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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 6 of 6 Research Studies Displayed
Arkhipova-Jenkins I, Helfand M, Armstrong C
Antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection and implications for immunity : a rapid living review.
This rapid literature review synthesizes evidence on the prevalence, levels, and durability of detectable antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 infection and whether the antibodies confer natural immunity. Seven databases were searched from January 1 to December 15, 2020, limited to peer-reviewed publications in English. Two investigators extracted study data and rated quality. Moderate-strength evidence suggested that most adults develop detectable levels of IgM and IgG antibodies after infection with SARS-CoV-2 and IgG levels peak approximately 25 days after symptom onset and can remain detectable for at least 120 days. Moderate-strength evidence suggested that IgM levels peak at approximately 20 days and then decline. There is low-strength evidence that most adults generate neutralizing antibodies. Reasons why some adults do not develop antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 are unclear.
Citation: Arkhipova-Jenkins I, Helfand M, Armstrong C . Antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection and implications for immunity : a rapid living review. Ann Intern Med 2021 Jun;174(6):811-21. doi: 10.7326/m20-7547..
Keywords: COVID-19, Infectious Diseases, Genetics, Evidence-Based Practice
Asti L, Hopley C, Avelis C
The potential clinical and economic value of a human papillomavirus primary screening test that additionally identifies genotypes 31, 45, 51, and 52 individually.
This study looked at the potential clinical and economic value of a human papillomavirus (HPV) primary screening test that additionally identified genotypes 31,45,51, and 52 along with genotypes 16 and 18. The authors developed a Markov model of the HPV disease course and evaluated the clinical and economic value of HPV primary screening with Onclarity. Currently HPV primary screening results in 25,194 invasive procedures and 48 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases per 100,000 women. Screening with extended genotyping and later screening women with certain genotypes averted 903 to 3163 invasive procedures and results in 0 to 3 more ICC cases compared with current primary screening tests. Extended genotyping was cost effective when costing $75 and cost saving when costing $43. When the probabilities of disease progression increased 2-4 times, it was not cost-effective because it resulted in more ICC cases and accrued fewer quality-adjusted life-years.
Citation: Asti L, Hopley C, Avelis C . The potential clinical and economic value of a human papillomavirus primary screening test that additionally identifies genotypes 31, 45, 51, and 52 individually. Sex Transm Dis 2021 May;48(5):370-80. doi: 10.1097/olq.0000000000001327.
Keywords: Sexual Health, Infectious Diseases, Screening, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Genetics, Cancer: Cervical Cancer, Cancer, Women
Edwards RL, Heueck I, Lee SG
Potent, specific MEPicides for treatment of zoonotic staphylococci.
In this study, researchers demonstrated that fosmidomycin (FSM) inhibited the first step of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by deoxyxylulose phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) in staphylococci. They synthesized a series of lipophilic ester prodrugs (termed MEPicides) structurally related to FSM, and their data indicated that the presence of the prodrug moiety not only substantially increased potency of the inhibitors against staphylococci but also bypassed the need for GlpT-mediated cellular transport. They concluded that their data indicated that the prodrug MEPicides selectively and robustly inhibited DXR in zoonotic staphylococci, and, further, that DXR represented a promising, druggable target for future development.
AHRQ-funded; HS021736; HS024269.
Citation: Edwards RL, Heueck I, Lee SG . Potent, specific MEPicides for treatment of zoonotic staphylococci. PLoS Pathog 2020 Jun;16(6):e1007806. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007806..
Keywords: Infectious Diseases, Antibiotics, Medication, Genetics
Wardyn SE, Stegger M, Price LB
Whole-genome analysis of recurrent Staphylococcus aureus t571/ST398 infection in farmer, Iowa, USA.
Staphylococcus aureus strain sequence type (ST) 398 has emerged during the last decade, largely among persons who have contact with swine or other livestock. Although colonization with ST398 is common in livestock workers, infections are not frequently documented. The authors report recurrent ST398-IIa infection in an Iowa farmer in contact with swine and cattle.
Citation: Wardyn SE, Stegger M, Price LB . Whole-genome analysis of recurrent Staphylococcus aureus t571/ST398 infection in farmer, Iowa, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Jan;24(1):153-54. doi: 10.3201/eid2401.161184.
Keywords: Community-Acquired Infections, Genetics, Infectious Diseases, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Totten M, Ross T, Voskertchian A
Analysis of morphologically similar Staphylococcus aureus colonies for assessment of phenotypic and genotypic correlation.
In an effort to track and control the transmission of Staphylococcus aureus, patient isolates are saved for epidemiological studies (1–3). Study investigators often assume that colonies with the same morphology on the original culture plate represent the same clone. However, there is very limited literature to support this assumption. In this study, multiple S. aureus colonies were saved from a single culture plate and tested to determine their genotypes and susceptibility profiles.
Citation: Totten M, Ross T, Voskertchian A . Analysis of morphologically similar Staphylococcus aureus colonies for assessment of phenotypic and genotypic correlation. J Clin Microbiol 2017 Jul;55(7):2285-86. doi: 10.1128/jcm.00402-17..
Keywords: Genetics, Infectious Diseases, Research Methodologies
Shaffer SM, Joshi RP, Chambers BS
Multiplexed detection of viral infections using rapid in situ RNA analysis on a chip.
The authors demonstrated that rapid RNA FISH is a viable alternative method to RT-PCR or ELISA. They concluded that their results established RNA FISH as a methodology with potential for viral point-of-care diagnostics.
Citation: Shaffer SM, Joshi RP, Chambers BS . Multiplexed detection of viral infections using rapid in situ RNA analysis on a chip. Lab Chip 2015 Aug 7;15(15):3170-82. doi: 10.1039/c5lc00459d.
Keywords: Genetics, Imaging, Infectious Diseases