COVID-19. They suggested that this coordinated public health approach may save lives, minimize the burden to the healthcare system, and reduce healthcare costs.
Citation: Montoya A, Jenq G, Mills JP . Partnering with local hospitals and public health to manage COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jan;69(1):30-36. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16869..
Keywords: Hospitals, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Public Health, COVID-19, Elderly, Infectious Diseases
White EM, Kosar CM, Feifer RA
Variation in SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in U.S. skilled nursing facilities.
The objective of this study was to identify county and facility factors associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreaks in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). The investigators concluded that larger SNFs and SNFs in areas of high SARS-CoV-2 prevalence were at high risk for outbreaks and must have access to universal testing to detect cases, implement mitigation strategies, and prevent further potentially avoidable cases and related complications.
Citation: White EM, Kosar CM, Feifer RA . Variation in SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in U.S. skilled nursing facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Oct;68(10):2167-73. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16752..
Keywords: COVID-19, Elderly, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Public Health, Infectious Diseases
Jones KM, Mantey J, Mills JP
COVID-19 preparedness in Michigan nursing homes.
The objectives of this study were to understand preparedness among Michigan nursing homes (NHs) in the midst of an ongoing pandemic and to compare with a 2007 survey on pandemic influenza preparedness in Michigan NHs. Findings showed that, in 2020, NHs were able to make policy and procedure changes within 1 week in response to urgent guidance from CMS and the CDC, which likely helped the facilities prepare for the COVID-19 pandemic. Most NHs had a dedicated staff member responsible for preparedness and were willing to accept patients from hospitals to assist in their surge capacity planning, particularly for non-COVID patients. NHs did express concerns about staffing shortages and PPE supply constraints as cases rose.
Citation: Jones KM, Mantey J, Mills JP . COVID-19 preparedness in Michigan nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 May;68(5):937-39. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16490..
Keywords: COVID-19, Elderly, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Emergency Preparedness, Public Health
Adams C, Young D, Gastanaduy PA
Quantifying the roles of vomiting, diarrhea, and residents vs. staff in norovirus transmission in U.S. nursing home outbreaks.
Norovirus transmissibility is poorly understood and the goal of this study was to examine transmission via vomiting, diarrhea, and patient exposures. Six nursing home outbreaks in South Carolina were examined from 2014 to 2016. Vomiting infected 2.12 times the number of individuals as non-vomiters, diarrhea 1.39 times, and resident cases infected 1.53 times the number of individuals as staff cases. This finding is important for not just nursing homes, but other sites of norovirus outbreaks such as cruise ships.
Citation: Adams C, Young D, Gastanaduy PA . Quantifying the roles of vomiting, diarrhea, and residents vs. staff in norovirus transmission in U.S. nursing home outbreaks. PLoS Comput Biol 2020 Mar;16(3):e1007271. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007271..
Keywords: Elderly, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Infectious Diseases, Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Prevention, Public Health