Search All Research Studies
AHRQ Research Studies Date
AHRQ Research Studies
Sign up: AHRQ Research Studies Email updates
Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results526 to 550 of 11623 Research Studies Displayed
Jensen JL, Sweeney A, Gill C
Evaluation of patient access to Spanish-language-concordant care on a postpartum unit.
This study evaluated patient access to Spanish-language-concordant care on a postpartum unit and to identify facilitators and barriers to the use of interpretation services. This mixed-methods study included a chart review of 50 randomly selected birthing parent-newborn couplets and interviews with 14 inpatient health care team members, and semistructured interviews at a tertiary academic medical center in the southeastern United States. The chart review included examination of patient characteristics, health care team composition including Spanish language proficiency, length of stay, number of interpreter requests, and time between clinician interpreter requests and interpreter arrival on the unit. Access to an interpreter or clinician certified in medical Spanish was offered to 12 of 50 (24%) couplets upon admission to the unit and to 7 of 50 (14%) of couplets for daily maternal and newborn medical rounds. Clinicians reported on long and unpredictable wait times to access interpreters. Temporary solutions included relying on hand gestures, broken Spanish, and smartphone apps to "get by" when communicating with patients without certified interpretation services. These deviations from national standards may put postpartum families at risk for harm.
Citation: Jensen JL, Sweeney A, Gill C . Evaluation of patient access to Spanish-language-concordant care on a postpartum unit. Nurs Womens Health 2022 Dec;26(6):429-38. doi: 10.1016/j.nwh.2022.09.002.
Keywords: Maternal Care, Cultural Competence, Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication
Bergman ZR, Tignanelli CJ, Gould R
Factors associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 receiving prolonged ventilatory support.
This study examined outcomes for COVID-19 patients who required mechanical ventilation from March 2020 through December 2021 across a system of 11 hospitals. A cohort of 600 patients were included, with in-hospital mortality of 40.3%. Increased age, prolonged ventilation, receiving corticosteroids, and being non-English speaking were associated with mortality. Intubations lasting longer than 21 days had a lower in-hospital mortality of 25.7%.
Citation: Bergman ZR, Tignanelli CJ, Gould R . Factors associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 receiving prolonged ventilatory support. Surg Infect 2022 Dec;23(10):893-901. doi: 10.1089/sur.2022.195..
Keywords: COVID-19, Mortality, Respiratory Conditions
Parikh MA, Fabiyi C, Mistry KB
AHRQ Author: Fabiyi C, Mistry KB
Factors associated with postprocedure opioid prescribing and persistent opioid use among opioid-naive patients: A nationally representative sample.
This study’s objective was to examine factors associated with postprocedure opioid receipt and persistent opioid use among opioid-naive patients in a nationally representative sample. The authors used panels 18-20 in MEPS between the years 2013 and 2015. They found that younger age, Western location, and a high-school degree were associated with higher odds of postprocedure opioid receipt. Patients who had procedures in an inpatient, outpatient, and dental setting; or musculoskeletal diagnoses and injuries were more likely to have postprocedure opioid receipt. Persistent opioid use was associated with Midwest and Northeast location, musculoskeletal diagnosis, public insurance, and positive depression screening.
Citation: Parikh MA, Fabiyi C, Mistry KB . Factors associated with postprocedure opioid prescribing and persistent opioid use among opioid-naive patients: A nationally representative sample. Ann Surg 2022 Dec 1;276(6):e706-e13. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000004630..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), Opioids, Medication, Practice Patterns, Pain
Hinesley JLG, Brooks EM, O'Loughlin K
Feasibility of patient navigation for care planning in primary care.
The purpose of this study was to help better control chronic conditions by connecting patients with a navigator for support creating a personal care goal. Twenty-four clinicians in 12 practices in the Virginia Ambulatory Care Outcomes Research Network (ACORN) participated in a care planning intervention under a structured process that guided 87 patients with uncontrolled chronic conditions, trained navigators, and adapted the navigation process to meet the needs of each practice. Findings indicated that patient navigation to address care plans should be feasible, with a minimal time commitment and non-intensive training. However, given the burden and competing demands in primary care, this help cannot be offered without additional resources.
Citation: Hinesley JLG, Brooks EM, O'Loughlin K . Feasibility of patient navigation for care planning in primary care. J Prim Care Community Health 2022 Jan-Dec;13:21501319221134754. doi: 10.1177/21501319221134754..
Keywords: Primary Care, Chronic Conditions, Patient and Family Engagement
Keita Fakeye MB, Samuel LJ, Wolff JL
Financial contributions and experiences of non-spousal, employed family caregivers.
Investigators examined out-of-pocket spending among employed, retired, and unemployed caregivers. Using data from the 2015 National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and the National Study of Caregiving, they found that employed caregivers incur more out-of-pocket spending on caregiving than retired and unemployed counterparts. They concluded that caregiving exacerbates economic well-being among employed caregivers, particularly for those with socioeconomic vulnerability.
Citation: Keita Fakeye MB, Samuel LJ, Wolff JL . Financial contributions and experiences of non-spousal, employed family caregivers. J Appl Gerontol 2022 Dec;41(12):2459-68. doi: 10.1177/07334648221115261..
Keywords: Elderly, Caregiving, Healthcare Costs
Bolte TB, Swanson MB, Kaldjian AM
Hospitals that report severe sepsis and septic shock bundle compliance have more structured sepsis performance improvement.
This study linked survey data on quality improvement (QI) practices from Iowa hospitals to severe sepsis/septic shock (SEP-1) performance data and mortality. All Iowa hospitals (100%) completed the survey. SEP-1 reporting hospitals were more likely to have sepsis QI practices, including reporting sepsis quality to providers (64% versus 38%) and using the case review process to develop sepsis care plans. Increased SEP-1 scores were not associated with sepsis QI practices. A sepsis registry was associated with decreased odds of being in the bottom quartile of sepsis mortality, and presence of a sepsis committee was associated with lower hospital-specific mortality.
Citation: Bolte TB, Swanson MB, Kaldjian AM . Hospitals that report severe sepsis and septic shock bundle compliance have more structured sepsis performance improvement. J Patient Saf 2022 Dec 1;18(8):e1231-e36. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000001062..
Keywords: Sepsis, Hospitals, Quality Improvement, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality of Care
Canedo JR, Villalta-Gil V, Grijalva CG CG
How do Hispanics/Latinos perceive and value the return of research results?
This study’s objective was to examine differences among Hispanics/Latinos by education and income in the experience and expectations about the return of research results, perceived value of specific types of information, and the least and most valuable specific information. This retrospective observational design study used a cross-sectional national survey sample of Hispanics/Latinos (n = 327). Higher educational attainment and income were both positively associated with the perceived value of getting results. Higher education respondents specifically perceived greater value in information about how lifestyle and genetics affect their risk of disease, how genetics affect how they respond to medications, their ancestry, available clinical trials near them, and how to connect with other study participants.
Citation: Canedo JR, Villalta-Gil V, Grijalva CG CG . How do Hispanics/Latinos perceive and value the return of research results? Hisp Health Care Int 2022 Dec;20(4):238-47. doi: 10.1177/15404153211070821..
Keywords: Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Cultural Competence, Education: Patient and Caregiver
Cohen DJ, Balasubramanian BA, Lindner S
How does prior experience pay off in large-scale quality improvement initiatives?
This study’s goal was to examine the association of prior investment on the effectiveness of organizations delivering large-scale external support to improve primary care. A mixed-methods study was conducted with 7 EvidenceNOW grantees and their recruited primary practices (n = 1720). Data was analyzed on the grantees’ implementation of helping primary care practice improve (1) clinical quality, measured as practices' performance on Aspirin, Blood Pressure, Cholesterol, and Smoking (ABCS); and (2) practice capacity, measured using the Adaptive Reserve (AR) score and Change Process Capacity Questionnaire (CPCQ). Grantees with higher levels of prior experience with and investment in large-scale QI before EvidenceNOW recruited more geographically dispersed and diverse practices. They also had lower baseline ABCS performance (differences ranging from 2.8% for blood pressure to 41.5% for smoking), delivered more facilitation (mean=+20.3 hours), and made greater improvements in practices' QI capacity (CPCQ: +2.04) and smoking performance (+6.43%) than grantees with less experience. Having established networks of facilitators at the start of EvidenceNOW and leadership experienced in supporting this workforce explained their better recruitment, delivery of facilitation, and improvement in outcomes.
Citation: Cohen DJ, Balasubramanian BA, Lindner S . How does prior experience pay off in large-scale quality improvement initiatives? J Am Board Fam Med 2022 Dec; 35(6):1115-27. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2022.AP.220088..
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Primary Care, Quality of Care
A Wehbe, RM Wu, T
AHRQ Author: Tibrewala
Hyponatremia is a powerful predictor of poor prognosis in left ventricular assist device patients.
Researchers sought to investigate the prognostic value of serum sodium in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients and whether hyponatremia reflects worsening heart failure or an alternative mechanism. Heart failure patients who had undergone LVAD implantation 2008-2019 were identified; the researchers assessed for differences in hyponatremia before and after implantation. The findings suggested that hyponatremia in LVAD patients was associated with a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent heart failure hospitalizations. The researchers concluded that hyponatremia may be a marker of ongoing neurohormonal activation more sensitive than other lab values, echocardiography parameters, and hemodynamic measurements.
Citation: A Wehbe, RM Wu, T . Hyponatremia is a powerful predictor of poor prognosis in left ventricular assist device patients. ASAIO J 2022 Dec;68(12):1475-82. doi: 10.1097/mat.0000000000001691.
Keywords: Medical Devices, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions
Richards JE, Yarborough BJH, Holden E
Implementation of suicide risk estimation analytics to support mental health care for quality improvement.
The purpose of this mixed-methods quality improvement study was to examine and describe the use of estimation analytics to enhance existing suicide prevention practices during routine mental health specialty engagements. The study found that during the 3.5 month observation period there were 4,789 patient engagements by 1939 patients. This included 161 engagements newly identified by suicide risk estimation analytics. The researchers reported that the engagement-based risk identifications did not consistently trigger additional suicide risk assessment as intended. During newly identified engagements: 57 patients reported frequent suicidal ideation and, as per preexisting workflow, 54 completed a Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS); 75 patients reported no or infrequent suicidal ideation, but only 10 completed a C-SSRS, per new workflow; 29 patients did not answer the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and only 1 patient completed a C-SSRS, per new workflow. The providers interviewed (n = 8) reported important implementation concerns, including 1) lack of follow-up, 2) electronic health record- (EHR-) related inefficiencies, and 3) reliability and accuracy of the trigger. The patients interviewed (n = 20) repeated concerns about reliability and accuracy of estimation analytics. In addition, providers described concerns about access to care and potential liability associated with known suicide risk. Patients repeated the provider concerns about access and reported fears about identification of suicide risk resulting in coercive care. The researchers conclude that this unique quality improvement study underscores important implications for health care organizations considering implementation of estimation analytics to support engagement-based identification of suicide risk.
Citation: Richards JE, Yarborough BJH, Holden E . Implementation of suicide risk estimation analytics to support mental health care for quality improvement. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Dec;5(12):e2247195. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.47195..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Auty SG, Griffith KN, Shafer PR
Improving access to high-value, high-cost medicines: the use of subscription models to treat hepatitis C using direct acting antivirals in the United States.
This paper discusses the use of state-sponsored subscription models to support increased access to high-value medications such as direct acting antivirals (DAAs) which can cure chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV). The authors discuss the use of subscription models, a type of advanced purchase commitment (APC), to support increased access to high-value DAAs to treat HCV. They provide background information on HCV, its treatment, and state financing of prescription medications. They review the implementation of HCV subscription models in two states, Louisiana and Washington, and early evidence of their impact, as DAAs can cost upwards of $90,000 for treatment course.
Citation: Auty SG, Griffith KN, Shafer PR . Improving access to high-value, high-cost medicines: the use of subscription models to treat hepatitis C using direct acting antivirals in the United States. J Health Polit Policy Law 2022 Dec 1;47(6):691-708. doi: 10.1215/03616878-10041121..
Keywords: Hepatitis, Medication, Chronic Conditions, Access to Care
Marcaccio CL, Anjorin A, Patel PB
In-hospital outcomes after upper extremity versus transfemoral and transcarotid access for carotid stenting in the Vascular Quality Initiative.
This comparative study examined outcomes for treatment of patients at high risk of carotid endarterectomy using different approaches of carotid artery stenting (CAS). The study compared the effects of transradial or transbrachial (tr/tbCAS) versus more established transfemoral (tfCAS) or transcarotid (TCAR) CAS procedures. Patients were identified from the Quality Initiative registry from January 2016 to December 2021. Among 40,835 CAS identified patients, 962 underwent tr/tbCAS, 28,850 underwent tfCAS, and 21,033 underwent TCAR. Among matched patients who underwent tr/tbCAS versus tfCAS, there was no significant difference in the risk of stroke/death (4.1% vs 2.9), but tr/tbCAS was associated with a higher risk of death (2.4% vs 1.3). In the symptomatic subgroup, tr/tbCAS was associated with a higher risk of stroke/death (6.1% vs 3.9%) and death (3.6% vs 1.7%), but there were no differences in asymptomatic patients. After adjustment for Modified Rankin Scale in patients with preoperative stroke, there were no significant differences in stroke/death or death between groups.
Citation: Marcaccio CL, Anjorin A, Patel PB . In-hospital outcomes after upper extremity versus transfemoral and transcarotid access for carotid stenting in the Vascular Quality Initiative. J Vasc Surg 2022 Dec;76(6):1603-14.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.05.030..
Keywords: Stroke, Cardiovascular Conditions, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice, Comparative Effectiveness, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Saldanha IJ, Adam GP, Bañez LL
AHRQ Author: Bañez LL
Inclusion of nonrandomized studies of interventions in systematic reviews of interventions: updated guidance from the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality Effective Health Care program.
A guidance workgroup comprised systematic review experts utilized an informal consensus generation method to develop guidelines to inform decisions regarding the inclusion of nonrandomized studies of interventions (NRSIs) in systematic reviews (SRs) of the effects of interventions. The study found that varying topics may require varying decisions regarding NRSI inclusion. The researchers identified key considerations to inform the decisions; from refinement of topics through to development of protocols. During the scoping and refinement of topics, considerations were associated with the clinical decisional dilemma, adequacy of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to address the crucial questions, risk of bias in NRSIs, and the degree to which NRSIs are likely to complement RCTs. When NRSIs are included, during SR team formation, familiarity with topic-specific data sources and advanced analytic methods for NRSIs should be considered. During protocol development, the decision regarding NRSI inclusion or exclusion should be justified, and potential implications explained. When NRSIs are included, the protocol should describe the processes for synthesizing evidence from RCTs and NRSIs and determining the overall strength of evidence. CONCLUSION: We identified specific considerations for decisions regarding NRSI inclusion in SRs and highlight the importance of flexibility and transparency.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290-2017-00003 -C; 75Q80120D00001- 75Q8120D00003; 75Q80120D00005 - 75Q8120D00009.
Citation: Saldanha IJ, Adam GP, Bañez LL . Inclusion of nonrandomized studies of interventions in systematic reviews of interventions: updated guidance from the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality Effective Health Care program. J Clin Epidemiol 2022 Dec; 152:300-06. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2022.08.015..
Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice, Research Methodologies, Health Services Research (HSR)
Campbell JI, Tabatneck M, Sun M
Increasing use of interferon gamma release assays among children ≥2 years of age in a setting with low tuberculosis prevalence.
This article describes a retrospective cohort study that examined interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) use to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) infection in children aged 2–17. The objectives of the study were to evaluate whether testing approaches for TB has changed since 2015. Electronic health records were used to identify IGRAs and tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) completed by children in two Boston-area academic health systems. The researchers observed that the proportion of IGRA tests increased between 2015 and 2021 in this low TB-prevalence setting. Testing in public versus private insurance, inpatient/subspecialty settings, lower age, and non-English preferred language were associated with an increased chance of receiving an IGRA. Findings suggest that the TST is being “retired,” and that education and support for primary care clinicians could improve equitable access to IGRA testing for children.
Citation: Campbell JI, Tabatneck M, Sun M . Increasing use of interferon gamma release assays among children ≥2 years of age in a setting with low tuberculosis prevalence. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2022 Dec;41(12):e534-e37. doi: 10.1097/inf.0000000000003685..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Treatments, Respiratory Conditions, Infectious Diseases
Lewinski AA, Jazowski SA, Goldstein KM
Intensifying approaches to address clinical inertia among cardiovascular disease risk factors: a narrative review.
Researchers conducted a narrative literature review to identify individual-level and multifactorial interventions that have been successful in addressing clinical inertia. They found that, in order to reduce clinical inertia and achieve optimal cardiovascular disease risk factor control, interventions should consider the role of multiple representatives, be feasible for implementation in healthcare systems, and be flexible for an individual patient's adherence needs.
Citation: Lewinski AA, Jazowski SA, Goldstein KM . Intensifying approaches to address clinical inertia among cardiovascular disease risk factors: a narrative review. Patient Educ Couns 2022 Dec;105(12):3381-88. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2022.08.005..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Risk
Cheung PC, Kramer MR, Kempker JA
Intermediate or intensive care unit admission across race and ethnicity.
This study’s aim was to assess the association between race and ethnicity and admission to intermediate (IMCUs) or intensive care units (ICUs) among hospitalized patients. Florida hospital discharge data from the State Inpatient Database was used to assess the relationship between race (White, Black, Other) and Hispanic ethnicity and IMCU or ICU admission. After controlling for demographics and comorbidities, the prevalence of IMCU or ICU admission was higher among non-Hispanic Blacks and non-Hispanic patients of other races compared with non-Hispanic Whites. The prevalence of IMCU or ICU use was lower among Hispanic Whites and Hispanics of other races compared with non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for other demographic characteristics and comorbidities.
Citation: Cheung PC, Kramer MR, Kempker JA . Intermediate or intensive care unit admission across race and ethnicity. South Med J 2022 Dec;115(12):913-18. doi: 10.14423/smj.0000000000001487..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Encinosa W, Nguyen P
AHRQ Author: Encinosa W
Is the recent surge in physician-hospital consolidation finally producing cost-savings?
This article revisits earlier integration studies using IBM MarketScan data 2010–2016 to re-examine the relationship between primary care physicians integrated with hospitals and spending under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) during that period. The authors observe an association between physician-hospital integration and overall cost-savings, a reversal of the relationship noted in earlier studies. They recommend that future research examine the precise mechanism of physician-hospital clinical integration in greater detail.
Citation: Encinosa W, Nguyen P . Is the recent surge in physician-hospital consolidation finally producing cost-savings? J Gen Intern Med 2022 Dec;37(16):4289-91. doi: 10.1007/s11606-022-07634-x..
Keywords: Healthcare Costs, Provider: Physician, Hospitals, Primary Care
Carlile N, Fuller TE, Benneyan JC
Lessons learned in implementing a chronic opioid therapy management system.
This article describes a research collaborative of health service researchers, systems engineers, and clinicians that sought to improve processes for safer chronic opioid therapy management in an academic primary care center. The authors present implementation results and lessons learned along with an intervention toolkit that others may consider using within their organization. They designed, tested, and implemented two key safe opioid use process metrics-percent for patients with recent opioid treatment agreements and urine drug tests. Focus groups were conducted after the conclusion of the implementation. They found a general lack of knowledge regarding resources available to patients and prescribers in the primary care clinic. In addition, 69% of clinicians reported largely “inheriting” (rather than initiating) their chronic opioid therapy patients. They also tracked 68 patients over a 4-year period and found although process measures improved, full adherence was not achieved for the entire population. Barriers identified included team structure, the evolving opioid environment, and surveillance challenges, along with disruptions resulting from the 2019 novel coronavirus.
Citation: Carlile N, Fuller TE, Benneyan JC . Lessons learned in implementing a chronic opioid therapy management system. J Patient Saf 2022 Dec 1;18(8):e1142-e49. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000001039..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Pain, Chronic Conditions, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Practice Patterns
Pannucci CJ, Fleming KI, Varghese TK
Low anti-factor Xa level predicts 90-day symptomatic venous thromboembolism in surgical patients receiving enoxaparin prophylaxis: a pooled analysis of eight clinical trials.
This study examined whether low anti-factor Xa (aFXa) level predicts 90-day symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in surgical patients receiving enoxaparin prophylaxis. The authors conducted a pooled analysis of 8 clinical trials from a single institution over a 4-year period. Among 985 patients, 2.3% had symptomatic 90-day VTE, 4.2% had 90-day clinically relevant bleeding, and 2.1% had major bleeding. Patients with initial low aFXa were significantly more likely to have 90-day VTE than patients with adequate or high xFXa (4.2% vs 1.3%). This relationship was significant for patients who received enoxaparin twice daily as opposed to once a day. No association was seen between high xFXa and 90-day clinically relevant bleeding or major bleeding.
Citation: Pannucci CJ, Fleming KI, Varghese TK . Low anti-factor Xa level predicts 90-day symptomatic venous thromboembolism in surgical patients receiving enoxaparin prophylaxis: a pooled analysis of eight clinical trials. Ann Surg 2022 Dec 1;276(6):e682-e90. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000004589..
Keywords: Blood Thinners, Surgery, Medication, Blood Clots
Sachs RE, Jazowski SA, Gavulic KA
Medicaid and accelerated approval: spending on drugs with and without proven clinical benefits.
The purpose of this article was to assess what level of Medicaid programs' accelerated approval spending is expended on products that have verified clinical benefits versus those that do not. The study found evidence of states’ concerns that pharmaceutical companies frequently do not complete the mandatory post-approval confirmatory studies within the FDA's required timeline. The study also illuminated an issue often overlooked by policy stakeholders: the utilization of surrogate endpoints involved in the post-approval confirmatory studies for most of the sample products. The researchers reported that the detailed nature of their results allowed them to evaluate the impact of different policy recommendations and to inform the current policy debate.
Citation: Sachs RE, Jazowski SA, Gavulic KA . Medicaid and accelerated approval: spending on drugs with and without proven clinical benefits. J Health Polit Policy Law 2022 Dec 1;47(6):673-90. doi: 10.1215/03616878-10041107..
Keywords: Medicaid, Medication, Healthcare Costs
Strauss AT, Sidoti CN, Purnell TS
Multicenter study of racial and ethnic inequities in liver transplantation evaluation: understanding mechanisms and identifying solutions.
This multicenter study examined racial and ethnic inequities in liver transplantation. The authors recruited participants from the liver transplantation (LT) teams including coordinators, advanced practice providers, physicians, social workers, dieticians, pharmacists, leadership at 2 major LT centers. They conducted 54 interviews and had 49 observation hours. They created a conceptual framework describing how transplant work system characteristics and other external factors may improve equity in the LT evaluation process. They proposed transplant center-level solutions (i.e., including but not limited to training of staff on health equity) to modifiable barriers in the clinical work system that could help patient navigation, reduce disparities, and improve access to care. Their findings call for an urgent need for transplant centers, national societies, and policy makers to focus efforts on improving equity (tailored, patient-centered resources) using the science of human factors and systems engineering.
Citation: Strauss AT, Sidoti CN, Purnell TS . Multicenter study of racial and ethnic inequities in liver transplantation evaluation: understanding mechanisms and identifying solutions. Liver Transpl 2022 Dec;28(12):1841-56. doi: 10.1002/lt.26532..
Keywords: Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Transplantation, Disparities, Access to Care
Schuttner L, Hockett Sherlock S, Simons CE
My goals are not their goals: barriers and facilitators to delivery of patient-centered care for patients with multimorbidity.
This study’s goal was to clarify facilitators and barriers perceived by primary care physicians in the Veterans Health Administration to delivering patient-centered care for high-risk or complex patients with multimorbidity. The authors conducted semi-structured telephone interviews from April to July 2020 with 23 physicians across 20 clinical sites, with most being female (61%). Facilitators included: effective physician-patient communication to individualize care, prioritize among multiple needs, and elicit goals to improve patient engagement; access to care, enabled by interdisciplinary teams, and dictating personalized care planning; effortful but worthwhile care coordination and continuity; meeting complex needs through effective teamwork; and integrating medical and non-medical care aspects in recognition of patients' psychosocial contexts. Barriers included: intra- and interpersonal (e.g., perceived patient reluctance to engage in care); organizational (e.g., limited encounter time); and community or policy impediments (e.g., state decisional capacity laws) to patient-centered care.
Citation: Schuttner L, Hockett Sherlock S, Simons CE . My goals are not their goals: barriers and facilitators to delivery of patient-centered care for patients with multimorbidity. J Gen Intern Med 2022 Dec;37(16):4189-96. doi: 10.1007/s11606-022-07533-1..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Healthcare Delivery, Chronic Conditions, Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication, Patient and Family Engagement
Bell SK, Bourgeois F, Dong J
Patient identification of diagnostic safety blindspots and participation in "good catches" through shared visit notes.
The goal of this study was to investigate whether sharing clinical notes with patients supported identification of potential breakdowns in the diagnostic process that might be difficult for clinical staff to observe -- "diagnostic safety blindspots." Researchers analyzed patient-reported ambulatory documentation errors among patients at 3 U.S. healthcare centers. Older, female, unemployed, disabled, or sicker patients, or patients who worked in healthcare, were more likely to identify blindspots; patients who self-identified as Black, Asian, multiple races and those with less formal education as well as those who deferred decision-making to their providers were less likely to report blindspots. The researchers concluded that patients who read notes have unique insight about potential errors in their medical records and that organizations should encourage patient review of notes and create systems to track patient-reported blindspots.
Citation: Bell SK, Bourgeois F, Dong J . Patient identification of diagnostic safety blindspots and participation in "good catches" through shared visit notes. Milbank Q 2022 Dec; 100(4):1121-65. doi: 10.1111/1468-0009.12593..
Keywords: Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Patient Safety, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)
Temkin-Greener H, Mao Y, McGarry B
Patient safety culture in assisted living: staff perceptions and association with state regulations.
The purpose this study was to evaluate views on patient safety culture (PSC) among assisted living (AL) administrators and direct care workers (DCWs), and their relationships with state regulations. The researchers utilized the PSC instrument developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality to conduct a survey of administrators and DCWs working in assisted living communities serving Medicare beneficiary residents. Secondary data on ALs and residents were obtained from the Medicare Master Beneficiary Summary Files. Other data sources included: the Area Health Resource Files, a previous national AL directory, the US census, and a prior study citing AL regulations. 714 administrators and DCWs in 257 The study found that administrators' and DCWs' perspectives on PSC differed significantly across almost all domains. The researchers concluded that PSC is a relevant metric for evaluating organizational performance.
Citation: Temkin-Greener H, Mao Y, McGarry B . Patient safety culture in assisted living: staff perceptions and association with state regulations. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2022 Dec;23(12):1997-2022.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2022.09.007..
Keywords: Patient Safety, Elderly, Long-Term Care, Policy
De B, Pasalic D, Barocas DA
Patient-reported outcomes after external beam radiotherapy with low dose rate brachytherapy boost vs radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer: five-year results from a prospective comparative effectiveness study.
The purpose of this study was to compare patient reported outcomes through 5 years following radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy with low dose rate brachytherapy boost for localized prostate cancer. The researchers enrolled men 80 years of age or under who had localized prostate adenocarcinoma and followed them longitudinally from 2011 to 2012. The study found that when compared with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy with low dose rate brachytherapy boost was related with clinically meaningful worse urinary irritative/obstructive and better urinary incontinence function through 5 years. Urinary function bother was similar between groups. Treatment with external beam radiation therapy with low dose rate brachytherapy boost was associated with worse bowel function through 5 years compared to radical prostatectomy. Treatment with external beam radiation therapy with low dose rate brachytherapy boost was associated with better sexual function at 1 year compared to radical prostatectomy, but there was insufficient evidence to reject the supposition that no difference was seen at 3 or 5 years. The researcher concluded that external beam radiation therapy with low dose rate brachytherapy boost was related with clinically meaningful worse urinary irritative/obstructive and bowel functions but better urinary incontinence function through 5 years after treatment compared to radical prostatectomy.
AHRQ-funded; HS019356; HS022640.
Citation: De B, Pasalic D, Barocas DA . Patient-reported outcomes after external beam radiotherapy with low dose rate brachytherapy boost vs radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer: five-year results from a prospective comparative effectiveness study. J Urol 2022 Dec;208(6):1226-39. doi: 10.1097/ju.0000000000002902..
Keywords: Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Cancer, Comparative Effectiveness, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Treatments