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Search All Research Studies
- Ambulatory Care and Surgery (1)
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AHRQ Research Studies
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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 8 of 8 Research Studies Displayed
Green RK, Shah MN, Clark LR
Comparing emergency department use among individuals with varying levels of cognitive impairment.
This study compared the frequency of emergency department (ED) use among a cohort of individuals with mild to well-defined cognitive impairment. This retrospective cohort study of English-speaking, community-dwelling individuals was conducted at four health system-based multidisciplinary clinics from 2014 to 2016. The authors obtained demographic and clinical data, including neuropsychological testing results, through chart review and linkage to electronic health record data. They characterized the frequency and quantity of ED use within one year (6 months before and after) of cognitive evaluation and compared ED use between the three groups using bivariate and multivariate approaches. Of the 779 eligible patients, 89 were diagnosed as cognitively intact, 372 as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 318 as having Alzheimer’s Disease and related dementias (ADRD). The proportion of subjects with any annual ED use did not significantly increase with greater cognitive impairment. The average number of ED visits also did not increase significantly with patients with MCI or ADRD having an elevated but non-significant risk of an ED visit compared to cognitively intact individuals.
Citation: Green RK, Shah MN, Clark LR . Comparing emergency department use among individuals with varying levels of cognitive impairment. BMC Geriatr 2022 May 2;22(1):382. doi: 10.1186/s12877-022-03093-5..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Neurological Disorders, Healthcare Utilization
Bayer ND, Hall M, LI Y
Trends in health care use and spending for young children with neurologic impairment.
This retrospective study examined trends in health care use and spending for young children with neurologic impairment (NI) during their first 5 years of life. This study of 13,947 children with NI used data in the multistate IBM Medicaid MarketScan Database from 2009 to 2017. Inpatient service use decreased from 66.8% during the first year down to 5.8% during the fifth year. Emergency department (ED) use decreased more gradually from 67.8% during the first year to 44.4% during the fifth year. Per-member-per-year spending decreased from $83,352 during the first year down to $1944 in the fifth year.
Citation: Bayer ND, Hall M, LI Y . Trends in health care use and spending for young children with neurologic impairment. Pediatrics 2022 Jan;149(1). doi: 10.1542/peds.2021-050905.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Healthcare Costs, Healthcare Utilization, Neurological Disorders
Wissel BD, Greiner HM, Glauser TA
Investigation of bias in an epilepsy machine learning algorithm trained on physician notes.
Racial disparities in the utilization of epilepsy surgery are well documented, but it is unknown whether a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm trained on physician notes would produce biased recommendations for epilepsy presurgical evaluations. To assess this, an NLP algorithm was trained to identify potential surgical candidates using 1097 notes from 175 epilepsy patients with a history of resective epilepsy surgery and 268 patients who achieved seizure freedom without surgery (total N = 443 patients).
Citation: Wissel BD, Greiner HM, Glauser TA . Investigation of bias in an epilepsy machine learning algorithm trained on physician notes. Epilepsia 2019 Sep;60(9):e93-e98. doi: 10.1111/epi.16320..
Keywords: Neurological Disorders, Surgery, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Healthcare Utilization, Health Information Technology (HIT), Decision Making
Gillespie SM, Wasserman EB, Wood NE
High-intensity telemedicine reduces emergency department use by older adults with dementia in senior living communities.
Individuals with dementia have high rates of emergency department (ED) use for acute illnesses. In this study, the investigators evaluated the effect of a high-intensity telemedicine program that delivered care for acute illnesses on ED use rates for individuals with dementia residing in senior living communities (SLCs; independent and assisted living).
Citation: Gillespie SM, Wasserman EB, Wood NE . High-intensity telemedicine reduces emergency department use by older adults with dementia in senior living communities. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 Aug;20(8):942-46. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2019.03.024..
Keywords: Elderly, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Dementia, Neurological Disorders, Healthcare Delivery, Chronic Conditions, Emergency Department, Healthcare Utilization
Callaghan BC, Reynolds E, Banerjee M
Longitudinal pattern of pain medication utilization in peripheral neuropathy patients.
The authors of this article investigated the pattern and utilization of neuropathic pain medications in peripheral neuropathy patients. They found that opioid initiation and transition to chronic opioid therapy were frequent in the studied population despite few patients receiving more than one guideline-recommended medication. They concluded that efforts are needed to decrease opioid utilization and to increase guideline-recommended medication use in order to improve current neuropathic pain treatment.
Citation: Callaghan BC, Reynolds E, Banerjee M . Longitudinal pattern of pain medication utilization in peripheral neuropathy patients. Pain 2019 Mar;160(3):592-99. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001439..
Keywords: Chronic Conditions, Guidelines, Healthcare Utilization, Medication, Neurological Disorders, Opioids, Pain, Practice Patterns
Hill CE, Lin CC, Burke JF
Claims data analyses unable to properly characterize the value of neurologists in epilepsy care.
The authors sought to determine the association of a neurologist visit with health care use and cost outcomes for patients with incident epilepsy using health care claims data for individuals insured by United Healthcare from 2001 to 2016. They found that patients with epilepsy who visited a neurologist had greater subsequent health care use, medical costs, and care escalation than controls. They conclude that their comparison using administrative claims was plausibly confounded by case disease severity, as suggested by higher non-epilepsy care costs, and that linking patient-centered outcomes to claims data may provide the clinical resolution to assess care value within a heterogeneous population.
AHRQ-funded; HS017690; HS022258.
Citation: Hill CE, Lin CC, Burke JF . Claims data analyses unable to properly characterize the value of neurologists in epilepsy care. Neurology 2019 Feb 26;92(9):e973-e87. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0000000000007004..
Keywords: Neurological Disorders, Ambulatory Care and Surgery, Healthcare Utilization
Schlitz NK, Kaiboriboon K, Koroukian SM
Long-term reduction of health care costs and utilization after epilepsy surgery.
This study assessed long-term direct medical costs, health care utilization, and mortality following resective surgery in persons with uncontrolled epilepsy. It found that the mean direct medical cost difference between the surgical group and control group was $6,806 after risk-set matching. The incidence rate ratio of inpatient, emergency room, and outpatient utilization was lower among the surgical group in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses.
Citation: Schlitz NK, Kaiboriboon K, Koroukian SM . Long-term reduction of health care costs and utilization after epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia 2016 Feb;57(2):316-24. doi: 10.1111/epi.13280.
Keywords: Healthcare Costs, Healthcare Utilization, Mortality, Neurological Disorders, Outcomes, Surgery
Callaghan BC, Kerber KA, Pace RJ
Headaches and neuroimaging: high utilization and costs despite guidelines.
Little is known about recent headache neuroimaging utilization, associated expenditures, and temporal trends. Looking at 51.1 million outpatient headache visits over 4 years, this study found that neuroimaging is ordered during 12% of these visits, costs $1 billion annually, and is increasing over time.
Citation: Callaghan BC, Kerber KA, Pace RJ . Headaches and neuroimaging: high utilization and costs despite guidelines. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 May;174(5):819-21. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.173..
Keywords: Neurological Disorders, Healthcare Utilization, Guidelines, Healthcare Costs, Chronic Conditions