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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 788 Research Studies Displayed
Israni AK, Schladt D, Bruin MJ
Deconstructing silos of knowledge around lung transplantation to support patients: a patient-specific search of scientific registry of transplant recipients data.
This article describes the development of the web site www.transplantcentersearch.org intended to support lung transplant patients by providing program-level data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) on each program in the United States. There is a high level of variation in selection criteria and although nearly half of recipients reside within 50 miles of their transplant program, >30% travel 100 miles or more. The web site allows patients to search for programs in the area of their choosing and receive information on the number of transplants and program factors that are most predictive of recipient survival after listing. Patients can also review information on recipients and donors at each program to further differentiate program options. This feature is patient-specific, allowing the patient to enter information about their clinical background and indicate general preferences for their treatment before receiving counts on recipients and donors matching their entries. The development of the site involved 2 phases. In Phase I the authors examined variations between programs using data on waitlist and transplant outcomes from the SRTR. Phase II involved interviews and focus groups with transplant candidates, recipients, and family members to gain insight into the decision-making process, barriers, and knowledge groups. In the future randomized trials will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the web site.
Citation: Israni AK, Schladt D, Bruin MJ . Deconstructing silos of knowledge around lung transplantation to support patients: a patient-specific search of scientific registry of transplant recipients data. Transplantation 2022 Aug;106(8):1517-19. doi: 10.1097/tp.0000000000004051..
Keywords: Transplantation, Registries, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Korthuis PT, Cook RR, Lum PJ
HIV clinic-based extended-release naltrexone versus treatment as usual for people with HIV and opioid use disorder: a non-blinded, randomized non-inferiority trial.
Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) treatment medications can improve outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and also reduce opioid use. The purpose of the study was to determine if outpatient naltrexone treatment could also reduce opioid use and improve outcomes for HIV. The researchers reported that enrollment was stopped early because of slower than expected recruitment, resulting in 114 final participants with untreated OUD and HIV, with 62% positive for fentanyl, 60% positive for cocaine, and 47% positive for other opioids at the baseline. The intervention compared treatment as usual (TAU) of methadone or buprenorphine with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) on group differences in viral suppression at 24 weeks and past 30-day use of opioids at 24 weeks. The study reported that at 24 weeks the outcome of viral suppression was similar for TAU and XR-NTX, and that fewer XR-NTX participants initiated medication than TAU participants. The outcome of previous 30-day use of opioids was similar for TAU as compared to XR-NTX. Of those participants who did initiate medication, those administered XR-NTX experienced less days of opioid use when compared with TAU in the prior 30 days. The researchers reported that the study evidence was not conclusive but did support that XR-NTX is not inferior to TAU for HIV viral suppression, and that study participants who started XR-NTX used less opioids at 24 weeks than participants who were administered TAU.
Citation: Korthuis PT, Cook RR, Lum PJ . HIV clinic-based extended-release naltrexone versus treatment as usual for people with HIV and opioid use disorder: a non-blinded, randomized non-inferiority trial. Addiction 2022 Jul;117(7):1961-71. doi: 10.1111/add.15836..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Medication, Treatments, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice
Ivlev I, Beil TL, Haynes JS
Rapid evidence review of digital cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents with depression.
This rapid evidence review was conducted to explore the benefits and harms of digital cognitive-behavioral therapy (dCBT) and the barriers to and facilitators of implementing dCBT for adolescents. An extensive literature review was done through December 6, 2021 for controlled trials conducted in settings highly applicable to the US. Additionally, the authors searched relevant systematic reviews for eligible studies. They identified 12 trials that examined the effects of nine dCBT programs. Overall, dCBT was slightly superior to other therapies in improving depression symptoms immediately, but not at a longer follow-up. There did not appear to be an increased risk for suicidal attempts or ideation with dCBT, however the number of events was very small. Potential barriers to implementing and maintaining dCBT included challenges engaging/retaining patients, developing infrastructure, and training therapists to facilitate dCBT. No data on harms or unintended negative consequences were reported in the included studies.
Citation: Ivlev I, Beil TL, Haynes JS . Rapid evidence review of digital cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents with depression. J Adolesc Health 2022 Jul;71(1):14-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.01.220..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Depression, Behavioral Health, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
O'Connor EA, Evans CV, Ivlev I
Vitamin and mineral supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
This evidence report and systematic review updated the 2013 USPSTF final recommendation to assess benefits and harms of using vitamin and mineral supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. After an extensive literature review, 84 studies were included. While multivitamin use was significantly associated with a lower incidence of any cancer and lung cancer, the evidence had serious limitations. Beta carotene was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular mortality. Vitamins D and E were not significantly associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease events, or cancer incidence. Evidence for the benefit of other supplements was equivocal, minimal, or absent. There was limited evidence that suggested some supplements may be associated with higher risk of serious harms (hip fracture [vitamin A], hemorrhagic stroke [vitamin E], and kidney stones [vitamin C, calcium]).
Citation: O'Connor EA, Evans CV, Ivlev I . Vitamin and mineral supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2022 Jun 21;327(23):2334-47. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.15650..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Vitamins and Supplements, Cardiovascular Conditions, Cancer, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice
Eiraldi R, McCurdy BL, Khanna MS
Development and evaluation of a remote training strategy for the implementation of mental health evidence-based practices in rural schools: pilot study protocol.
This paper describes a pilot study protocol to develop and evaluate a remote training strategy for the implementation of mental health evidence-based practices (EBPs) in rural schools. Rural schools are increasingly implementing multi-tier positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) to address school-climate problems. The study will use a mixed-methods approach for the development of the training platform, and a hybrid type 2, pilot randomized controlled trial to examine the implementation and student outcomes of two training strategies: Remote Video vs. Remote Video plus Coaching. The EPBs will be evaluated on appropriateness, feasibility, acceptability, usability, and preliminary student outcomes of the two online training strategies for the implementation of EPBs at PBIS Tier 2.
Citation: Eiraldi R, McCurdy BL, Khanna MS . Development and evaluation of a remote training strategy for the implementation of mental health evidence-based practices in rural schools: pilot study protocol. Pilot Feasibility Stud 2022 Jun 17;8(1):128. doi: 10.1186/s40814-022-01082-4..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Behavioral Health, Evidence-Based Practice, Rural Health, Training
Dullabh P, Sandberg SF, Heaney-Huls K
AHRQ Author: Berliner E, Dymek C, Harrison MI, Swiger J
Challenges and opportunities for advancing patient-centered clinical decision support: findings from a horizon scan.
This AHRQ-authored horizon scan identified challenges and opportunities for advancing patient-centered clinical decision support (PC CDS) and future directions for PC CDS. The authors engaged a technical expert panel, conducted a scoping literature review, and interviewed key informants. They quantitatively analyzed literature and interview transcripts and mapped the findings to the 4 phases translating evidence into PC CDS interventions (Prioritizing, Authoring, Implementing, and Measuring) and to external factors. Twelve challenges were identified for PC CDS development with lack of patient input identified as a critical challenge. Lack of patient-centered terminology standards was viewed as a challenge in authoring PC CDS. They also found a dearth of CDS studies that measured clinical outcomes, creating significant gaps in the understanding of PC CDS’ impact.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 233201500023I.
Citation: Dullabh P, Sandberg SF, Heaney-Huls K . Challenges and opportunities for advancing patient-centered clinical decision support: findings from a horizon scan. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2022 Jun 14;29(7):1233-43. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocac059.
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Patient-Centered Healthcare, Health Information Technology (HIT), Decision Making, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Kowitt SD, Goldstein AO, Cykert S
A heart healthy intervention improved tobacco screening rates and cessation support in primary care practices.
This study investigated the outcomes of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease risk reduction tool called Heart Health Now to improve rates for tobacco cessation screening and counseling in small primary care practices in North Carolina. This tool was developed as part of AHRQ’s EvidenceNow initiative. This stepped wedge, stratified, cluster randomized trial looked at 28 practices that were staffed by 10 or fewer clinicians and had an electronic health record. Heart Health Now consisted of education tools, onsite practice facilitation for a year, and a practice-specific cardiovascular population management dashboard that included monthly, measure-specific run charts to help guide quality improvement. The practices included in their analyses consisted of 78,120 patients, and 17,687 smokers. From pre- to post-intervention, screening rates significantly increased from 82.7 to 96.2%. Cessation support rates also significantly increased from 44.3% to 50.1%. Some of the practices associated with improvement included being in an academic health center or faculty, having more clinicians, and having a lower percentage of White patients.
Citation: Kowitt SD, Goldstein AO, Cykert S . A heart healthy intervention improved tobacco screening rates and cessation support in primary care practices. J Prev 2022 Jun;43(3):375-86. doi: 10.1007/s10935-022-00672-5..
Keywords: Tobacco Use, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Screening, Primary Care, Evidence-Based Practice, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions
Djulbegovic B, Ahmed MM, Hozo I
High quality (certainty) evidence changes less often than low-quality evidence, but the magnitude of effect size does not systematically differ between studies with low versus high-quality evidence.
The study researchers state that assumptions and general beliefs exist about certainty of evidence (CoE) and its impact on estimates of treatment effects, however empirical assessment of those assumptions and beliefs is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences between low CoE (low-quality evidence) and high CoE (high-quality evidence) in precision of estimating treatment effects. The researchers reviewed the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 2016 through May 2021 for pairs of original and updated reviews for change in CoE assessments based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method. Differences in effect sizes between the original reviews and the updated reviews were assessed as a function of change in CoE. The researchers concluded that low CoE changes more frequently than high CoE, but the effect size in low CoE studies did not differ from the effect size in high CoE studies. The researchers state that the effect size finding is an indicator of the need to further assess and improve the critical appraisal methods currently utilized in evidence-based medicine.
Citation: Djulbegovic B, Ahmed MM, Hozo I . High quality (certainty) evidence changes less often than low-quality evidence, but the magnitude of effect size does not systematically differ between studies with low versus high-quality evidence. J Eval Clin Pract 2022 Jun;28(3):353-62. doi: 10.1111/jep.13657..
Keywords: Research Methodologies, Evidence-Based Practice
Shields AD, Battistelli J, Kavanagh L
Staying current: developing just-in-time evidence-ased learning objectives for a maternal cardiac arrest simulation curriculum.
The authors’ objective was to review the latest evidence on resuscitation care for maternal cardiac arrest (MCA) and to gain expert consensus on best practices to inform an evidence-based curriculum. A multidisciplinary panel of stakeholders in MCA developed an evidence-based simulation training, Obstetric Life Support™ (OBLS). The researchers found that a novel three-step process including reaffirmation of evidence process, systematic review, and a modified Research and Development technique resulted in unanimous consensus from experts in MCA resuscitation on existing and new just-in-time best practices to inform the learning objectives for an evidence-based curriculum.
Citation: Shields AD, Battistelli J, Kavanagh L . Staying current: developing just-in-time evidence-ased learning objectives for a maternal cardiac arrest simulation curriculum. Cardiol Cardiovasc Med 2022 Jun;6(3):245-54. doi: 10.26502/fccm.92920260..
Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice, Education: Curriculum, Simulation, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Women, Education: Academic
Chou R, Selph S, Blazina I
Screening for glaucoma in adults: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
This evidence report and systematic review updated the 2013 USPSTF final recommendation to assess benefits and harms of screening for primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in adults. After an extensive literature review, 83 studies were included (30 trials and 53 diagnostic accuracy studies). One randomized clinical trial (RCT) found screening of frail elderly persons associated with no difference in vision outcomes vs no screening but with significantly greater falls risk. There was limited direct evidence on glaucoma screening, with no association of benefits.
Citation: Chou R, Selph S, Blazina I . Screening for glaucoma in adults: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2022 May 24;327(20):1998-2012. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.6290..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Screening, Eye Disease and Health, Prevention, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice
Loo S, Mullikin K, Robbins C
Patient navigator team perceptions on the implementation of a citywide breast cancer patient navigation protocol: a qualitative study.
This study’s goal was to assess the implementation of the 2018 Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP), an evidence-based patient navigation intervention aimed at addressing breast cancer care disparities, across six Boston hospitals. Patient navigator team member perspectives regarding implementation barriers and facilitators one-year post-study implementation were assessed. Seventeen interviews were conducted with patient navigators, patient navigator supervisors, and designated clinical champions. The following benefits were identified by participants: 1) increased networking and connections for navigators across clinical sites (Cosmopolitanism), 2) formalization of the patient navigation process (Goals and Purpose, Access to Knowledge and Information, and Relative Advantage), and 3) flexibility within the TRIP intervention that allowed for diversity in implementation and use of TRIP components across sites (Adaptability). Barriers included documentation requirements and the structured patient follow up guidelines that did not always align with the timeline of existing site navigation processes.
Citation: Loo S, Mullikin K, Robbins C . Patient navigator team perceptions on the implementation of a citywide breast cancer patient navigation protocol: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res 2022 May 21;22(1):683. doi: 10.1186/s12913-022-08090-3..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Cedillo G, George MC, Deshpande R
Toward safer opioid prescribing in HIV care (TOWER): a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial.
Healthcare and behavioral health providers are lacking a methodology to implement the 2016 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Opioid Prescribing Guideline (CDC Guideline), measure prescriber adherence to it, and systematically test its effect on patient and public health outcomes. The Guideline is currently being reviewed and revised due to concern that it may be harmful to people with chronic pain on long-term opioid therapy (CP-LTOT). The purpose of the study was to develop and test a CDC Guideline implementation strategy termed “TOWER,” focused on an outpatient HIV primary care setting with patients with CP-LTOT. The TOWER strategy included: 1) a patient-facing app for opioid management (OM-App); 2) a template for progress notes (OM-Note) intended to guide the patient’s office visit; and 3) a primary care provider (PCP) training. TOWER was developed in a multi-step, stakeholder-engaged process within a behavioral change framework. The researchers evaluated the TOWER strategy in a randomized-controlled trial of HIV-PCPs (N=11) and their patients with HIV and CP-LTOT (N=40). The main outcome was CDC Guideline adherence based on electronic health record (EHR) documentation and measured by the Safer Opioid Prescribing Tool (SOPTET). Qualitative data was also collected, including one-on-one PCP interviews. The study found that the PCPs randomized to utilize the TOWER strategy were 48% more CDC Guideline adherent. Qualitative data reflected high levels of intervention provider confidence in administering the TOWER processes, and that the OM-Note supported provider efforts, but experience with the patient-facing OM-App was mixed. The study concluded that adherence to the 2016 CDC Guidelines is not associated with worsening of outcomes for people with HIV with CP-LTOT, and adherence to the CDC Guidelines can be promoted and measured. The researchers recommend additional research into the scalability of these results and the impact of CDC Guideline adherence on public health.
Citation: Cedillo G, George MC, Deshpande R . Toward safer opioid prescribing in HIV care (TOWER): a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial. Addict Sci Clin Pract 2022 May 16;17(1):28. doi: 10.1186/s13722-022-00311-8..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice
Guirguis-Blake JM, Evans CV, Perdue LA
Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
This evidence summary reviewed the benefits and harms of aspirin in primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention to accompany the final recommendation and evidence review of the US Preventive Services Task Force. A literature review was conducted of English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of low-dose aspirin compared with placebo or no intervention in primary prevention populations. Aspirin was found not to be significantly associated with reductions in CVD mortality or all-cause mortality. There was limited trial evidence on benefits for CRC, with the findings highly variable by length of follow-up and statistically significant only when considering long-term observational follow-up beyond randomized trial periods. Low-dose aspirin was associated with significant increases in total major bleeding and in site-specific bleeding.
Citation: Guirguis-Blake JM, Evans CV, Perdue LA . Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2022 Apr 26;327(16):1585-97. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.3337..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Cardiovascular Conditions, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice
Dehmer SP, O'Keefe LR, Evans CV
Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated modeling study for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
The purpose of the study was to develop, model, and report estimates of the harms from and benefits of the use of low-dose aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer (CRC.) The researchers developed and used a simulation model to provide estimates for hypothetical United States cohorts of men and women between the ages of forty and seventy-nine years without a previous history of elevated bleeding risks or CVD, and up to a 20% 10-year risk for a CVD event. The model focused on the routine, lifetime use of low-dose aspirin with 5-year intervals of no use between 65 and 85 years of age. The study’s primary outcome was lifetime net benefit which was measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs.) Harms included an increase in nonfatal intracranial hemorrhage and gastrointestinal bleeding, and benefits included a reduction in nonfatal ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. The study found that the estimated lifetime net quality-adjusted life-years was positive for men and women with 5% or more 10-year CVD risk when they started use between the ages of 40-59 years, and for men and women with 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk when starting between the ages of 60 and 69 years. The estimated lifetime net life-years were mostly negative for those starting low-dose aspirin use between 60 and 79 years of age. Five-year intervals of stopping use between 65 and 85 years of age did not provide a significant advantage to lifetime use. The researchers concluded that the routine, lifetime use of low-dose aspirin may benefit several population groups, with the largest estimated benefit in those with greater 10-year CVD risk who begin routine, low-dose aspirin dosage at younger ages.
Citation: Dehmer SP, O'Keefe LR, Evans CV . Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated modeling study for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2022 Apr 26;327(16):1598-607. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.3385..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Prevention, Cardiovascular Conditions, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice
Schnipper JL, Reyes Nieva H, Mallouk M
Effects of a refined evidence-based toolkit and mentored implementation on medication reconciliation at 18 hospitals: results of the MARQUIS2 study.
This study was a follow-up of the first Multicenter Medication Reconciliation Quality Improvement Study (MARQUIS1) that demonstrated mentored implementation of a medication reconciliation best practices toolkit. The toolkit decreased total unintentional medication discrepancies in five hospitals, but results varied by site. The toolkit has been refined with lessons learned and retooled as MARQUIS2. The tool was implemented at 18 North American hospitals or hospital systems from 2016 to 2018, offering 17 system-level and 6-patient-level interventions. One of eight physicians coached each site remotely via monthly calls and one or two site visits. A total of 4947 patients were sampled, with 1229 preimplementation and 3718 postimplementation. A steady decline in medication discrepancy rates were experienced from 2.85 discrepancies per patient down to 0.98 discrepancies. An interrupted time series analysis of the 17 sites showed the intervention was associated with a 5% relative decrease in discrepancies per month.
AHRQ-funded; HS025486; HS023757.
Citation: Schnipper JL, Reyes Nieva H, Mallouk M . Effects of a refined evidence-based toolkit and mentored implementation on medication reconciliation at 18 hospitals: results of the MARQUIS2 study. BMJ Qual Saf 2022 Apr;31(4):278-86. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2020-012709..
Keywords: Medication, Evidence-Based Practice, Tools & Toolkits, Implementation, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Medication: Safety, Patient Safety
Capone CA, Emerson B, Sweberg T
Intubation practice and outcomes among pediatric emergency departments: A report from National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS).
The purpose of this study was to describe Tracheal Intubation (TI) practice and outcomes in pediatric Emergency Departments as compared to those in intensive care units (ICUs) and use the resulting data to identify targets for quality improvement. The researchers analyzed consecutive TI encounters from pediatric EDs and ICUs in the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) database from 2015 to 2018. The study found a total of 12,512 TIs in 51 pediatric/cardiac ICUs, and 756 TIs in 13 pediatric EDs and were reported. Proportion of TIs for shock (26% ED vs. 14% ICU), respiratory decompensation (52% vs. 64%), and neurologic deterioration (30% vs. 11%) also differed by location. Limited neck mobility was reported more often in the ED (16% vs. 6%). TIs in the ED were performed more often via video laryngoscopy (64% vs. 29%). Oxygen desaturation was less commonly reported in ED TIs (13.6%) than ICU TIs (17%). Among ED TIs, shock as an indication and limited mouth opening were independently associated with adverse TI-associated events (TIAEs). The study concluded that TI characteristics vary between pediatric EDs and ICUs, yet outcomes are similar.
Citation: Capone CA, Emerson B, Sweberg T . Intubation practice and outcomes among pediatric emergency departments: A report from National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS). Acad Emerg Med 2022 Apr;29(4):406-14. doi: 10.1111/acem.14431..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Registries, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Barkun AN, Douketis J, Noseworthy PA
Management of patients on anticoagulants and antiplatelets during acute gastrointestinal bleeding and the peri-endoscopic period: a clinical practice guideline dissemination tool.
The American College of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology jointly created recommendations on the management of anticoagulants and antiplatelets during acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and the elective per-endoscopic period. The clinical practice guideline (CPG) panel was restricted in making strong recommendations regarding some relevant clinical questions because of the limited certainty of evidence in the literature. The purpose of this paper was to describe a clinical practice guideline dissemination tool for the management of patients on anticoagulants and antiplatelets during acute gastrointestinal bleeding and the peri-endoscopic period. The dissemination tool addresses provider concerns about limited certainty of evidence in the literature by providing clinicians with a companion piece to execute recommendations with contextual guidance and practical algorithms. The patient’s risks of a thromboembolic event versus the procedural risk of GI bleeding is taken into account in the implementation of the tool. The authors concluded that the clinical practice guideline dissemination tool provides both contextual information in interpreting the clinical guideline panel’s recommendations and algorithmic guidance for common scenarios encountered during endoscopic practice.
Citation: Barkun AN, Douketis J, Noseworthy PA . Management of patients on anticoagulants and antiplatelets during acute gastrointestinal bleeding and the peri-endoscopic period: a clinical practice guideline dissemination tool. Am J Gastroenterol 2022 Apr;117(4):513-19. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000001688..
Keywords: Blood Thinners, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines
Chu DK, Abrams EM, Golden BK
Risk of second allergic reaction to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of case studies and case reports was to assess the risk of severe immediate allergic reactions to a second dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in people who experienced an immediate allergic reaction to the first dose. The researchers evaluated the World Health Organization Global Coronavirus database, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and Embase from the date of inception through October 4th, 2021. The main outcomes and measures were a risk of severe immediate allergic reaction and repeated severe immediate allergic reactions with a second vaccine dose. The study found that among 22 studies of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, 1366 individuals had immediate allergic reactions to their first vaccination. Of these, 87.8% were women with a mean age of 46.1 years. Six patients developed severe immediate allergic reactions after their second vaccination, 232 developed mild symptoms, and 1360 tolerated the dose. Among 78 persons with severe immediate allergic reactions to their first SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, 4 people had a second severe immediate reaction, and 15 had non-severe symptoms. There were no deaths. The study concluded that in a supervised setting equipped to manage severe allergic reactions, revaccination of individuals with an immediate allergic reaction to a first SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose can be safe.
Citation: Chu DK, Abrams EM, Golden BK . Risk of second allergic reaction to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med 2022 Apr;182(4):376-85. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.8515..
Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccination, Risk, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
D'Orazio B, Ramachandran J, Khalida C
Stakeholder engagement in a comparative effectiveness/implementation study to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection recurrence: CA-MRSA Project (CAMP2).
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence and participation of a stakeholder committee would positively impact the effectiveness of the design and execution of a home-based Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection prevention intervention. The trial utilized community health workers to implement infection prevention protocols in participant’s homes, including home visits, sampling household surfaces at baseline and then three months, and obtaining surveillance cultures from index patients and household members. The study assembled and convened The Clinician and Patient Stakeholder Advisory Committee (CPSAC), comprised of New York-based federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and community health emergency departments, laboratory and clinical researchers, clinicians, and patient stakeholders. The CPSAC was tasked with trial oversight and shared decision-making and troubleshooting, and convened both in person and remotely. The researchers concluded that the inclusion and engagement of the CPSAC during the trial design and implementation was highly effective in addressing and resolving challenges in both participant recruitment and home visits.
Citation: D'Orazio B, Ramachandran J, Khalida C . Stakeholder engagement in a comparative effectiveness/implementation study to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection recurrence: CA-MRSA Project (CAMP2). Prog Community Health Partnersh 2022;16(1):45-60. doi: 10.1353/cpr.2022.0005..
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Community-Acquired Infections, Infectious Diseases, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Evidence-Based Practice
Koh MJ, Merrill MH, Koh MJ
Comparative outcomes for mature T and NK/T-cell lymphomas in people with and without HIV and to AIDS-defining lymphomas.
Citation: Koh MJ, Merrill MH, Koh MJ . Comparative outcomes for mature T and NK/T-cell lymphomas in people with and without HIV and to AIDS-defining lymphomas. Blood Adv 2022 Mar 8;6(5):1420-31. doi: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2021006208.
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Comparative Effectiveness, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice
Aboumatar H, Pitts S, Sharma R
Patient engagement strategies for adults with chronic conditions: an evidence map.
Existing research indicates that patient and family engagement (PFE) in health care is necessary for improving outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the evidence on PFE strategies for adults with chronic conditions and identify the areas where additional research is needed. The authors searched existing databases, including CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, and PubMed, for data between January 2015 and September 2021, to identify systematic reviews on strategies for engaging patients with chronic conditions. The study also included their caregivers. Strategies were categorized into the following levels: direct patient care, health system, and community-policy. The authors discovered 131 reviews of direct patient care strategies, 5 reviews of health system strategies, and no reviews of community-policy strategies. The study concluded that there is much more available evidence on the effects of direct patient care strategies on PFE than on the effects of the health system or community policy strategies. In addition, the evidence map created by the researchers focused on reviews which did not provide details of individual chronic disease interventions. The authors concluded that the evidence map created provides awareness of the research gaps related to efforts to improve patient and family engagement for patients with chronic conditions.
Citation: Aboumatar H, Pitts S, Sharma R . Patient engagement strategies for adults with chronic conditions: an evidence map. Syst Rev 2022 Mar 5;11(1):39. doi: 10.1186/s13643-021-01873-5..
Keywords: Patient and Family Engagement, Chronic Conditions, Evidence-Based Practice
Starnes LS, Krehnbrink M, Carroll AR
A pain in the neck: an adolescent with neck pain.
This case study involves a 15-year-old boy who presents with several years of intermittent neck pain, which has acutely worsened during the past 4 days. Patient history, diagnosis (Salmonella osteomyelitis.), and treatment are explored.
Citation: Starnes LS, Krehnbrink M, Carroll AR . A pain in the neck: an adolescent with neck pain. Pediatr Rev 2022 Mar;43(3):174-77. doi: 10.1542/pir.2020-004168..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Infectious Diseases, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Case Study, Evidence-Based Practice
Bergman ZR, Usher M, Olson A
Comparison of outcomes and process of care for patients treated at hospitals dedicated for COVID-19 care vs other hospitals.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the mortality rate and complications associated with treatment at the COVID-19-dedicated hospitals. Findings showed that, in this cohort study, COVID-19-dedicated hospitals in Minnesota had multiple benefits, including providing high-volume repetitive treatment and isolating patients with the infection. This experience suggests improved in-hospital mortality for patients treated at dedicated hospitals.
AHRQ-funded; HS026732; HS026379.
Citation: Bergman ZR, Usher M, Olson A . Comparison of outcomes and process of care for patients treated at hospitals dedicated for COVID-19 care vs other hospitals. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Mar;5(3):e220873. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.0873..
Keywords: COVID-19, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice, Outcomes, Healthcare Delivery, Hospitals
Richardson JE, Rasmussen LV, Dorr DA
Generating and reporting electronic clinical quality measures from electronic health records: strategies from EvidenceNOW cooperatives.
This study’s goal was to characterize strategies that seven regional cooperatives participating in the EvidenceNOW initiative developed to generate and report electronic health record (EHR)-based electronic clinical quality measures (eCQMs) for quality improvement (QI) in small-to-medium-sized practices. Findings showed that cooperatives ultimately generated and reported eCQMs using hybrid strategies because they determined that neither EHRs alone nor centralized sources alone could operationalize eCQMs for QI. In order to attain this goal, cooperatives needed to devise solutions and utilize resources that often are unavailable to typical small-to-medium-sized practices.
Citation: Richardson JE, Rasmussen LV, Dorr DA . Generating and reporting electronic clinical quality measures from electronic health records: strategies from EvidenceNOW cooperatives. Appl Clin Inform 2022 Mar;13(2):485-94. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-1748145..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality Measures, Quality of Care, Evidence-Based Practice, Primary Care
Brajcich BC, Benson AB, Gantt G
Management of colorectal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from a statewide multidisciplinary cancer collaborative.
J Surg Oncol 2022 Mar;125(4):560-63. doi: 10.1002/jso.26758.
Citation: Brajcich BC, Benson AB, Gantt G . Management of colorectal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from a statewide multidisciplinary cancer collaborative. J Surg Oncol 2022 Mar;125(4):560-63. doi: 10.1002/jso.26758..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice, Healthcare Delivery