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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 175 Research Studies Displayed
Kenney MK, Chanlongbutra A, Fanflick PL
AHRQ Author: Chanlongbutra A
Systems of care among children and youth with special health care needs with and without adverse childhood events: National Survey of Children's Health 2016-2017.
The purpose of the study was to compare Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs (CYSHCN) with non-CYSHCN in the likelihood of experiencing Adverse Childhood Events (ACEs), and then document the differences in receiving recommended and needed health care services among CYSHCS with and without ACEs. The researchers studied a sample of 16,304 CYSHCN from the 2016 and 2017 National Survey of Children’s Health (N=71,181). The study found that CYHSCN had a greater likelihood of having each of the measured Adverse Childhood Events, and greater likelihood of experiencing aggregated levels of ACE’s than non-CYSHCN. In addition, an increase in ACEs was related to a decrease in the likelihood of a CYSHCN having a medical home with family-centered and coordinated care. Having one or greater ACEs increased the likelihood of having unmet mental health care needs. The study concluded that the researcher’s findings extend the current understanding of the relationship between CYSHCN and ACEs, and that the need for additional work to establish care systems for this vulnerable population continues.
Citation: Kenney MK, Chanlongbutra A, Fanflick PL . Systems of care among children and youth with special health care needs with and without adverse childhood events: National Survey of Children's Health 2016-2017. Disabil Health J 2022 Apr;15(2):101226. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2021.101226..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Disabilities, Healthcare Delivery, Vulnerable Populations
Riviello ED, Dechen T, O'Donoghue AL
Assessment of a crisis standards of care scoring system for resource prioritization and estimated excess mortality by race, ethnicity, and socially vulnerable area during a regional surge in COVID-19.
Researchers analyzed the association of a crisis standards of care (CSOC) scoring system with resource prioritization and estimated excess mortality by race, ethnicity, and residence in a socially vulnerable area during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data from 6 hospitals in greater Boston, Massachusetts, they found that a CSOC priority score resulted in lower prioritization of Black patients to receive scarce resources. Also, a model using a random lottery resulted in more estimated excess deaths overall without improving equity by race.
Citation: Riviello ED, Dechen T, O'Donoghue AL . Assessment of a crisis standards of care scoring system for resource prioritization and estimated excess mortality by race, ethnicity, and socially vulnerable area during a regional surge in COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Mar;5(3):e221744. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.1744..
Keywords: COVID-19, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Mortality, Public Health, Vulnerable Populations
Wang J, Ying M, Li Y
Home health agencies with more socially vulnerable patients have poorer experience of care ratings.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Medicare dual eligibility and race/ ethnicity when exploring Medicare-certified Home Health Agencies (CHHAs) and experience of care ratings. The researchers analyzed the 2017 national Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems and matched datasets of 10,906 CHHAs and found that CHHAs with higher concentrations of dual-eligible patients were less likely to have high experience of care ratings. In addition, CHHAs with higher proportions of racial/ ethnic minorities were less likely to have high experience of care ratings in the domains of care delivery, communication, and specific care issues.
Citation: Wang J, Ying M, Li Y . Home health agencies with more socially vulnerable patients have poorer experience of care ratings. J Appl Gerontol 2022 Mar;41(3):661-70. doi: 10.1177/07334648211053859..
Keywords: Elderly, Home Healthcare, Vulnerable Populations, Provider Performance
Porteny T, Ponce N, Sommers BD
Immigrants and the Affordable Care Act: changes in coverage and access to care by documentation status.
This study used data from the California Health Interview Survey (2003-2016) to compare changes in health coverage and access to care among immigrants in California before and after the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The authors found that the ACA has led to major gains in coverage for lawful permanent residents in California, but unauthorized immigrants experienced only modest increases in coverage. This result widened the disparity in uninsured rates for unauthorized immigrants relative to citizens considerably since 2014.
Citation: Porteny T, Ponce N, Sommers BD . Immigrants and the Affordable Care Act: changes in coverage and access to care by documentation status. J Immigr Minor Health 2022 Feb;24(1):86-94. doi: 10.1007/s10903-020-01124-0..
Keywords: Access to Care, Health Insurance, Uninsured, Vulnerable Populations
Kronk CA, Everhart AR, Ashley F
Transgender data collection in the electronic health record: current concepts and issues.
The authors present recommendations and common pitfalls involving sex- and gender-related data collection in electronic health records (EHRs) regarding the over 1 million transgender people living in the United States. They also briefly discuss adequate additions to the EHR considering name and pronoun usage. They conclude that collaborations between local transgender and gender-diverse persons and medication providers as well as open inclusion of transgender and gender-diverse individuals on terminology and standards boards is crucial to shifting the paradigm in transgender and gender-diverse health.
AHRQ-funded; HS026385; HS000029.
Citation: Kronk CA, Everhart AR, Ashley F . Transgender data collection in the electronic health record: current concepts and issues. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2022 Jan 12;29(2):271-84. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocab136..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Vulnerable Populations
Mojica CM, Gunn R, Pham R
An observational study of workflows to support fecal testing for colorectal cancer screening in primary care practices serving Medicaid enrollees.
This study was conducted to describe clinical workflows for fecal immunochemical tests/fecal occult blood tests (FIT/FOBT) in Oregon primary care practices and to identify specific workflow processes that might be associated with higher colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates. Findings showed that primary care practices with higher CRC screening rates among newly age-eligible Medicaid enrollees had more established visit-based and population outreach workflows to support identifying patients due for screening, FIT/FOBT distribution, reminders, and follow up. Higher CRC screening was associated with having medical assistants discuss and review FIT/FOBT screening and instructions with patients.
Citation: Mojica CM, Gunn R, Pham R . An observational study of workflows to support fecal testing for colorectal cancer screening in primary care practices serving Medicaid enrollees. BMC Cancer 2022 Jan 25;22(1):106. doi: 10.1186/s12885-021-09106-7..
Keywords: Workflow, Screening, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Primary Care, Vulnerable Populations
Sequeira GM, Boyer T, Coulter RWS
Healthcare experiences of gender diverse youth across clinical settings.
The objectives of this study were to describe the current experiences of gender diverse youth in healthcare settings outside of multidisciplinary gender clinics and determine how healthcare experiences differ by gender identity and across settings, with the goal of informing interventions that can create more gender-affirming health systems.
Citation: Sequeira GM, Boyer T, Coulter RWS . Healthcare experiences of gender diverse youth across clinical settings. J Pediatr 2022 Jan;240:251-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.08.089..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Patient Experience, Case Study, Vulnerable Populations
Davidson L, Haynes SC, Favila-Meza A
Parent experience and cost savings associated with a novel tele-physiatry program for children living in rural and underserved communities.
This study investigated patient and therapist experience and cost savings from the payer perspective associated with a novel tele-physiatry program for children living in rural and underserved communities. Study setting was four school-based clinics in Northern California with a total of 268 encounters (124 telemedicine and 144 in-person). Parent and therapists reported no difference in experience and perceived quality of care between telemedicine and in-person encounters. For parents whose children received a telemedicine encounter, 54.8% reported no preference for their child’s subsequent encounter, 28.8% preferred a physiatrist telemedicine visit, and 12 preferred a physiatrist in-person visit. There was also an average cost savings of $100 per clinic owing to physician milage for in-person visits.
Citation: Davidson L, Haynes SC, Favila-Meza A . Parent experience and cost savings associated with a novel tele-physiatry program for children living in rural and underserved communities. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2022 Jan;103(1):8-13. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2021.07.807..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Healthcare Costs, Rural Health, Vulnerable Populations, Disabilities, Rehabilitation
Cornelio N, McInerney MP, Mellor JM
Increasing Medicaid's stagnant asset test for people eligible for Medicare and Medicaid will help vulnerable seniors.
Researchers examined states' income and asset tests for full-benefit Medicaid during the period 2006-18 and examined how alternative asset tests would affect eligibility for community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries ages sixty-five and older. They found that increasing asset limits would lessen restrictions on Medicaid eligibility that arise from stagnant asset tests, broadening eligibility for certain low-income Medicare beneficiaries and allowing them to retain higher, yet still modest, savings.
AHRQ-funded; HS025422; HS026727; HS027698.
Citation: Cornelio N, McInerney MP, Mellor JM . Increasing Medicaid's stagnant asset test for people eligible for Medicare and Medicaid will help vulnerable seniors. Health Affairs 2021 Dec;40(12):1943-52. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2021.00841..
Keywords: Elderly, Medicaid, Medicare, Low-Income, Vulnerable Populations
Fleming MD, Shim JK, Yen I
Managing the "hot spots": health care, policing, and the governance of poverty in the US.
This research looked at a form of surveillance and intervention by health care systems known as “hot spotting”, which targets high-cost patients who are super-utilizers of emergency departments with intensive health and social services. An ethnographic investigation of hot spotting’s modes of distribution and its workings in the lives of patients and providers found that it targets the same individuals and neighborhoods as the police, who maintain longer-standing practices of hot spotting in zones of racialized urban poverty. The boundaries between them are shifting as a financialized logic of governance has come to dominate both the health and criminal justice systems.
Citation: Fleming MD, Shim JK, Yen I . Managing the "hot spots": health care, policing, and the governance of poverty in the US. Am Ethnol 2021 Nov;48(4):474-88. doi: 10.1111/amet.13032..
Keywords: Low-Income, Social Determinants of Health, Vulnerable Populations
Lewis VA, Spivack S, Murray GF
FQHC designation and safety net patient revenue associated with primary care practice capabilities for access and quality.
Researchers assessed capabilities around access to and quality of care among primary care practices serving a high share of Medicaid and uninsured patients compared to practices serving a low share of these patients. Data from the National Survey of Healthcare Organizations and Systems was analyzed. They found that federally qualified health centers were more likely than other types of primary care practices (both safety net practices and other practices) to possess capabilities related to access and quality. However, safety net practices were less likely than non-safety net practices to possess health information technology capabilities.
Citation: Lewis VA, Spivack S, Murray GF . FQHC designation and safety net patient revenue associated with primary care practice capabilities for access and quality. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Oct;36(10):2922-28. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-06746-0..
Keywords: Safety Net, Vulnerable Populations, Primary Care, Access to Care, Uninsured, Medicaid, Quality of Care
Schulson L, Lin MY, Paasche-Orlow MK
Limited English proficient patient visits and emergency department admission rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in California: a retrospective cohort study.
Little is known about the risk of admission for emergency department (ED) visits for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) by limited English proficient (LEP) patients. The objective of this study was to estimate admission rates from ED for ACSCs comparing LEP and English proficient (EP) patients and examine how these rates varied at hospitals with a high versus low proportion of LEP patients.
Citation: Schulson L, Lin MY, Paasche-Orlow MK . Limited English proficient patient visits and emergency department admission rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in California: a retrospective cohort study. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Sep;36(9):2683-91. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06523-5..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Vulnerable Populations, Communication
Kuhn J, Levinson Udhnani, MD
What happens after a positive primary care autism screen among historically underserved families? Predictors of evaluation and autism diagnosis.
This study examined predictors of receiving a recommended diagnostic evaluation after a recommended primary care-administered autism screen, and of those who screen positive, who is most likely to be diagnosed with autism. Participants were 309 predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority parents and their child aged 15-27 months who screened positive with the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised with Follow-Up (M-CHAT-R/F). Significant predictors of diagnostic evaluation included older parental age, being non-Hispanic and the child having private insurance, lower child communication functioning, or receiving Early Intervention services. Significant predictors of an autism diagnosis included being male, having lower child communication functioning, screening directly in the parent’s preferred language, White/non-Hispanic parent, and no parent history of mood disorder.
Citation: Kuhn J, Levinson Udhnani, MD . What happens after a positive primary care autism screen among historically underserved families? Predictors of evaluation and autism diagnosis. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 Sep;42(7):515-23. doi: 10.1097/dbp.0000000000000928..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Autism, Screening, Vulnerable Populations, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Khorasani SB, Koutoujian PJ, Zubiago J
COVID-19 vaccine interest among corrections officers and people who are incarcerated at Middlesex County jail, Massachusetts.
The Middlesex [Massachusetts] Sheriff’s Office developed and distributed two self-response surveys to assess COVID-19 vaccine willingness among people incarcerated in the jail and among people who work at the jail. The goal of this study was to characterize vaccine willingness in these two populations at the Middlesex House of Correction and Jail. Findings showed that 59% of people incarcerated in jail did not want the COVID-19 vaccine, while 82% of jail staff were interested in receiving the vaccine. Among people who were incarcerated, those who identified as Black had significantly decreased odds of wanting the vaccine compared to those who identified as white. Race was not significantly associated with vaccine willingness among jail employees when adjusting for role and gender.
Citation: Khorasani SB, Koutoujian PJ, Zubiago J . COVID-19 vaccine interest among corrections officers and people who are incarcerated at Middlesex County jail, Massachusetts. J Urban Health 2021 Aug;98(4):459-63. doi: 10.1007/s11524-021-00545-y..
Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccination, Vulnerable Populations
Abdul-Chani MM, Moreno CP, Reeder JA
Perceived community disability stigma in multicultural, low-income populations: measure development and validation.
Investigators sought to develop and validate a brief bilingual (English/Spanish) perceived disability stigma measure, to compare perceived disability and autism stigma, and to examine perceived disability stigma by parent sociodemographic characteristics and disability familiarity. They found that perceived autism stigma was greater than perceived disability stigma, with Latino parents reporting less perceived disability stigma than white parents. They concluded that their perceived disability stigma scale demonstrated sound psychometric properties, with results suggesting differences in how stigma is perceived across sociodemographic characteristics and disability familiarity.
Citation: Abdul-Chani MM, Moreno CP, Reeder JA . Perceived community disability stigma in multicultural, low-income populations: measure development and validation. Res Dev Disabil 2021 Aug;115:103997. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2021.103997..
Keywords: Disabilities, Low-Income, Vulnerable Populations, Social Stigma
Klawetter S, Glaze K, Sward A
Warm Connections: integration of infant mental health services into WIC.
Warm Connections is an innovative integrated behavioral health program delivered in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and rooted in an infant and early childhood mental health framework. This exploratory study describes Warm Connections and provides evaluation results from its pilot implementation. Findings suggest Warm Connections may reduce distress and increase parenting efficacy among low-income mothers and support further research of this program's feasibility.
Citation: Klawetter S, Glaze K, Sward A . Warm Connections: integration of infant mental health services into WIC. Community Ment Health J 2021 Aug;57(6):1130-41. doi: 10.1007/s10597-020-00744-y..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Maternal Care, Behavioral Health, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Low-Income, Vulnerable Populations
Lillie KM, Shaw J, Jansen KJ
Buprenorphine/naloxone for opioid use disorder among Alaska Native and American Indian people.
Opioid-related disparities are magnified among Alaska Native and American Indian (ANAI) people. Yet, no outcome studies on medication for addiction treatment, an effective treatment in other populations, among ANAI people exist. The objective of this study was to identify variables associated with buprenorphine/naloxone retention among ANAI people with opioid use disorder (OUD). The investigators concluded that younger patients and those with co-occurring substance use remained at higher risk of discontinuing buprenorphine/naloxone treatment for OUD in this population of ANAI people.
Citation: Lillie KM, Shaw J, Jansen KJ . Buprenorphine/naloxone for opioid use disorder among Alaska Native and American Indian people. J Addict Med 2021 Jul-Aug 01;15(4):297-302. doi: 10.1097/adm.0000000000000757..
Keywords: Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Medication, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Vulnerable Populations
Tabaac AR, Charlton BM, Tan ASL
Differences in tobacco product use by sexual orientation and violence factors among United States youth.
The goal of this study was to assess differences in the relationship between violence factor exposure and tobacco product pattern use (exclusive and poly). The investigators hypothesized that compared with heterosexuals, sexual minority youth would be more likely to report exclusive-tobacco and poly-tobacco use patterns and controlling for violence factors would attenuate these associations. The investigators concluded that sexual minority girls have greater exclusive- and poly-tobacco use compared with heterosexual girls.
Citation: Tabaac AR, Charlton BM, Tan ASL . Differences in tobacco product use by sexual orientation and violence factors among United States youth. J Pediatr 2021 Jun;233:241-48. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.02.011..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Tobacco Use, Domestic Violence, Vulnerable Populations
Walter LA, Schoenfeld EM, Smith CH
Emergency department-based interventions affecting social determinants of health in the United States: a scoping review.
Emergency departments (EDs) function as the safety nets of the American health care system, caring for many vulnerable populations. ED-based interventions to assess social risk and mitigate social needs have been reported in the literature. However, the breadth and scope of these interventions have not been evaluated. As the field of social emergency medicine (SEM) expands, a mapping and categorization of previous interventions may help shape future research. In this study, the investigators sought to identify, summarize, and characterize ED-based interventions aimed at mitigating negative social determinants of health.
AHRQ-funded; HS025701; HS013852.
Citation: Walter LA, Schoenfeld EM, Smith CH . Emergency department-based interventions affecting social determinants of health in the United States: a scoping review. Acad Emerg Med 2021 Jun;28(6):666-74. doi: 10.1111/acem.14201..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Social Determinants of Health, Vulnerable Populations, Low-Income
Wurcel AG, Reyes J, Zubiago J
"I'm not gonna be able to do anything about it, then what's the point?": A broad group of stakeholders identify barriers and facilitators to HCV testing in a Massachusetts jail.
Despite national guidelines promoting hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing in prisons, there is substantial heterogeneity on the implementation of HCV testing in jails. IN this study, the investigators sought to better understand barriers and opportunities for HCV testing by interviewing a broad group of stakeholders involved in HCV testing and treatment policies and procedures in Massachusetts jails.
Citation: Wurcel AG, Reyes J, Zubiago J . "I'm not gonna be able to do anything about it, then what's the point?": A broad group of stakeholders identify barriers and facilitators to HCV testing in a Massachusetts jail. PLoS One 2021 May 26;16(5):e0250901. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250901..
Keywords: Hepatitis, Vulnerable Populations, Screening, Prevention, Public Health, Social Stigma
Simmel C, Bowden CF, Neese-Todd S
Antipsychotic treatment for youth in foster care: Perspectives on improving youths' experiences in providing informed consent.
Citation: Simmel C, Bowden CF, Neese-Todd S . Antipsychotic treatment for youth in foster care: Perspectives on improving youths' experiences in providing informed consent. Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021;91(2):258-70. doi: 10.1037/ort0000532..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Vulnerable Populations, Behavioral Health, Medication, Patient Experience
Langston DM, Oslock WM, Paredes AZ
Hospital location and socioeconomic disadvantage of emergency general surgery patients.
This study’s purpose was to test the hypothesis that a hospital’s neighborhood disadvantage is associated with vulnerability of its emergency general surgery (EGS) patients. An area deprivation index (ADI), which is a neighborhood-level measure of disadvantage, and key characteristics of 724 hospitals in 14 states were linked to patient-level data in State Inpatient Databases. Hospitals in more disadvantaged areas disproportionately serve underserved EGS patient populations but are less likely to have robust resources for EGS care or train future EGS surgeons.
Citation: Langston DM, Oslock WM, Paredes AZ . Hospital location and socioeconomic disadvantage of emergency general surgery patients. J Surg Res 2021 May;261:376-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2020.12.028..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Surgery, Social Determinants of Health, Vulnerable Populations, Critical Care, Safety Net
Alcántara C, Giorgio Cosenzo L, McCullough E
Cultural adaptations of psychological interventions for prevalent sleep disorders and sleep disturbances: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in the United States.
This systematic review examined behavioral randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on prevalent sleep-wake disorders and sleep disturbances to determine if these studies targeted underserved populations or addressed contextual and cultural factors. The authors examined sociodemographic characteristics of behavioral RCTs that targeted underserved adults, identified types of cultural adaptations (surface-level or deep-level), and described intervention effectiveness on primary sleep outcomes. Overall out of 56 studies, 6.97% targeted underserved groups (veterans, women, racial/ethnic minorities, low socioeconomic status, disability status); and 64.9% made surface-level or deep-level cultural adaptations. Most cultural adaptions were made to behavioral therapies, and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Surface-level cultural adaptions made were mostly to the delivery modality and setting. Deep-level cultural adaptations to the content and core intervention components were the most typical. Intervention effectiveness varied by type of adapted intervention and the participant population. RCTs including adapted CBT-I interventions among participants showed consistent significant reductions in adverse sleep outcomes versus control.
Citation: Alcántara C, Giorgio Cosenzo L, McCullough E . Cultural adaptations of psychological interventions for prevalent sleep disorders and sleep disturbances: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in the United States. Sleep Med Rev 2021 Apr;56:101455. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101455..
Keywords: Sleep Problems, Cultural Competence, Behavioral Health, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Vulnerable Populations
Sutter ME, Simmons VN, Sutton SK
Oncologists' experiences caring for LGBTQ patients with cancer: qualitative analysis of items on a national survey.
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals experience cancer-related health disparities and reduced quality of cancer care compared to the general population in part due to a lack of knowledgeable providers. This study explored oncologists' experiences and perspectives in providing patient-centered care for SGM individuals with cancer. The investigators concluded that oncologists recognized their knowledge deficits and need strategies to overcome communication barriers and microaggressions among the cancer care team to provide SGM-affirming care.
Citation: Sutter ME, Simmons VN, Sutton SK . Oncologists' experiences caring for LGBTQ patients with cancer: qualitative analysis of items on a national survey. Patient Educ Couns 2021 Apr;104(4):871-76. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2020.09.022..
Keywords: Cancer, Provider: Physician, Vulnerable Populations
Teixeira da Silva D, Biello K, Lin WY
COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among an online sample of sexual and gender minority men and transgender women.
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations are particularly vulnerable to poor COVID-19 outcomes and are more likely to experience stigma and medical mistrust that may impact COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. This study examined the prevalence of COVID testing and diagnosis and assessed COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among a large sample of SGM. The investigators found that black participants were significantly less likely to accept a COVID-19 vaccine, and Asian participants were significantly more likely to accept a vaccine, compared to White peers.
Citation: Teixeira da Silva D, Biello K, Lin WY . COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among an online sample of sexual and gender minority men and transgender women. Vaccines 2021 Mar;9(3). doi: 10.3390/vaccines9030204..
Keywords: Vaccination, COVID-19, Public Health, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Vulnerable Populations