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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 16 of 16 Research Studies Displayed
Leifheit KM, Schwartz GL, Pollack CE
Severe housing insecurity during pregnancy: association with adverse birth and infant outcomes.
This study measured the association of severe housing insecurity with adverse birth and infant outcomes. Data was analyzed from 3248 mother-infant dyads enrolled in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. This prospective cohort study represented births in 20 large U.S. cities from 1998 to 2000. Severe housing insecurity was defined as threatened eviction or homelessness. Adverse outcomes included low birth weight and/or preterm birth, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or stepdown facility, extended hospitalization after delivery, and infant health and temperament. There were statistically significant associations found between severe housing insecurity during pregnancy and low birth weight and/or preterm births. Housing insecurity and infant fair or poor health and poor temperament were not found to have statistically significant associations. Population attributable fraction (PAF) estimates suggested that up to 3% of adverse birth and infant outcomes could be avoided by eliminating severe housing insecurity among low-income, pregnant women.
Citation: Leifheit KM, Schwartz GL, Pollack CE . Severe housing insecurity during pregnancy: association with adverse birth and infant outcomes. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Nov 21;17(22):8659. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17228659..
Keywords: Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery, Vulnerable Populations, Outcomes, Adverse Events, Women, Low-Income, Newborns/Infants
Guglielminotti J, Li G
Exposure to general anesthesia for cesarean delivery and odds of severe postpartum depression requiring hospitalization.
This retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk of general anesthesia use in cesarean delivery versus neuraxial anesthesia on maternal mental health. Cesarean deliveries performed in New York State hospitals between 2006 and 2013 were included. Exclusion criteria included having more than 1 cesarean delivery during the study period, residing outside of New York State, and having a general anesthetic for other surgery or delivery in the year before or after the index case. The primary outcome looked at was severe postpartum depression (PPD), and secondary outcomes were suicidal ideation, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The majority of cesareans used neuraxial anesthesia and only 8% (34,356) had general anesthesia. Severe PPD requiring hospitalization occurred in 1158 women with 60% identified during readmission. General anesthesia was found to be associated with a 54% increased odds of PPD, and a 91% increased odds of suicidal ideation or self-inflicted injury. There was insufficient evidence for increased risk of anxiety orders.
Citation: Guglielminotti J, Li G . Exposure to general anesthesia for cesarean delivery and odds of severe postpartum depression requiring hospitalization. Anesth Analg 2020 Nov;131(5):1421-29. doi: 10.1213/ane.0000000000004663..
Keywords: Labor and Delivery, Pregnancy, Women, Depression, Behavioral Health, Surgery, Risk, Hospitalization, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Guglielminotti J, Landau R, Li. G
Adverse events and factors associated with potentially avoidable use of general anesthesia in cesarean deliveries.
Compared with neuraxial anesthesia, general anesthesia for cesarean delivery is associated with increased risk of maternal adverse events. Reducing avoidable general anesthetics for cesarean delivery may improve safety of obstetric anesthesia care. This study examined adverse events, trends, and factors associated with potentially avoidable general anesthetics for cesarean delivery. The investigators concluded that compared with neuraxial anesthesia, avoidable general anesthetics are associated with increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes.
Citation: Guglielminotti J, Landau R, Li. G . Adverse events and factors associated with potentially avoidable use of general anesthesia in cesarean deliveries. Anesthesiology 2019 Jun;130(6):912-22. doi: 10.1097/aln.0000000000002629..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Labor and Delivery, Surgery, Pregnancy, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Women, Medication, Medication: Safety, Patient Safety, Maternal Care
Lapcharoensap W, Cong A, Sherman J
Safety and ergonomic challenges of ventilating a premature infant during delayed cord clamping.
This study discussed the reasons that delayed cord clamping (DCC) for term and preterm infants is endorsed by multiple medical organizations. It has been shown to reduce hemorrhage, lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and the need for transfusions in preterm infants. The writers held a number of multidisciplinary simulation workshops of vaginal and Caesarean deliveries, with providers starting positive pressure ventilation and ending with CPAP on a preterm manikin. Videos were also reviewed and identified 5 themes of concern: sterility, equipment, mobility, space, and workflow.
Citation: Lapcharoensap W, Cong A, Sherman J . Safety and ergonomic challenges of ventilating a premature infant during delayed cord clamping. Children 2019 Apr 13;6(4). doi: 10.3390/children6040059..
Keywords: Adverse Events, Labor and Delivery, Newborns/Infants, Patient Safety
Kahwati LC, Sorensen AV, Teixeira-Poit S
AHRQ Author: Mistry KB
Impact of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Safety Program for Perinatal Care.
The purpose of this study was to describe the Safety Program for Perinatal Care (SPPC) implementation experience and evaluate the short-term impact on labor and delivery (L&D) unit patient safety culture, processes, and adverse events. SPPC implementation by L&D units were supported sing a program toolkit, trainings, and technical assistance. Researchers then evaluated the program using a pre-post, mixed-methods design. Changes in safety and quality were measured using the Modified Adverse Outcome Index (MAOI) and other perinatal care indicators. Findings showed that SPPC had a favorable impact on unit patient safety culture and processes, but mixed short-term impact on maternal and neonatal adverse events.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 2902010000241.
Citation: Kahwati LC, Sorensen AV, Teixeira-Poit S . Impact of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Safety Program for Perinatal Care. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2019 Apr;45(4):231-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2018.11.002..
Keywords: Adverse Events, Communication, Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP), Labor and Delivery, Maternal Care, Newborns/Infants, Outcomes, Patient Safety, Pregnancy, Simulation, Surveys on Patient Safety Culture, Teams, TeamSTEPPS, Training, Women
Hefele JG, Santos P, Ritter G
Risk factors for shoulder dystocia: the impact of mother's race and ethnicity.
The purpose of this observational study was to examine shoulder dystocia risk factors by race and ethnicity using a 19,236 sample of pregnant women who presented for labor and delivery. Results found that, for White non-Hispanic mothers, the strongest risk factors were delivering past 40 weeks' gestation and use of epidural anesthesia during delivery. Among Black non-Hispanic mothers, the risk factors with the greatest impact were use of epidural and having gestational diabetes and controlling the condition with insulin. Additionally, among Hispanic mothers, having Spanish as the primary language increased shoulder dystocia likelihood compared to those who did not cite it as their primary language. This study provides evidence that risk factors for a labor and delivery condition can vary significantly across racial and ethnic subgroups.
Citation: Hefele JG, Santos P, Ritter G . Risk factors for shoulder dystocia: the impact of mother's race and ethnicity. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2018 Apr;5(2):333-41. doi: 10.1007/s40615-017-0374-9..
Keywords: Adverse Events, Labor and Delivery, Injuries and Wounds, Newborns/Infants, Pregnancy, Risk
McArdle J, Sorensen A, Fowler CI
Strategies to improve management of shoulder dystocia under the AHRQ Safety Program for Perinatal Care.
The purpose of this study using TeamSTEPPS was to assess the implementation of safety strategies to improve management of births complicated by shoulder dystocia in labor and delivery units. Results suggested that successful management of shoulder dystocia requires a rapid, standardized, and coordinated response. The Safety Program for Perinatal Care strategies to increase safety of shoulder dystocia management are scalable, replicable, and adaptable to unit needs and circumstances.
Citation: McArdle J, Sorensen A, Fowler CI . Strategies to improve management of shoulder dystocia under the AHRQ Safety Program for Perinatal Care. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2018 Mar;47(2):191-201. doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2017.11.014.
Keywords: Labor and Delivery, Newborns/Infants, Pregnancy, Adverse Events, TeamSTEPPS, Injuries and Wounds, Care Management, Education: Continuing Medical Education, Training, Tools & Toolkits, Patient Safety, Nursing, Communication, Quality of Care
Santos P, Hefele JG, Ritter G
Population-based risk factors for shoulder dystocia.
This retrospective observational study examined population-based risk factors for infant shoulder dystocia during labor. Five hospitals in 5 states were used and over 19,000 births evaluated between April 2011 and July 2013. An increased risk for dystocia was found for women who were prescribed insulin, indicating gestational diabetes. However this was not true of women with gestational diabetes who were not prescribed insulin. Other risk factors included being Black, Hispanic, covered by Medicaid or no insurance, infant gestational age of 41 weeks or greater, and chronic diabetes.
Citation: Santos P, Hefele JG, Ritter G . Population-based risk factors for shoulder dystocia. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2018 Jan;47(1):32-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2017.11.011..
Keywords: Labor and Delivery, Newborns/Infants, Risk, Pregnancy, Injuries and Wounds, Adverse Events
Metz TD, Gonzalez C, Allshouse AA
Influence of patient-level factors on mode of delivery among operative vaginal delivery candidates in modern practice.
This study aimed to evaluate which patient-level factors influence mode of delivery among candidates for operative vaginal delivery. Odds of forceps versus vacuum were higher with induction, nulliparity, epidural, maternal indication, older maternal age, and longer second stage. Odds of cesarean versus operative vaginal delivery were higher with maternal indication, a perinatologist, longer second stage, older gestational age and longer labor.
Citation: Metz TD, Gonzalez C, Allshouse AA . Influence of patient-level factors on mode of delivery among operative vaginal delivery candidates in modern practice. Am J Perinatol 2017 Aug;34(10):974-81. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1601441.
Keywords: Adverse Events, Healthcare Delivery, Labor and Delivery, Pregnancy, Women
Jensen EA, Lorch SA
Association between off-peak hour birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality among very low birth weight infants.
This study assessed the independent association between overnight or "off-peak" hour delivery and 3 neonatal morbidities strongly associated with childhood neurocognitive impairment. It found that very low birth weight infants born between midnight and 7:00 a.m. are at increased risk for severe intraventricular hemorrhage and death or major neonatal morbidity.
Citation: Jensen EA, Lorch SA . Association between off-peak hour birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality among very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr 2017 Jul;186:41-48.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.02.007.
Keywords: Labor and Delivery, Mortality, Newborns/Infants, Adverse Events
Burstein PD, Zalenski DM, Edwards JL
Changing labor and delivery practice: focus on achieving practice and documentation standardization with the goal of improving neonatal outcomes.
The researchers established a multifactorial shoulder dystocia response and management protocol to promote sustainable practice change. In the first year, there was a threefold increase in shoulder dystocia reporting, which continued in years 2 and 3. In the first year, 96 percent of clinicians completed all training elements. Overall teams reached a 99 percent adoption rate of the shoulder dystocia protocol.
Citation: Burstein PD, Zalenski DM, Edwards JL . Changing labor and delivery practice: focus on achieving practice and documentation standardization with the goal of improving neonatal outcomes. Health Serv Res 2016 Dec;51 Suppl 3:2472-86. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12589.
Keywords: Labor and Delivery, Newborns/Infants, Adverse Events, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Patient Safety, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice, Pregnancy, Teams
Sentell T, Chang A, Ahn HJ
Maternal language and adverse birth outcomes in a statewide analysis.
The study goal was to consider the relationship of maternal language to birth outcomes using Hawaii’s hospitalization data. It found that non-English speakers had approximately two times higher risk of having an obstetric trauma during a vaginal birth when other factors, including race/ethnicity, were controlled. Non-English speakers also had higher rates of potentially high-risk deliveries.
AHRQ-funded; HS019990; HS021903.
Citation: Sentell T, Chang A, Ahn HJ . Maternal language and adverse birth outcomes in a statewide analysis. Women Health 2016;56(3):257-80. doi: 10.1080/03630242.2015.1088114.
Keywords: Adverse Events, Communication, Labor and Delivery, Outcomes
Salemi JL, Pathak EB, Salihu HM
Infant outcomes after elective early-term delivery compared with expectant management.
The purpose of the study was to compare the risk of neonatal morbidity and infant mortality between elective early-term deliveries and those expectantly managed and delivered at 39 weeks of gestation or greater. It concluded that the issues surrounding the timing and reasons for delivery initiation are complicated and each pregnancy unique. Furthermore, it cautions against a general avoidance of all elective early-term deliveries.
AHRQ-funded - HS019997.
Citation: Salemi JL, Pathak EB, Salihu HM . Infant outcomes after elective early-term delivery compared with expectant management. Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;127(4):657-66. doi: 10.1097/aog.0000000000001331.
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Mortality, Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery, Adverse Events
Cavazos-Rehg PA, Krauss MJ, Spitznagel EL
Maternal age and risk of labor and delivery complications.
The researchers examined associations between maternal age and prevalence of maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery. Using HCUP data, they found that complications with the highest odds among women 11-18 years of age included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia. Pregnant women 15-19 years old had greater odds for severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, poor fetal growth, and fetal distress. Pregnant women 35 and older had greater odds for preterm delivery, hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and decreased risk for chorioamnionitis. Women over 40 had increased odds for mild preeclampsia, fetal distress, and poor fetal growth.
Citation: Cavazos-Rehg PA, Krauss MJ, Spitznagel EL . Maternal age and risk of labor and delivery complications. Matern Child Health J 2015 Jun;19(6):1202-11. doi: 10.1007/s10995-014-1624-7.
Keywords: Adverse Events, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Labor and Delivery, Pregnancy, Risk
Camelo Castillo W, Boggess K, Sturmer T
Association of adverse pregnancy outcomes with glyburide vs insulin in women with gestational diabetes.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women receiving glyburide compared with insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a US population-based cohort. It found an association between glyburide (compared with insulin) and elevated risk of NICU admission, neonatal hypoglycemia, respiratory distress, birth injury, and large for gestational age in women with GDM.
Citation: Camelo Castillo W, Boggess K, Sturmer T . Association of adverse pregnancy outcomes with glyburide vs insulin in women with gestational diabetes. JAMA Pediatr 2015 May;169(5):452-8. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.74..
Keywords: Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Comparative Effectiveness, Diabetes, Labor and Delivery, Maternal Care, Medication, Newborns/Infants, Outcomes, Pregnancy, Women
Hendrich A, McCoy CK, Gale J
Ascension health's demonstration of full disclosure protocol for unexpected events during labor and delivery shows promise.
This article presents a case study concerning challenges, including physician resistance, to the establishment of a common full disclosure protocol at five labor and delivery demonstration sites. Twenty-seven months after implementation, the rate of full disclosure had increased by 221 percent. Practitioners saw a number of factors as key catalysts for change including consistent and ongoing leadership by local practitioners and hospitals.
Citation: Hendrich A, McCoy CK, Gale J . Ascension health's demonstration of full disclosure protocol for unexpected events during labor and delivery shows promise. Health Aff 2014 Jan;33(1):39-45. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2013.1009..
Keywords: Adverse Events, Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication, Labor and Delivery, Medical Errors, Medical Liability, Policy, Pregnancy, Women