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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 306 Research Studies Displayed
McQueen A, Kreuter MW, Herrick CJ
Associations among social needs, health and healthcare utilization, and desire for navigation services among US Medicaid beneficiaries with type 2 diabetes.
The purpose of this study was to determine the number and types of social needs experienced by Medicaid beneficiaries with type 2 diabetes and how these social needs are associated with key health indicators. Findings showed that having more social needs was associated with a wide range of indicators of poor health and well-being. Study participants with the greatest social need burden were most open to intervention.
Citation: McQueen A, Kreuter MW, Herrick CJ . Associations among social needs, health and healthcare utilization, and desire for navigation services among US Medicaid beneficiaries with type 2 diabetes. Health Soc Care Community 2022 May;30(3):1035-44. doi: 10.1111/hsc.13296..
Keywords: Diabetes, Chronic Conditions, Medicaid, Social Determinants of Health
Murray E, Roosevelt GE, Vogel JA
Screening for health-related social needs in the emergency department: adaptability and fidelity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Researchers sought to evaluate a screening and referral program for health-related social needs (HRSN) in an emergency department. Using the Accountable Health Communities Screening Tool, they found that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, HRSN doubled, likely reflecting the economic impact of the pandemic.
Citation: Murray E, Roosevelt GE, Vogel JA . Screening for health-related social needs in the emergency department: adaptability and fidelity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Am J Emerg Med 2022 Apr;54:323.e1-23.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.09.071..
Keywords: COVID-19, Social Determinants of Health, Emergency Department, Screening, Public Health
de Loizaga SR, Schneider K, Beck AF
Socioeconomic impact on outcomes during the first year of life of patients with single ventricle heart disease: an analysis of the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative Registry.
In a retrospective cohort analysis of infants enrolled in the National Pediatric Cardiology Improvement Collaborative, researchers investigated the impact of community-level deprivation on morbidity and mortality for infants with single ventricle heart disease in the first year of life. They found that community deprivation was associated with mortality and length of stay for patients with single ventricle congenital heart disease. While patients near the mean deprivation index had a higher hazard of one year mortality compared to those at the extremes of the deprivation index, length of stay and deprivation index were linearly associated, demonstrating the complex nature of socioeconomic factors.
Citation: de Loizaga SR, Schneider K, Beck AF . Socioeconomic impact on outcomes during the first year of life of patients with single ventricle heart disease: an analysis of the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative Registry. Pediatr Cardiol 2022 Mar;43(3):605-15. doi: 10.1007/s00246-021-02763-2..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Social Determinants of Health, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Cardiovascular Conditions, Registries, Outcomes
Carroll AR, Hall M, Brown CM
Association of race/ethnicity and social determinants with rehospitalization for mental health conditions at acute care children's hospitals.
This retrospective cohort study evaluated the associations of race/ethnicity and social determinants with 90-day rehospitalization of children with mental health conditions to acute non-psychiatric children’s hospitals. Children included were aged 5 to 18 years at 32 freestanding U.S. children’s hospitals from 2016-2018 using the Children’s Hospital Association’s Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database to assess the association of race/ethnicity and social determinants (insurance payer, neighborhood median household income, and rurality of patient home location) with 90-day rehospitalization. Among 23,556 index hospitalizations, 5.9% (n = 1382) were rehospitalized for mental health within 90 days. Non-Hispanic Black children were 26% more likely to be rehospitalized than non-Hispanic White children. Those with government insurance were 18% more likely to rehospitalized than those with private insurance. Those living in a suburban location were 22% less likely to be rehospitalized than those living in an urban location.
Citation: Carroll AR, Hall M, Brown CM . Association of race/ethnicity and social determinants with rehospitalization for mental health conditions at acute care children's hospitals. J Pediatr 2022 Jan;240:228-34.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.08.078..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Hospital Readmissions, Behavioral Health, Social Determinants of Health, Racial / Ethnic Minorities
Frehn JL, Brewster AL, Shortell SM
Comparing health care system and physician practice influences on social risk screening.
This study examined the association of multilevel organizational capabilities and adoption of social risk screening among system-owned physician practices. A secondary analysis of the 2018 National Survey of Healthcare Organizations and Systems data was conducted. Five social risks were used as measures for physician and system screening: food insecurity, housing instability, utility needs, interpersonal violence, and transportation needs. System-owned practices screened an average of 1.7 of the 5 social risks assessed. The differences were 16% attributable to practice variation between their health system owners, and 84% attributable to differences between individual practices. Practices owned by hospital systems screened for an additional 0.44 social risks relative to practices of systems without hospitals. Characteristics associated with more social risk screening included health information technology capacity, innovation culture, and patient engagement strategies.
AHRQ-funded; HS024075; HS022241.
Citation: Frehn JL, Brewster AL, Shortell SM . Comparing health care system and physician practice influences on social risk screening. Health Care Manage Rev 2022 Jan-Mar;47(1):E1-e10. doi: 10.1097/hmr.0000000000000309..
Keywords: Healthcare Systems, Social Determinants of Health, Screening, Risk
Lin JS, Hoffman L, Bean SI
Addressing racism in preventive services: methods report to support the US Preventive Services Task Force.
The purpose of this report was to articulate the definitional and conceptual issues around racism and health inequity and to describe how racism and health inequities are currently addressed in preventive health. An audit was conducted assessing published literature on policy and position statements addressing racism, a subset of cancer and cardiovascular topics in USPSTF reports, recent systematic reviews on interventions to reduce health inequities, and societies, organizations, agencies, and funding bodies to gather information about how they address racism and health equity. Findings showed that racism is complex and pervasive, operates at multiple interrelated levels, and exerts negative effects on other social determinants and health and well-being through multiple pathways. The most directly relevant and immediately useful guidance identified is that from the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) working group.
Citation: Lin JS, Hoffman L, Bean SI . Addressing racism in preventive services: methods report to support the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2021 Dec 21;326(23):2412-20. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.17579..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Social Determinants of Health, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Research Methodologies, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice
Razon N, Hessler D, Bibbins-Domingo K
How hypertension guidelines address social determinants of health: a systematic scoping review.
Patient-level and community-level social and economic conditions impact hypertension risk and control. In this study, the investigators examined adult hypertension management guidelines to explore whether and how existing guidelines refer to social care activities. The investigators concluded that information about social determinants of health is included in many hypertension guidelines, but few guidelines provide clear guidance for clinicians or health systems on how to identify and address social risk factors in the context of care delivery.
Citation: Razon N, Hessler D, Bibbins-Domingo K . How hypertension guidelines address social determinants of health: a systematic scoping review. Med Care 2021 Dec;59(12):1122-29. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001649..
Keywords: Hypertension, Social Determinants of Health, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice
Heller CG, Rehm CD, Parsons AH
The association between social needs and chronic conditions in a large, urban primary care population.
This study sought to understand the association between social needs and chronic health conditions using a screening tool and clinical data from Electronic Health Records. From April 2018 to December 2019, 33,550 adult patients completed a 10-item social needs screening tool during primary visits in Bronx and Westchester Counties, NY. A positive, cumulative association between social needs and each of the eight outcomes asked about was found. The relationship was strongest for elevated PHQ-2 (depression screening), alcohol/drug use disorder, and smoking. Those with 3 or greater social needs were 3.9 times more likely to have an elevated PHQ-2 than those without needs. Healthcare transportation challenges was associated with each condition and was the most strongly associated need with half of conditions in the fully-adjusted models. Examples included those with an alcohol/drug use disorder (84% more likely), and smokers (41% more likely).
Citation: Heller CG, Rehm CD, Parsons AH . The association between social needs and chronic conditions in a large, urban primary care population. Prev Med 2021 Dec;153:106752. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106752..
Keywords: Chronic Conditions, Urban Health, Primary Care, Low-Income, Social Determinants of Health, Screening
Wang M, Pantell MS, Gottlieb LM
Documentation and review of social determinants of health data in the EHR: measures and associated insights.
Electronic Health Records (EHRs) increasingly include designated fields to capture social determinants of health (SDOH). The investigators developed measures to characterize their use, and use of other SDOH data types, to optimize SDOH data integration. The investigators concluded for their institution, measures revealed substantial variation across data types, suggesting the need to engage in efforts such as EHR-user education and targeted workflow integration. They also concluded that measures revealed opportunities to optimize SDOH data documentation and review.
Citation: Wang M, Pantell MS, Gottlieb LM . Documentation and review of social determinants of health data in the EHR: measures and associated insights. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Nov 25;28(12):2608-16. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocab194..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)
Fleming MD, Shim JK, Yen I
Managing the "hot spots": health care, policing, and the governance of poverty in the US.
This research looked at a form of surveillance and intervention by health care systems known as “hot spotting”, which targets high-cost patients who are super-utilizers of emergency departments with intensive health and social services. An ethnographic investigation of hot spotting’s modes of distribution and its workings in the lives of patients and providers found that it targets the same individuals and neighborhoods as the police, who maintain longer-standing practices of hot spotting in zones of racialized urban poverty. The boundaries between them are shifting as a financialized logic of governance has come to dominate both the health and criminal justice systems.
Citation: Fleming MD, Shim JK, Yen I . Managing the "hot spots": health care, policing, and the governance of poverty in the US. Am Ethnol 2021 Nov;48(4):474-88. doi: 10.1111/amet.13032..
Keywords: Low-Income, Social Determinants of Health, Vulnerable Populations
Fraze TK, Beidler LB, Fichtenberg C
Resource brokering: efforts to assist patients with housing, transportation, and economic needs in primary care settings.
This study reviewed how 29 diverse health care organizations assisted patients with housing, transportation, and economic needs in primary care settings. Semistructured interviews were conducted with leaders and frontline staff. Organizations used case management programs to assist patients with social needs through referrals to community-based organizations (CBOs) and regular follow-up. About one-half incorporated care into established case management programs, and the remaining described standalone programs. While all organizations referred patients to CBOs, some also provided more intense services such as assistance in completing patients’ applications for services or conducting home visits. Challenges described by the organizations include: 1) effectively engaging CBOs; 2) obtaining buy-in from clinical staff; 3) considering patients' perspectives; and 4) ensuring program sustainability.
Citation: Fraze TK, Beidler LB, Fichtenberg C . Resource brokering: efforts to assist patients with housing, transportation, and economic needs in primary care settings. Ann Fam Med 2021 Nov-Dec;19(6):507-14. doi: 10.1370/afm.2739..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Primary Care, Care Management
Davidson KW, Krist AH, Tseng CW
AHRQ Author: Mills J, Borsky A
Incorporation of social risk in US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and identification of key challenges for primary care.
The authors assessed how social risks have been considered in USPSTF recommendation statements and identified current gaps in evidence needed to expand the systematic inclusion of social risks in future recommendations. They concluded that their report serves as a benchmark and foundation for ongoing work to advance the goal of ensuring that health equity and social risks are incorporated into USPSTF methods and recommendations.
Citation: Davidson KW, Krist AH, Tseng CW . Incorporation of social risk in US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and identification of key challenges for primary care. JAMA 2021 Oct 12;326(14):1410-15. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.12833..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Primary Care, Social Determinants of Health, Risk, Evidence-Based Practice, Research Methodologies, Guidelines
Wallace AS, Luther BL, Sisler SM
Integrating social determinants of health screening and referral during routine emergency department care: evaluation of reach and implementation challenges.
Despite the importance of social determinants in health outcomes, little is known about the best practices for screening and referral during clinical encounters. This study aimed to implement universal social needs screening and community service referrals in an academic emergency department (ED), evaluating for feasibility, reach, and stakeholder perspectives. The investigators concluded that despite the limited time and technical barriers, few patients with social needs ultimately received service referrals.
Citation: Wallace AS, Luther BL, Sisler SM . Integrating social determinants of health screening and referral during routine emergency department care: evaluation of reach and implementation challenges. Implement Sci Commun 2021 Oct 7;2(1):114. doi: 10.1186/s43058-021-00212-y..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Emergency Department, Screening, Implementation
Fiori KP, Heller CG, Flattau A
Scaling-up social needs screening in practice: a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of data from electronic health records from Bronx county, New York, USA.
This study describes a health system’s experience from 2018 to 2020 to scale social needs of screening of patients within a large urban primary care ambulatory network. This program took place at an academic medical center within an ambulatory network of 18 primary care practices located in the Bronx, New York. The study used electronic health records of 244,764 patients who had a clinical visit from April 2018 to 2019. The authors organized measures using the RE-AIM framework domains of reach and adoption to ascertain the number of patients who were screened and the number of providers who adopted screening. A total of 53,093 patients were screened for social needs, representing 21.7% of the patients seen. Almost one-fifth (19.6%) of patients reported at least one unmet social need, varying by both practice location and specialty within practices. Slightly more than half (51.8%) of providers screened at least one patient.
Citation: Fiori KP, Heller CG, Flattau A . Scaling-up social needs screening in practice: a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of data from electronic health records from Bronx county, New York, USA. BMJ Open 2021 Sep 29;11(9):e053633. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053633..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Screening, Social Determinants of Health
O'Kane M, Agrawal S, Binder L
AHRQ Author: Meyers D
An equity agenda for the field of health care quality improvement.
The authors of this paper assert that the U.S. health system must take action to centralize equity, particularly racial equity (including ethnicity), in discussions of quality. In this discussion paper, the authors provide an analysis and delineation of the key elements of their racial equity agenda for the field of health care quality improvement.
Citation: O'Kane M, Agrawal S, Binder L . An equity agenda for the field of health care quality improvement. NAM Perspect 2021 Sep 15;2021. doi: 10.31478/202109b..
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Social Determinants of Health
Linton SL, Leifheit KM, McGinty EE
Association between housing insecurity, psychological distress, and self-rated health among US adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This research letter describes a survey study conducted to examine the association between housing insecurity and health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data used was from wave 3 of the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 Civic Life and Public Health Survey, which was conducted online from November 11-30, 2020 using the National Opinion Research Center’s AmeriSpeak panel. The survey included 1218 participants who were 51% female, 560 participants aged 30 to 54 years, 549 participants aged 55 years or older; 13% self-identified as Hispanic, 13% self-identified as non-Hispanic Black, and 69% self-identified as non-Hispanic White. In November 2020, 128 participants (12%) reported housing insecurity. Among survey participants reporting housing insecurity, 42 reported being behind on housing payments, 55 reported having little to no confidence in their ability to make their next housing payment, and 31 reported both. Renters had disproportionately higher housing insecurity than homeowners, as did those were non-Hispanic Black race, were aged 30 to 54 years, earned less than $35,000 in 2019, lived with children, or resided in metropolitan counties. Forty-six percent of participants reported severe to moderate psychological distress and 18% reported fair to poor health. Participants with housing insecurity reported higher distress (57% vs 45%) and lower self-rated health (30% vs 16%). The association between housing insecurity and lower self-rated health was found to be statistically significant, while the association between housing insecurity and higher distress was not.
Citation: Linton SL, Leifheit KM, McGinty EE . Association between housing insecurity, psychological distress, and self-rated health among US adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep;4(9):e2127772. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27772..
Keywords: COVID-19, Health Status, Stress, Social Determinants of Health
Parker MG, Garg A, Brochier A
Approaches to addressing social determinants of health in the NICU: a mixed methods study.
The objective of this study was to examine current approaches to addressing social determinants of health (SDOH) in the NICU and perceived appropriateness of a standardized screening and referral process. The investigators performed a mixed methods study in two Massachusetts safety-net NICUs. They concluded that current NICU assessment of SDOH was limited and use of a standardized screening and referral process could be useful.
Citation: Parker MG, Garg A, Brochier A . Approaches to addressing social determinants of health in the NICU: a mixed methods study. J Perinatol 2021 Aug;41(8):1983-91. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-00867-w..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Newborns/Infants, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Izadi Z, Li J, Evans M
Socioeconomic disparities in functional status in a national sample of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
This longitudinal study looked at the association of socioeconomic disparities and functional status in a national sample of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study used a cohort from the American College of Rheumatology’s Rheumatology Informatics System for Effectiveness (RISE) registry from 2016 to 2018. Analyses included all adult patients with a confirmed RA diagnosis and at least 1 functional status (FS) score documented. The Area Deprivation Index (ADI), a zip code-based indicator of poverty, was used as a proxy for socioeconomic status (SES). The cohort included 83,965 patients, of which 77% were women and 72% were non-Hispanic White. Mean age was 63.4 years. The probability of functional decline was 14.1% in the highest SES quintile and 18.9% in the lowest SES quintile. By all measures FS score was worse at lower SES levels.
AHRQ-funded; HS025638; HS024412.
Citation: Izadi Z, Li J, Evans M . Socioeconomic disparities in functional status in a national sample of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. JAMA Netw Open 2021 Aug 2;4(8):e2119400. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.19400..
Keywords: Arthritis, Chronic Conditions, Disparities, Social Determinants of Health, Quality of Life
Nguyen KH, Fields JD JD, Cemballi AG
The role of community-based organizations in improving chronic care for safety-net populations.
Researchers conducted a multi-stakeholder qualitative study to capture the multi-level influences on health for those living in socio-economically deprived contexts. Participants were patients with chronic illnesses in San Francisco neighborhoods with high chronic disease rates, community leaders serving the same neighborhoods, or providers from San Francisco's public health care delivery system. The researchers identified several key themes. They concluded that their results contributed new evidence toward the community domain of the Chronic Care Model, and health care systems must intentionally partner with community-based organizations to address social determinants of health and improve community resources for chronic care management.
Citation: Nguyen KH, Fields JD JD, Cemballi AG . The role of community-based organizations in improving chronic care for safety-net populations. J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Jul-Aug;34(4):698-708. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2021.04.200591..
Keywords: Community Partnerships, Safety Net, Chronic Conditions, Social Determinants of Health, Care Management
Walter LA, Schoenfeld EM, Smith CH
Emergency department-based interventions affecting social determinants of health in the United States: a scoping review.
Emergency departments (EDs) function as the safety nets of the American health care system, caring for many vulnerable populations. ED-based interventions to assess social risk and mitigate social needs have been reported in the literature. However, the breadth and scope of these interventions have not been evaluated. As the field of social emergency medicine (SEM) expands, a mapping and categorization of previous interventions may help shape future research. In this study, the investigators sought to identify, summarize, and characterize ED-based interventions aimed at mitigating negative social determinants of health.
AHRQ-funded; HS025701; HS013852.
Citation: Walter LA, Schoenfeld EM, Smith CH . Emergency department-based interventions affecting social determinants of health in the United States: a scoping review. Acad Emerg Med 2021 Jun;28(6):666-74. doi: 10.1111/acem.14201..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Social Determinants of Health, Vulnerable Populations, Low-Income
Kirby JB, Bernard D, Liang L
AHRQ Author: Kirby JB, Bernard D, Liang L
The prevalence of food insecurity is highest among Americans for whom diet is most critical to health.
This study investigated how widespread food insecurity is among people with diabetes among different insurance types and whether food assistance is adequately addressing the problem. The authors used new data on food insecurity from the AHRQ MEPS in 2016 and 2017. The sample was limited to adults ages 18-64 years. Results found the prevalence of food insecurity was much higher among adults with diabetes compared to those without diabetes (16% vs. 9%). People with diabetes who were taking insulin or who had eye or kidney complications had even rates of food insecurity at 19% and 22%, respectively. Food insecurity prevalence was much higher among Medicaid enrollees compared with those with other types of insurance. Nearly one-third of Medicaid enrollees with diabetes were food insecure, compared with 7% with private insurance. Medicaid enrollees with insulin-dependent diabetes had the highest food insecurity (44%), which is over 6 times higher than their counterparts with private insurance. They also found that a sizable fraction of people with diabetes who were food insecure were not receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. Over 80% of people with private insurance did not receive SNAP benefits, likely reflecting SNAP eligibility. However, even among Medicaid enrollees, 29% of people with diabetes were not receiving SNAP, and 68% of the uninsured were not receiving SNAP benefits. Even among SNAP recipients, over 40% of Medicaid enrollees with diabetes remained food insecure.
Citation: Kirby JB, Bernard D, Liang L . The prevalence of food insecurity is highest among Americans for whom diet is most critical to health. Diabetes Care 2021 Jun;44(6):e131-3132. doi: 10.2337/dc20-3116..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), Social Determinants of Health
Dickinson-Copeland CM, Immergluck LC, Britez M
Increased risk of sub-clinical blood lead levels in the 20-county metro Atlanta, Georgia area-a laboratory surveillance-based study.
This study looked at the distribution of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children aged 0-72 months and their associations with sociodemographic and area-level variables. Data from the Georgia Department of Public Health’s Healthy Homes for Lead Prevention Program surveillance data was used to describe the distribution of BLLs in metro Atlanta area children from 2010 to 2018. Residential addresses were geocoded and if BLLs were spatially clustered they were defined at “Hotspots”. Geographically defined hotspots for both clinical (≥5 µg/dL) and sub-clinical (2 to <5 µg/dL) BLLs diffused from the city-central area into suburban areas. Predictors of sub-clinical BLL levels from those with lower (<2 µg/dL) or higher ((≥5 µg/dL) BLLs included non-Medicaid insurance, the proportion of renters in a given geographical area, and proportion of individuals with a GED/high school diploma. Over half of the study children had sub-clinical BLL levels, a range that does not currently trigger public health measures but could result in adverse development outcomes if ignored.
Citation: Dickinson-Copeland CM, Immergluck LC, Britez M . Increased risk of sub-clinical blood lead levels in the 20-county metro Atlanta, Georgia area-a laboratory surveillance-based study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 13;18(10). doi: 10.3390/ijerph18105163..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Children/Adolescents, Social Determinants of Health, Public Health, Public Health
Lacson R, Shi J, Kapoor N
Exacerbation of inequities in use of diagnostic radiology during the early stages of reopening after COVID-19.
Researchers assessed diagnostic radiology examination utilization and associated social determinants of health during the early stages of reopening after state-mandated shutdown of nonurgent services because of COVID-19. They found that, despite resumption of nonurgent services, a marked decrease in radiology examination utilization persisted in all care settings post-shutdown, with more significantly decreased odds ratios for having examinations in inpatient and outpatient settings versus in the emergency department. Inequities worsened, with patients from communities with high rates of poverty, unemployment, and chronic disease having significantly lower odds of undergoing radiology examinations post-shutdown. Patients of Asian race and Hispanic ethnicity had significantly lower odds ratios for having examinations post-shutdown compared with White and non-Hispanic patients, respectively.
Citation: Lacson R, Shi J, Kapoor N . Exacerbation of inequities in use of diagnostic radiology during the early stages of reopening after COVID-19. J Am Coll Radiol 2021 May;18(5):696-703. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2020.12.009..
Keywords: COVID-19, Disparities, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Social Determinants of Health
Langston DM, Oslock WM, Paredes AZ
Hospital location and socioeconomic disadvantage of emergency general surgery patients.
This study’s purpose was to test the hypothesis that a hospital’s neighborhood disadvantage is associated with vulnerability of its emergency general surgery (EGS) patients. An area deprivation index (ADI), which is a neighborhood-level measure of disadvantage, and key characteristics of 724 hospitals in 14 states were linked to patient-level data in State Inpatient Databases. Hospitals in more disadvantaged areas disproportionately serve underserved EGS patient populations but are less likely to have robust resources for EGS care or train future EGS surgeons.
Citation: Langston DM, Oslock WM, Paredes AZ . Hospital location and socioeconomic disadvantage of emergency general surgery patients. J Surg Res 2021 May;261:376-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2020.12.028..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Surgery, Social Determinants of Health, Vulnerable Populations, Critical Care, Safety Net
Kim D, Lee Y, Thorsness R
Racial and ethnic disparities in excess deaths among persons with kidney failure during the COVID-19 pandemic, March-July 2020.
This national study estimated excess deaths for the kidney failure population by race and ethnicity from March 1 through August 1, 2020. Findings showed that, among the US kidney failure population, the number of excess deaths was 16% higher than expected, similar to reports for the general population. However, results showed that the relative increase in deaths among Black and Hispanic patients was more than 4-fold higher than that observed among White patients. The magnitude of these disparities was larger than corresponding relative ratios reported among COVID-19–associated deaths in the general population.
Citation: Kim D, Lee Y, Thorsness R . Racial and ethnic disparities in excess deaths among persons with kidney failure during the COVID-19 pandemic, March-July 2020. Am J Kidney Dis 2021 May;77(5):827-29. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.02.003..
Keywords: COVID-19, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Mortality, Kidney Disease and Health, Chronic Conditions, Social Determinants of Health