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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 247 Research Studies Displayed
Schnitzer K, Senft N, Tindle HA
Understanding engagement behaviors and rapport building in tobacco cessation telephone counseling: an analysis of audio-recorded counseling calls.
This study explored smokers’ and counselors’ engagement and rapport-building behaviors in telephone counseling for smoking cessation and patterns of these behaviors by smokers’ psychiatric symptoms. The study transcribed audio-recorded counseling calls among recently hospitalized participants enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized controlled trial (RCT). The study used baseline RCT data to explore frequencies of smokers’ behaviors among smokers who reported more symptoms of depression (PHQ8 ≥ 10) or anxiety (GAD7 ≥ 10) at study entry. A total of 37 participants were included, who were mostly female (23), White (26), with a median age of 58. At study entry many participants experienced moderate-to-severe symptoms of depression (18/37) and anxiety (22/37). Counselor-led behaviors included building off priority interaction, empathy, normalizing challenges, reframing and summarizing, validating achievements, and expressing shared experiences. Participant-led engagement behaviors occurred more often among patients with higher baseline depression and anxiety symptoms compared to those with lower symptom scores.
Citation: Schnitzer K, Senft N, Tindle HA . Understanding engagement behaviors and rapport building in tobacco cessation telephone counseling: an analysis of audio-recorded counseling calls. J Subst Abuse Treat 2022 Apr;135:108643. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108643..
Keywords: Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use, Patient and Family Engagement, Lifestyle Changes
Turvey CL, Fuhrmeister LA, Klein DM
Patient and provider experience of electronic patient portals and secure messaging in mental health treatment.
This study explored patient and provider experience of patient electronic access to the mental health treatment record and the use of secure messaging. Participants received online surveys with questions about their experiences. Researchers concluded that the implementation of electronic access to mental health notes requires a transition from viewing the medical record as the exclusive tool of providers to that of a collaborative tool for patients and providers to achieve treatment goals.
Citation: Turvey CL, Fuhrmeister LA, Klein DM . Patient and provider experience of electronic patient portals and secure messaging in mental health treatment. Telemed J E Health 2022 Feb;28(2):189-98. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2020.0395..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient Experience, Behavioral Health, Patient and Family Engagement
Schnock KO, Snyder JE, Gershanik E
Unique patient-reported hospital safety concerns with online tool: MySafeCare.
This study evaluated the MySafeCare (MSC) application at six acute care units for 18 months as part of a patient-centered health information technology intervention to promote engagement and safety in the acute care setting. This web-based application allowed hospitalized patients to submit safety concerns anonymously and in real time. The authors evaluated rates of submissions to MSC and compared them to the hospital’s submissions to the Patient Family Relations Department. They received 46 submissions to MSC, and 33% of them were received anonymously. The overall rate of submissions was 0.6 submissions per 1000 patient-days, which was considerably lower than the rate of submissions to the Patient Family Relations Department during the same time period (4.1 per 1000 patient-days). MSC did capture important content concerning unmet care needs and preferences, inadequate communication, and concerns about safety of care.
Citation: Schnock KO, Snyder JE, Gershanik E . Unique patient-reported hospital safety concerns with online tool: MySafeCare. J Patient Saf 2022 Jan;18(1):e33-e39. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000697..
Keywords: Patient Safety, Health Information Technology (HIT), Hospitals, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Patient and Family Engagement
McAlearney AS, Sieck CJ, Gregory ME
Examining patients' capacity to use patient portals: insights for telehealth.
The objective of this study was to examine factors related to patients' capacity to use a patient portal and test the impact of these factors on patients' portal use. Using data from a large-scale randomized controlled trial of patient portal use, over one thousand hospitalized patients responded to survey items that were then mapped onto the 4 dimensions of the Engagement Capacity Framework. Findings showed that patients with fewer resources, fewer capabilities, lower willingness, and lower overall capacity to use patient portals used the portal less; in contrast, those with lower perceived self-efficacy used the portal more. These differences in patients' capacity to use patient portals provide an initial understanding of factors that may influence the use of telehealth and offer important guidance in efforts to support patients' telehealth use.
AHRQ-funded; HS024379; HS024091; HS024349.
Citation: McAlearney AS, Sieck CJ, Gregory ME . Examining patients' capacity to use patient portals: insights for telehealth. Med Care 2021 Dec;59(12):1067-74. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001639..
Keywords: Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient and Family Engagement
Brown TT, Hurley VB, Rodriguez HP
Association of patient engagement strategies with utilisation and spending for musculoskeletal problems in the USA: a cross-sectional analysis of Medicare patients and physician practices.
This cross-sectional study assessed the association of physician practice-level adoption of patient engagement strategies (PES), such as shared decision-making and motivational interviewing, with utilization and spending. The cohort included primary and secondary patients in 2190 practices who receiving treatment for hip (39,336), knee (48,362), and lower-back (67,940) issues who were Medicare beneficiaries that were matched to the 2017-2018 National Survey of Healthcare Organizations and Systems. Outcome measures were total knee replacement (TKR), total hip replacement (THR), 1-2 level posterior lumbar fusion (LF), total annual spending, and components of total annual spending. Spending was significantly lower in some categories for practices with relatively higher PES adoption, but did not differ for other practices. The odds of receiving THR were higher in independent practices for patients attributed to practices with moderate PES compared to patients in practices with low PES.
Citation: Brown TT, Hurley VB, Rodriguez HP . Association of patient engagement strategies with utilisation and spending for musculoskeletal problems in the USA: a cross-sectional analysis of Medicare patients and physician practices. BMJ Open 2021 Nov 26;11(11):e053121. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053121..
Keywords: Patient and Family Engagement, Healthcare Utilization, Healthcare Costs, Arthritis, Orthopedics
Fuji KT, Abbott AA, Galt KA
A mixed-methods evaluation of standalone personal health record use by patients with type 2 diabetes.
The purpose of this study was to compare use of a standalone personal health records (PHRs) by patients with Type 2 diabetes to usual care through assessment of self-care behaviors, and short-term impact on social cognitive outcomes and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Five themes emerged from the qualitative analysis describing participants' experiences with the PHR and identifying reasons for lack of engagement. Study findings revealed low PHR uptake and minimal impact on study outcomes, including lack of communication and information-sharing between patients and providers.
Citation: Fuji KT, Abbott AA, Galt KA . A mixed-methods evaluation of standalone personal health record use by patients with type 2 diabetes. Perspect Health Inf Manag 2021 Fall;18(4):1e..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Diabetes, Patient Self-Management, Chronic Conditions, Patient and Family Engagement
De Roo AC, Vitous CA, Rivard SJ
High-risk surgery among older adults: not-quite shared decision-making.
This study explored surgeons’ approaches to decision-making for surgery among adults ≥65 years at high-risk of postoperative complications or death. The authors conducted semistructured in-depth interviews with 46 practicing surgeons across Michigan. They found that although shared decision-making is strongly recommended, surgeons who perform high-risk operations among older adults predominantly focused on assessing risk and setting expectations with patients and families rather than inviting them to actively participate in the decision-making process. Surgeons were also influenced by quality metrics, referrals, and personal experiences.
AHRQ-funded; HS026772; HS000053.
Citation: De Roo AC, Vitous CA, Rivard SJ . High-risk surgery among older adults: not-quite shared decision-making. Surgery 2021 Sep;170(3):756-63. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2021.02.005..
Keywords: Elderly, Surgery, Decision Making, Patient and Family Engagement
Smith BM, Sharma R, Das A
Patient and family engagement strategies for children and adolescents with chronic diseases: a review of systematic reviews.
Patient and family engagement is important for family-centered care, particularly for children and adolescents with chronic disease. In this study the investigators aimed to 1) identify available evidence from systematic reviews on engagement strategies used to help children, adolescents, and their caregivers manage chronic conditions, and 2) identify gaps in the literature. They searched PubMed and CINAHL from January 2015 to January 2020 for systematic reviews on patient and family engagement strategies in the pediatrics population (<18 years).
Citation: Smith BM, Sharma R, Das A . Patient and family engagement strategies for children and adolescents with chronic diseases: a review of systematic reviews. Patient Educ Couns 2021 Sep;104(9):2213-23. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2021.02.026..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Patient and Family Engagement, Chronic Conditions, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient Self-Management
Hershberger PJ, Pei Y, Bricker DA
Advancing motivational interviewing training with artificial intelligence: ReadMI.
The research team developed and tested a training tool, Real-time Assessment of Dialogue in Motivational Interviewing (ReadMI), that uses natural language processing to provide immediate motivational interviewing (MI) metrics and thereby address the need for more effective MI training. They found that the more time a physician spent talking, the less likely the physician was engaging in MI-consistent interview behaviors, including open-ended questions, reflective statements, or use of a change ruler. They concluded that ReadMI produced specific metrics that a trainer can share with a student, resident, or clinician for immediate feedback.
Citation: Hershberger PJ, Pei Y, Bricker DA . Advancing motivational interviewing training with artificial intelligence: ReadMI. Adv Med Educ Pract 2021 Jun 4;12:613-18. doi: 10.2147/amep.S312373..
Keywords: Lifestyle Changes, Clinician-Patient Communication, Patient and Family Engagement
Willard-Grace R, Knox M, Huang B
Primary care clinician burnout and engagement association with clinical quality and patient experience.
Burnout and engagement are commonly conceptualized as opposite ends of a spectrum, and there is concern that high clinician burnout and lack of engagement may adversely impact patient care. In this study, the investigators matched self-reported data on burnout and engagement for 182 primary care clinicians with data on clinical quality (cancer screenings, hypertension and diabetes control) and patient experience (Clinician and Group Survey-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems [CG-CAHPS] communication scores, overall rating, and likelihood to recommend the clinic).
Citation: Willard-Grace R, Knox M, Huang B . Primary care clinician burnout and engagement association with clinical quality and patient experience. J Am Board Fam Med 2021 May-Jun;34(3):542-52. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2021.03.200515..
Keywords: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), Burnout, Patient Experience, Patient and Family Engagement, Provider: Clinician, Provider: Physician, Quality of Care, Provider: Nurse, Provider: Health Personnel
Dalal AK, Piniella N, Fuller TE
Evaluation of electronic health record-integrated digital health tools to engage hospitalized patients in discharge preparation.
Researchers sought to evaluate the effect of electronic health record (EHR)-integrated digital health tools comprised of a checklist and video on transitions-of-care outcomes for patients preparing for discharge. They found that EHR-integrated digital health tools to prepare patients for discharge did not significantly increase patient activation and was associated with a longer length of stay.
Citation: Dalal AK, Piniella N, Fuller TE . Evaluation of electronic health record-integrated digital health tools to engage hospitalized patients in discharge preparation. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Mar 18;28(4):704-12. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocaa321..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Hospital Discharge, Patient and Family Engagement, Education: Patient and Caregiver
Feinberg E, Kuhn J, Eilenberg JS
Improving family navigation for children with autism: a comparison of two pilot randomized controlled trials.
This study looked at impacts of a modification to a pilot program called Family Navigation to help low-income, minority children needing autism-related diagnostic services receive those services. An advisory group recommended modifications to recruitment criteria and study conditions. 40 parent-child dyad participants were randomized between the two pilots to receive usual care (UC) or modified FN. Participant enrollment, satisfaction with clinical care, and timely completion of the diagnostic assessment were compared. Recruitment improved significantly with the modified protocol (4.8% vs. 19.5%) and no participants were excluded from study enrollment compared to the first pilot (43.6%). Families in the second pilot were more likely to complete diagnostic assessment and report greater satisfaction with clinical care.
AHRQ-funded; HS022155; HS022242.
Citation: Feinberg E, Kuhn J, Eilenberg JS . Improving family navigation for children with autism: a comparison of two pilot randomized controlled trials. Acad Pediatr 2021 Mar;21(2):265-71. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2020.04.007..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Autism, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Care Coordination, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Low-Income, Patient and Family Engagement, Chronic Conditions
Aronson PL, Politi MC, Schaeffer P
Development of an app to facilitate communication and shared decision-making with parents of febrile infants ≤ 60 days old.
This study’s aim was to develop and test a tool to engage parents of febrile infants 60 days or less of age evaluated in the emergency department (ED). The tool was designed to improve communication between parents and healthcare providers and to support shared decision-making (SDM) about whether to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) for infants 29 to 60 days of age. The authors conducted a multi-phase development and testing process including individual, semi-structured interviews with parents and clinicians; design of a “storyboard” of the tool with design impression testing; development of a software application prototype called e-Care; and usability testing of e-Care using qualitative assessment and the System Usability Scale (SUS). The authors interviewed 27 parents and 23 clinicians. After the interviews, they developed separate versions of e-Care for infants aged 28 days or less and 29 to 60 days of age in both English and Spanish. e-Care is divided into 4 sections: 1) homepage; 2) why testing is done; 3) what tests are done; and 4) what happens after testing. The mean SUS score given by parents and clinicians was 90.3 representing “excellent” usability.
Citation: Aronson PL, Politi MC, Schaeffer P . Development of an app to facilitate communication and shared decision-making with parents of febrile infants ≤ 60 days old. Acad Emerg Med 2021 Jan;28(1):46-59. doi: 10.1111/acem.14082..
Keywords: Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication, Newborns/Infants, Caregiving, Decision Making, Patient and Family Engagement, Emergency Department, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Holden RJ, Abebe E
Medication transitions: vulnerable periods of change in need of human factors and ergonomics.
The authors present a novel view of transitions from the lens of patient ergonomics which posits that patients and other nonprofessionals experience many changes during patient work transitions toward health-related goals. Medication transitions are particularly vulnerable. Two cases of medication transitions; new and medication deprescribing are described in which the patient work lens reveals many accompanying changes, vulnerabilities, and opportunities for human factors and ergonomics.
Citation: Holden RJ, Abebe E . Medication transitions: vulnerable periods of change in need of human factors and ergonomics. Appl Ergon 2021 Jan;90:103279. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2020.103279..
Keywords: Medication, Medication: Safety, Patient and Family Engagement, Transitions of Care, Patient Safety
Valentine KD, Mancini B, Vo H
Using standardized videos to examine the validity of the shared decision making process scale: results of a randomized online experiment.
The Shared Decision Making (SDM) Process scale is a brief, patient-reported measure of SDM with demonstrated validity in surgical decision-making studies. In this study, the investigators examined the validity of the scores in assessing SDM for cancer screening and medication decisions through standardized videos of good-quality and poor-quality SDM consultations. The investigators concluded that SDM process scores showed good evidence of validity in a hypothetical scenario but were lacking in ability to classify good-quality or poor-quality videos accurately.
Citation: Valentine KD, Mancini B, Vo H . Using standardized videos to examine the validity of the shared decision making process scale: results of a randomized online experiment. Med Decis Making 2022 Jan;42(1):105-13. doi: 10.1177/0272989x211029267..
Keywords: Decision Making, Patient and Family Engagement
Dykes PC, Burns Z, Adelman J
Evaluation of a patient-centered fall-prevention tool kit to reduce falls and injuries: a nonrandomized controlled trial.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether a fall-prevention tool kit that engages patients and families in the fall-prevention process throughout hospitalization is associated with reduced falls and injurious falls. Findings showed that, in this nonrandomized controlled trial, implementation of a fall-prevention tool kit was associated with a significant reduction in falls and related injuries. A patient-care team partnership appeared to be beneficial for prevention of falls and fall-related injuries.
Citation: Dykes PC, Burns Z, Adelman J . Evaluation of a patient-centered fall-prevention tool kit to reduce falls and injuries: a nonrandomized controlled trial. JAMA Netw Open 2020 Nov 2;3(11):e2025889. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.25889..
Keywords: Falls, Injuries and Wounds, Prevention, Tools & Toolkits, Patient and Family Engagement, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Hospitalization, Hospitals
Griesemer I, Staley BS, Lightfoot AF
Engaging community stakeholders in research on best practices for clinical genomic sequencing.
This paper describes the NCGENES2 study which explored the impact of engagement between clinicians and caregivers of children with undiagnosed conditions in the context of a diagnostic genomic sequencing study. A Community Consult Team (CCT) was formed with diverse parents and advocates for children with genetic and/or neurodevelopmental conditions. Early and consistent engagement with the CCT resulted in adaptations to study protocols relevant to this unique study population.
Citation: Griesemer I, Staley BS, Lightfoot AF . Engaging community stakeholders in research on best practices for clinical genomic sequencing. Per Med 2020 Nov;16(6):435-44. doi: 10.2217/pme-2020-0074..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Patient and Family Engagement, Genetics
Nijhawan AE, Bhattatiry M, Chansard M
HIV care cascade before and after hospitalization: impact of a multidisciplinary inpatient team in the US South.
Hospitalization represents an opportunity to re-engage out-of-care individuals, improve HIV outcomes, and reduce health disparities. The authors reviewed electronic health records of HIV-positive individuals hospitalized at an urban, public hospital between September 2013 and December 2015. They found that hospitalized patients with HIV had low rates of engagement in care, retention in care, and virologic suppression, though all three outcomes improved after hospitalization. A multidisciplinary transitions team improved care engagement and virologic suppression in those who received the intervention.
Citation: Nijhawan AE, Bhattatiry M, Chansard M . HIV care cascade before and after hospitalization: impact of a multidisciplinary inpatient team in the US South. AIDS Care 2020 Nov;32(11):1343-52. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2019.1698704.
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Transitions of Care, Inpatient Care, Teams, Hospitalization, Patient and Family Engagement, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice
Ward TM, Skubic M, Rantz M
Human-centered approaches that integrate sensor technology across the lifespan: opportunities and challenges.
Children, parents, older adults, and caregivers routinely use sensor technology as a source of health information and health monitoring. The purpose of this paper was to describe three exemplars of research that used a human-centered approach to engage participants in the development, design, and usability of interventions that integrate technology to promote health. The exemplars were based on current research studies that integrated sensor technology into pediatric, adult, and older adult populations living with a chronic health condition.
Citation: Ward TM, Skubic M, Rantz M . Human-centered approaches that integrate sensor technology across the lifespan: opportunities and challenges. Nurs Outlook 2020 Nov-Dec;68(6):734-44. doi: 10.1016/j.outlook.2020.05.004..
Keywords: Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient and Family Engagement, Health Services Research (HSR), Research Methodologies
Carter E, Monane R, Peccoralo L
Missed opportunities to engage patients in collaborative care challenge program sustainability: a qualitative study.
The authors examined barriers and accompanying strategies to patient engagement in the context of collaborative care sustainability. They concluded that their research signals the need for improved patient engagement at the time of diagnosis and referral, and they suggested innovative areas for quality improvement in primary care settings, including e-handoffs, culturally-tailored preference-driven treatment, collaborative care vs. psychiatry referral algorithms, and community-based paraprofessionals.
Citation: Carter E, Monane R, Peccoralo L . Missed opportunities to engage patients in collaborative care challenge program sustainability: a qualitative study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2020 Nov-Dec;67:158-59. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2020.05.007..
Keywords: Patient and Family Engagement, Primary Care: Models of Care, Primary Care, Behavioral Health, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Innovations and Emerging Issues
Armstrong MJ, Gamez N, Alliance S
Research priorities of caregivers and individuals with dementia with Lewy bodies: an interview study.
The authors investigated the research priorities of individuals and caregivers living with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Through telephone interviews, they found that individuals with DLB and caregivers identified research needs and highlighted DLB symptoms needing additional research. They recommended that funding be informed by the priorities of all relevant stakeholders and support research investigating causes, natural history, biomarkers, and treatment in addition to research targeting themes regarding living with disease.
Citation: Armstrong MJ, Gamez N, Alliance S . Research priorities of caregivers and individuals with dementia with Lewy bodies: an interview study. PLoS One 2020 Oct 7;15(10):e0239279. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239279..
Keywords: Caregiving, Dementia, Neurological Disorders, Patient and Family Engagement, Elderly, Research Methodologies
Ruhnke GW, Tak HJ, Meltzer DO
Association of preferences for participation in decision-making with care satisfaction among hospitalized patients.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of hospitalized patients' desire to delegate decisions to their physician with care dissatisfaction. The investigators indicated that the findings suggested that patient preferences to participate in medical decision-making were statistically significantly associated with dissatisfaction of hospitalized patients. The authors assert that clinicians should individualize their encouragement of patient participation in diagnostic and management decisions to maximize patient satisfaction.
Citation: Ruhnke GW, Tak HJ, Meltzer DO . Association of preferences for participation in decision-making with care satisfaction among hospitalized patients. JAMA Netw Open 2020 Oct;3(10):e2018766. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.18766..
Keywords: Decision Making, Patient and Family Engagement, Patient Experience, Hospitalization, Hospitals
Yen PY, Lehmann LS, Snyder J
Development and validation of WeCares, a survey instrument to assess hospitalized patients' and family members' "Willingness to engage in your care and safety."
Patient engagement is recognized as a method to improve care quality and safety. A research team developed WeCares (Willingness to Engage in Your Care and Safety), a survey instrument assessing patients' and families' engagement in the safety of their care during their hospital stay. The objective of this study was to establish the preliminary construct validity and internal consistency of WeCares.
Citation: Yen PY, Lehmann LS, Snyder J . Development and validation of WeCares, a survey instrument to assess hospitalized patients' and family members' "Willingness to engage in your care and safety." Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2020 Oct;46(10):565-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2020.07.002..
Keywords: Patient and Family Engagement, Patient Safety, Inpatient Care, Hospitalization
Hargraves IG, Fournier AK, Montori VM
AHRQ Author: Fournier AK, Montori VM, Bierman AS.
Generalized shared decision making approaches and patient problems. adapting AHRQ's SHARE Approach for Purposeful SDM.
This article focuses on the AHRQ development of SHARE, which is a generalized shared decision making (SDM) approach for clinicians and patients to make decisions together. The authors hope to adapt SHARE to the different problems that patients face using a matrix to relate SHARE steps and use the Purposeful SDM schema published in 2019. They hope that SDM in education, practice, and tools may be supported by adapting generalized SDM approaches in patients’ problems.
Citation: Hargraves IG, Fournier AK, Montori VM . Generalized shared decision making approaches and patient problems. adapting AHRQ's SHARE Approach for Purposeful SDM. Patient Educ Couns 2020 Oct;103(10):2192-99. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2020.06.022..
Keywords: Decision Making, Patient and Family Engagement
Baik D, Liu J, Cho H
Factors related to biological sex differences in engagement with healthcare providers in persons living with HIV.
Investigators conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from four projects focused on improving health outcomes in persons living with HIV (PLWH). They found that male patients displayed negative association between depression and engagement with healthcare providers and positive association between engagement with healthcare providers and medication adherence, while female patients showed no association between any of these factors. Anxiety and stigma were not significantly associated with medication adherence. They concluded that adherence interventions for PLWH should be tailored by biological sex.
Citation: Baik D, Liu J, Cho H . Factors related to biological sex differences in engagement with healthcare providers in persons living with HIV. AIDS Behav 2020 Sep;24(9):2656-65. doi: 10.1007/s10461-020-02823-3..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Sex Factors, Patient and Family Engagement, Patient Adherence/Compliance, Depression, Behavioral Health, Medication