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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 130 Research Studies Displayed
Luo Q, Moghtaderi A, Markus A
Financial impacts of the Medicaid expansion on community health centers.
This study’s objective was to determine the impact of Medicaid expansion on community health centers. The authors combined data from the Uniform Data System, IRS nonprofit tax returns, and county-level characteristics from the Census Bureau. Their final dataset included 5841 center-year observations. They found a $2.08 million relative increase in Medicaid revenues, offset by a $0.44 million decrease in total grants among community health centers in expansion states compared with centers in non-expansion states. They found a large but not statistically significant $0.98 million relative increase in total expenditures among expansion state centers. Uncompensated care for health centers in expansion states decreased by $1.19 million relative to their counterparts in non-expansion states.
Citation: Luo Q, Moghtaderi A, Markus A . Financial impacts of the Medicaid expansion on community health centers. Health Serv Res 2022 Jun;57(3):634-43. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13897..
Keywords: Medicaid, Community-Based Practice, Healthcare Costs
McDowell A, Myong C, Tevis D
Sexual orientation and gender identity data reporting among U.S. health centers.
This study examined sexual orientation and gender identity data reporting among community health centers. The study used the 2016-2019 Uniform Data System for 1,381 community health centers to look at trends in reporting. From 2016 to 2016, the percentage of community health centers with sexual orientation and gender identity data for ≥75% of patients increased from 14.9% to 53.0%. In 2019, community health centers were more likely to have this data for ≥75% of patients if they were in nonmetro counties versus metro, were in the South or West (versus Northeast), and had more patients aged between 18 and 39 years, between 40 and 64 years (versus <18 years), or veterans. This was less likely among smaller community health centers serving 10-20,000 patients or >20,000 patients, and centers with more patients of American Indian/Alaskan Native or unknown race (versus White).
Citation: McDowell A, Myong C, Tevis D . Sexual orientation and gender identity data reporting among U.S. health centers. Am J Prev Med 2022 Jun;62(6):e325-e32. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2021.12.017..
Keywords: Vulnerable Populations, Community-Based Practice
King C, Goldstein E, Crits-Christoph P
The association between medical comorbidity and psychotherapy processes and outcomes for major depressive disorder in a community mental health setting.
The purpose of this study was to: examine the comorbidities of mental health issues and a medical condition in a community mental health setting with a primarily Medicare and Medicaid population; describe the range of comorbid medical conditions in this setting; and explore the association between medical conditions on the alliance, attrition from services and outcome. The researchers accessed patient charts and conducted structured clinical interviews to collect medical diagnoses from 353 participants who had previously had a baseline evaluation as a participant in a study of therapies for major depressive disorder. The researchers reported that a high percentage of patients in the study experienced a comorbid medical condition. There were no significant correlations between the number of medical conditions and treatment outcome or early attrition from treatment. Further analyses revealed that the presence of a nervous system disorder was correlated with poorer treatment outcomes. The researchers concluded that patients undergoing treatment for major depressive disorder may benefit from simultaneously attending to the impact of medical conditions on physical functioning.
Citation: King C, Goldstein E, Crits-Christoph P . The association between medical comorbidity and psychotherapy processes and outcomes for major depressive disorder in a community mental health setting. Psychotherapy 2022 Jun;59(2):199-208. doi: 10.1037/pst0000380..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health, Community-Based Practice
Kranz AM, Steiner ED, Mitchell JM
School-based health services in Virginia and the COVID-19 pandemic.
The purpose of this study was to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted the provision of school health services and related student needs. In May 2021, all 1178 Virginia public elementary schools received a web-based survey regarding the impact of the pandemic on school-based health services, with 65% of schools responding (N=767). Schools reported providing fewer school-based health services during the pandemic than before, with dental screenings declining the most (51% before vs 15% after). The study also reported that mental health as a top concern for students increased from 15% before the pandemic to 27% during the pandemic. The study concluded that schools reported providing fewer health services to students during pandemic in the 2020-2021 school year and increased concern about students' mental health.
Citation: Kranz AM, Steiner ED, Mitchell JM . School-based health services in Virginia and the COVID-19 pandemic. J Sch Health 2022 May;92(5):436-44. doi: 10.1111/josh.13147..
Keywords: COVID-19, Children/Adolescents, Public Health, Healthcare Delivery, Community-Based Practice
Shadowen H, O'Loughlin K, Cheung K
Exploring the relationship between community program location and community needs.
Investigators identified and geolocated community programs in Richmond, Virginia, that aid with 9 domains of needs. They identified 280 community programs that provide aid for the 9 domains, with programs most often providing financial assistance and housing support. They found no relationship between the number of community programs and the level of need, with 2 exceptions: A positive association between financial programs and financial need, and a negative association between housing programs and housing need. They concluded that community programs were generally not co-located with need.
Citation: Shadowen H, O'Loughlin K, Cheung K . Exploring the relationship between community program location and community needs. J Am Board Fam Med 2022 Jan-Feb;35(1):55-72. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2022.01.210310..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Community-Based Practice
Holcomb J, Ferguson G, Roth I
Adoption of an evidence-based intervention for mammography screening adherence in safety net clinics.
This paper describes an evidence-based intervention that was created to reduce mammography appointment no-show rates in underserved women at safety net clinics. An academic-community partnership was used to implement four strategies to improve the adoption and scale-up of the interventions with Federally Qualified Health Centers and charity care clinics. The interventions implemented were: (1) an outreach email blast targeting the community partner member clinics to increase program awareness, (2) an adoption video encouraging enrollment in the program, (3) an outreach webinar educating the community partner member clinics about the program, encouraging enrollment and outlining adoption steps, and (4) an adoption survey adapted from Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research constructs from the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network for cancer control interventions with Federally Qualified Health Centers.
Citation: Holcomb J, Ferguson G, Roth I . Adoption of an evidence-based intervention for mammography screening adherence in safety net clinics. Front Public Health 2021 Nov 4;9:748361. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.748361..
Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice, Mammogram, Screening, Safety Net, Women, Community-Based Practice
Raffo JE, Titcombe C, Henning S
Clinical-community linkages: the impact of standard care processes that engage Medicaid-eligible pregnant women in home visiting.
The purpose of this study was to describe how practice sites operationalized clinical-community linkage strategies that best suited their setting and to determine if efforts resulted in improved Maternal Infant Health Program participation and other service use. Findings showed that clinical-community linkages can significantly improve participation of Medicaid-insured women in an evidence-based home visiting program and other prenatal services.
Citation: Raffo JE, Titcombe C, Henning S . Clinical-community linkages: the impact of standard care processes that engage Medicaid-eligible pregnant women in home visiting. Womens Health Issues 2021 Nov-Dec;31(6):532-39. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2021.06.006..
Keywords: Pregnancy, Maternal Care, Women, Medicaid, Community-Based Practice
Carey K, Luo Q, Dor A
Quality and cost in community health centers.
This study’s objective was to explore the relationship between quality and average cost of medical visits provided in US Community Health Centers (CHCs) using composite measures of quality. The authors used the Uniform Data System collected by the Bureau of Primary Care to construct composite measures by combining 9 process and 2 outcome indicators of primary care quality provided in 1331 US CHCs during 2015-2018. They explored different weighting schemes and different combinations of individual quality indicators. They used generalized linear modeling to regress average cost of a medical visit on composite quality measures, controlling for patient and health center factors. The average cost of a medical visit was negatively associated with quality, although the magnitude of the effect varies with different weighting schemes.
Citation: Carey K, Luo Q, Dor A . Quality and cost in community health centers. Med Care 2021 Sep;59(9):824-28. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001571.
Keywords: Community-Based Practice, Quality of Care, Healthcare Costs
Snyder ME, Adeoye-Olatunde OA, Gernant SA
A user-centered evaluation of medication therapy management alerts for community pharmacists: recommendations to improve usability and usefulness.
Community pharmacists provide comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) through pharmacy contracts with medication therapy management (MTM) vendors. These CMRs are documented in the vendors' web-based MTM software platforms, which often integrate alerts to assist pharmacists in the detection of medication therapy problems. The objectives of this study were to 1) assess the usability and usefulness of MTM alerts for MTM vendor-contracted community pharmacists and 2) generate recommendations for improving MTM alerts for use by community pharmacists.
Citation: Snyder ME, Adeoye-Olatunde OA, Gernant SA . A user-centered evaluation of medication therapy management alerts for community pharmacists: recommendations to improve usability and usefulness. Res Social Adm Pharm 2021 Aug;17(8):1433-43. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.10.015..
Keywords: Medication, Provider: Pharmacist, Community-Based Practice
Adams LB, Richmond J, Watson SN
Community health worker training curricula and intervention outcomes in African American and Latinx communities: a systematic review.
This systematic review examined research on the relationship between community health worker (CHW) training curricula and intervention outcomes conducted among African American and Latinx populations. Studies included were quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies employed to conduct outcome and process evaluations of CHW-led interventions. Out of 3,295 articles from the extensive literature search, only 36 met the review’s inclusion criteria. Overall, the strength of evidence linking specific CHW training curricula components to primary health interventions in conditions such as hypertension and diabetes was weak, and no studies directly linked outcomes to specific characteristics of CHW training. Studies that discussed training related to didactic sessions or classified as high intensity reported higher percentages of positive outcomes compared to other CHW training methods.
AHRQ-funded; HS000032; HS026122.
Citation: Adams LB, Richmond J, Watson SN . Community health worker training curricula and intervention outcomes in African American and Latinx communities: a systematic review. Health Educ Behav 2021 Aug;48(4):516-31. doi: 10.1177/1090198120959326..
Keywords: Community-Based Practice, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Training, Outcomes, Provider: Health Personnel
Hatch B, Schmidt T, Davis E
Clinic factors associated with utilization of a pregnancy-intention screening tool in community health centers.
The authors’ goal was to describe the utilization of a pregnancy-intention screening tool integrated in the electronic health record (EHR) of a national network of community health centers (CHCs) and to identify clinic-level factors associated with tool use. They found that medical assistants performed 60.3% of screenings and clinicians performed 11.2%. CHCs with higher tool utilization rates were more likely to be located in rural settings and to serve patient populations with higher proportions of women and lower proportions of patients with non-English language preference. They concluded that many health centers utilized pregnancy-intention screening after an EHR-based tool was made available, though overall screening rates were low.
Citation: Hatch B, Schmidt T, Davis E . Clinic factors associated with utilization of a pregnancy-intention screening tool in community health centers. Contraception 2021 May;103(5):336-41. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2021.02.003..
Keywords: Community-Based Practice, Pregnancy, Women, Screening
Ukhanova M, Marino M, Angier H
The impact of capitated payment on preventive care utilization in community health clinics.
Only half of the United States population regularly receives recommended preventive care services. Alternative payment models (e.g., a per-member-per-month capitated payment model) may encourage the delivery of preventive services when compared to a fee-for-service visit based model; however, evaluation is lacking in the United States. This study assessed the impact of implementing Oregon's Alternative Payment Methodology (APM) on orders for preventive services within community health centers (CHCs).
Citation: Ukhanova M, Marino M, Angier H . The impact of capitated payment on preventive care utilization in community health clinics. Prev Med 2021 Apr;145:106405. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106405..
Keywords: Payment, Community-Based Practice, Prevention, Healthcare Utilization
Sedhom R, Nudotor R, Freund KM
Can community health workers increase palliative care use for African American patients? A pilot study.
African American patients with cancer underutilize advance care planning (ACP) and palliative care (PC). This feasibility study investigated whether community health workers (CHWs) could improve ACP and PC utilization for African American patients with advanced cancer. The investigators concluded that utilization of CHWs to address PC domains and social determinants of health was feasible. Although study enrollment was identified as a potential barrier, most recruited patients were retained on study.
Citation: Sedhom R, Nudotor R, Freund KM . Can community health workers increase palliative care use for African American patients? A pilot study. JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Feb;17(2):e158-e67. doi: 10.1200/op.20.00574..
Keywords: Palliative Care, Community-Based Practice, Racial / Ethnic Minorities
Luo Q, Dor A, Pittman P
Optimal staffing in community health centers to improve quality of care.
The authors explored optimal workforce configurations in the production of care quality in community health centers (CHCs), accounting for interactions among occupational categories, as well as contributions to the volume of services. By linking the Uniform Data System with Internal Revenue Service nonprofit tax return data, they found that primary care physicians and advanced practice clinicians achieved similar quality outcomes. They recommended that CHCs optimize their workforce configuration to improve quality with further hiring of advanced practice clinicians as a cost-effective investment for CHCs.
Citation: Luo Q, Dor A, Pittman P . Optimal staffing in community health centers to improve quality of care. Health Serv Res 2021 Feb;56(1):112-22. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13566..
Keywords: Community-Based Practice, Workforce, Quality of Care
Cottrell EK, Dambrun K, O'Malley J
Documenting new ways of delivering care under Oregon's Alternative Payment and Advanced Care Model.
This study’s objective was to describe trends in rates of traditional face-to-face office visits and “Care Services That Engage Patients” (Care STEPs) documentation among community health centers (CHCs) involved in the first 3 phases Oregon’s Alternative Payment and Advanced Care Model (APCM) pilot program. In this program, participating community health centers (CHCs) received per-member-per-month payments for empaneled Medicaid patients in lieu of standard fee-for-service Medicaid payments. Among participating CHCs, the mean rate of face-to-face visits with billable providers declined. Care STEPS documentation increased, but the difference was not statistically significant. The Care STEPs category New Visit Types were documented most frequently. There were significant increases in document of Patient Care Coordination and Integration, and a smaller but still significant increase in Reducing Barriers to Health. There was a significant decrease in documentation done by physicians and advanced practice providers with an increase by ancillary staff.
AHRQ-funded; R01 HS022651.
Citation: Cottrell EK, Dambrun K, O'Malley J . Documenting new ways of delivering care under Oregon's Alternative Payment and Advanced Care Model. J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Jan-Feb;34(1):78-88. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2021.01.200027..
Keywords: Healthcare Delivery, Payment, Community-Based Practice, Medicaid
Miller-Rosales C, Rodriguez HP
Interdisciplinary primary care team expertise and diabetes care management.
Researchers examined whether care team role expertise is associated with patients' experiences of chronic care for type 2 diabetes and whether the relationship is stronger for small community health center (CHC) sites. Results of surveys conducted with adults with diabetes that assessed nonphysician team roles involved in managing their chronic care were integrated with clinical and administrative data from 14 CHCs. They found that patients with access to care team expertise in self-management support, including diabetes educators, nutritionists, community health workers, and other general staff report better experiences of chronic care. They concluded that these team roles may reduce barriers to patient self-management and improve patients' overall experiences of chronic care, particularly in small CHC sites.
Citation: Miller-Rosales C, Rodriguez HP . Interdisciplinary primary care team expertise and diabetes care management. J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Jan-Feb;34(1):151-61. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2021.01.200187..
Keywords: Primary Care, Diabetes, Teams, Care Management, Community-Based Practice
Myong C, Hull P, Price M
The impact of funding for federally qualified health centers on utilization and emergency department visits in Massachusetts.
This retrospective study examined the impact of funding for federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) on utilization and emergency department (ED) visits in Massachusetts. The authors theorized that greater funding for FQHCs could increase the local availability of clinic-based care and reduce more costly resource use, such as ED visits. Data from the Massachusetts All Payer Claims Database (APCD) 2010-2013 was used that included enrollees in 559 Massachusetts ZIP codes (2010 numbers 6,173,563). They calculated shift-share predictions of changes in FQHC funding at the ZIP code-level for FQHCs that received Community Health Center funds in any year. They found that a standard deviation increase in prior year FQHC funding (31%) was associated with a 2.3% increase in enrollees with FQHC visits and a 1.3% decrease in enrollees at EDs. However, there were no significant changes in emergent ED visit rates.
Citation: Myong C, Hull P, Price M . The impact of funding for federally qualified health centers on utilization and emergency department visits in Massachusetts. PLoS One 2020 Dec 3;15(12):e0243279. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243279..
Keywords: Community-Based Practice, Healthcare Utilization, Emergency Department, Healthcare Costs, Access to Care, Vulnerable Populations, Policy
Green TC, Bratberg J, Baird J
Rurality and differences in pharmacy characteristics and community factors associated with provision of naloxone in the pharmacy.
Researchers studied pharmacy-level naloxone dispensed from one large US community pharmacy chain from the 1st quarter of 2013 to the 2nd quarter of 2017, examining associations between naloxone provision and pharmacy-level characteristics and community factors in two US states, Rhode Island and Massachusetts. They found that more rural pharmacies, pharmacies with higher volumes of all prescriptions and of buprenorphine, that sell more nonprescription syringes, that have drive-throughs and longer weekend hours, and that are located in communities with younger age distributions were associated with increased likelihood of ever dispensing naloxone and a greater number of naloxone doses dispensed. They concluded that pharmacy naloxone dispensing may be an especially effective strategy to alter the overdose risk environment in rural communities.
Citation: Green TC, Bratberg J, Baird J . Rurality and differences in pharmacy characteristics and community factors associated with provision of naloxone in the pharmacy. Int J Drug Policy 2020 Nov;85:102602. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.11.010..
Keywords: Medication, Provider: Pharmacist, Community-Based Practice, Rural Health
Vasan A, Morgan JW, Mitra N
Effects of a standardized community health worker intervention on hospitalization among disadvantaged patients with multiple chronic conditions: a pooled analysis of three clinical trials.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a standardized community health worker (CHW) intervention on hospitalization. The investigators concluded that data from three randomized clinical trials across multiple settings showed that a standardized CHW intervention reduced total hospital days and hospitalizations outside the primary health system. They indicated that this study was the largest analysis of randomized trials to demonstrate reductions in hospitalization with a health system-based social intervention.
Citation: Vasan A, Morgan JW, Mitra N . Effects of a standardized community health worker intervention on hospitalization among disadvantaged patients with multiple chronic conditions: a pooled analysis of three clinical trials. Health Serv Res 2020 Oct;55(Suppl 2):894-901. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13321..
Keywords: Hospitalization, Chronic Conditions, Vulnerable Populations, Social Determinants of Health, Community-Based Practice
Presley C, Agne A, Shelton T
Mobile-enhanced peer support for African Americans with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.
This study compared the effectiveness of a community-based diabetes self-management education (DSME) plus mobile health (mHealth)-enhanced peer support intervention to community-based DSME alone for African American adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. This randomized controlled trial took place in Jefferson County, Alabama within a safety-net healthcare system with a group diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and hemoglobin A1C ≥ 7.5%. The intervention group reviewed community-based DSME plus 6 months of mHealth-enhanced peer support, including 12 weekly phone calls, then 3 monthly calls from community health workers. The control group received community based DSME only. Primary outcomes were lower A1C and secondary outcomes were lower diabetes distress, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy or confidence in their ability to manage diabetes, and social support. Of 120 participants selected, 97 completed the study. Both groups experienced clinical meaning reduction in A1C. Participants in the intervention group experienced a significantly larger reduction in diabetes distress compared to the control group.
Citation: Presley C, Agne A, Shelton T . Mobile-enhanced peer support for African Americans with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med 2020 Oct;35(10):2889-96. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06011-w..
Keywords: Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient Self-Management, Diabetes, Chronic Conditions, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Community-Based Practice, Comparative Effectiveness, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice, Outcomes, Education: Patient and Caregiver
Donovan E, Bratberg J, Baird J
Pharmacy leaders' beliefs about how pharmacies can support a sustainable approach to providing naloxone to the community.
The objective of this qualitative study was to understand how leaders in pharmacy organizations perceive pharmacies and pharmacy staff can optimize dispensing of naloxone. Five main themes emerged: importance of staff training to increase comfort; strength through coordination of efforts; pharmacies acting as community leaders in the opioid crisis; persisting stigma; ongoing workflow challenges. These results uniquely reflect the experiences and insights of pharmacy leaders implementing public health initiatives during the opioid crisis and can be used for gaining insight into how pharmacists can efficiently provide naloxone to their communities.
Citation: Donovan E, Bratberg J, Baird J . Pharmacy leaders' beliefs about how pharmacies can support a sustainable approach to providing naloxone to the community. Res Social Adm Pharm 2020 Oct;16(10):1493-97. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.01.006..
Keywords: Provider: Pharmacist, Provider, Community-Based Practice, Opioids, Medication, Substance Abuse
Walter AW, Julce C, Sidduri N AW, Julce C, Sidduri N
Study protocol for the implementation of the Gabby Preconception Care System - an evidence-based, health information technology intervention for Black and African American women.
This hybrid type II implementation-effectiveness cohort study aimed at evaluating appropriateness, acceptability and feasibility implementation outcomes, while also systematically examining the clinical effectiveness of a preconception care (PCC) intervention, the Gabby System, for Black and African American women receiving health services in community-based sites. Contextual factors that influenced uptake and appropriate implementation strategies were identified to inform future scalability of the intervention.
Citation: Walter AW, Julce C, Sidduri N AW, Julce C, Sidduri N . Study protocol for the implementation of the Gabby Preconception Care System - an evidence-based, health information technology intervention for Black and African American women. BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Sep 21;20(1):889. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-05726-0..
Keywords: Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Women, Health Information Technology (HIT), Evidence-Based Practice, Community-Based Practice, Implementation
Nagykaldi Z, Scheid D, Zhao YD
A sustainable model for preventive services in rural counties: the healthier together study.
The Healthier Together study aimed to implement and evaluate a sustainable, rural community-based patient outreach model for preventive care provided through primary care practices located in 3 rural counties in Oklahoma. Forty-four eligible clinician practices participated in the study. Results showed that, although health care is under-resourced and segmented in many rural counties, when stakeholder partnerships are established, they may be able to achieve and economically sustain community-wide health improvement by creating a win-win situation for all partners.
Citation: Nagykaldi Z, Scheid D, Zhao YD . A sustainable model for preventive services in rural counties: the healthier together study. J Am Board Fam Med 2020 Sep-Oct;33(5):698-706. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2020.05.190357..
Keywords: Rural Health, Prevention, Primary Care: Models of Care, Primary Care, Community-Based Practice
Makelarski JA, DePumpo M, Boyd K
Implementation of systematic community resource referrals at small primary care practices to promote cardiovascular disease self-management.
The purpose of this study was to describe outcomes from implementation of a community resource referral system into small clinical practices to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. HealtheRx-H3, a printed list of resources for patients, was created. It was feasible to create practice-specific HealtheRx-H3s; however, systematic distribution of HealtheRx-H3s using digital electronic health record integration was found to be infeasible. Successful implementation of quality improvement strategies to systematize community resource referral solutions was feasible at small practices, but more research was recommended in order to understand what motivates small practices to participate in implementation of these solutions.
Citation: Makelarski JA, DePumpo M, Boyd K . Implementation of systematic community resource referrals at small primary care practices to promote cardiovascular disease self-management. J Healthc Qual 2020 Sep/Oct;42(5):278-86. doi: 10.1097/jhq.0000000000000234..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Risk, Community-Based Practice, Patient Self-Management, Education: Patient and Caregiver, Primary Care, Implementation, Lifestyle Changes
Green TC, Donovan E, Klug B
Revisiting pharmacy-based naloxone with pharmacists and naloxone consumers in 2 states: 2017 perspectives and evolving approaches.
The authors sought to examine similarities and differences in experiences obtaining naloxone at the pharmacy over a 1-year period in 2 states, and to explore reactions from people with opioid use disorder, patients taking opioids for chronic pain, caregivers of opioid users, and pharmacists to communication tools and patient outreach materials designed to improve naloxone uptake. Through focus groups in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, they found that experiences dispensing naloxone are quickly evolving, and a greater diversity of patients are obtaining pharmacy naloxone. They concluded that persistent stigma-related concerns underscore the need for tools to help pharmacists offer naloxone, facilitate patient requests, and provide reassurance when getting naloxone.
Citation: Green TC, Donovan E, Klug B . Revisiting pharmacy-based naloxone with pharmacists and naloxone consumers in 2 states: 2017 perspectives and evolving approaches. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2020 Sep-Oct;60(5):740-49. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2020.03.005..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Substance Abuse, Community-Based Practice, Healthcare Delivery, Social Stigma, Access to Care