2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report

Chapter 7, Text Descriptions for Figures

Figure 7.1. Adults age 65 and over who received potentially inappropriate prescription medications in the calendar year, by race/ethnicity and gender, 2002-2009

Race/Ethnicity20022003200420052006200720082009
Non-Hispanic, White19.8191717.615.915.813.313.2
Non-Hispanic, Black18.917.616.818.918.114.715.415.7
Hispanic (All Races)18.113.213.813.513.514.214.411.7

 

Gender20022003200420052006200720082009
Male15.413.412.814.312.311.810.510.7
Female22.222.319.720.218.418.115.615.4

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 65 and over.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Prescription medications received include all prescribed medications initially purchased or otherwise obtained, as well as any refills. Whites and Blacks are non-Hispanic. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 7.2. Potentially avoidable hospitalization rates for adults, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2001-2009

Race/Ethnicity200120022003200420052006200720082009
White143314471381135713851283127812601219
Black328632582847299527532728276425742553
API1051107310211072901788828811746
Hispanic171221262206210519081649161213761407

 

Area Income200120022003200420052006200720082009
1st Quartile (lowest)210721412211208420902073198819461932
2nd Quartile173818021693161915981551150314871427
3rd Quartile140315071406133813761288127212481206
4th Quartile (highest)131712631203119312491155107610971054

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases disparities analysis file, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, modified version 4.1, 2001-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized adults age 18 and over.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Annual rates are adjusted for age and gender. White, Black, and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are non-Hispanic. Income quartiles are based on median income of ZIP Code of patient's residence.

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Figure 7.3. Potentially avoidable emergency department rates, by sex and area income, 2007-2009

Sex200720082009
Total362136423681
Male292829182903
Female432543754463

 

Area Income200720082009
Lowest Income Quartile492450975180
Second Quartile388840374073
Third Quartile323330683149
Highest Income Quartile245124432377

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, 2007-2009.
Denominator: Adults age 18 and over.
Note: Annual rates are adjusted for age and gender.

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Figure 7.4. Rate of emergency department visits with a principal diagnosis related to mental health and alcohol or substance abuse, per 100,000 population, by gender and area income, 2009

GenderMental HealthSubstance Abuse
Total1170518
Male1108714
Female1229328
Area Income
Lowest income quartile1598666
Second quartile1284550
Third quartile1023449
Highest income quartile764405

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, 2009.
Denominator:
U.S. population.
Note:
For this measure, lower rates are better. Substance abuse includes visits for co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders.

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Figure 7.5. Rate of emergency department visits with a principal diagnosis related to dental issues, per 100,000 population, by gender and area income, 2009

Gender / Area IncomeRate
Total307
Male304
Female306
Lowest income quartile452
Second quartile387
Third quartile238
Highest income quartile111

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, 2009.
Denominator: U.S. population.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better.

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Figure 7.6. Excess number of potentially preventable hospitalizations, by race/ethnicity, 2009

Potentially Preventable HospitalizationsWhiteBlackHispanic
Expected at Best Rate1,305,592219,761259,091
Excess649,097469,078188,511

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, modified version 4.1, 2009.

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Figure 7.7. Excess number of potentially preventable hospitalizations, by income, 2009

Potentially Preventable HospitalizationsFirst Quartile (lowest)Second QuartileThird QuartileFourth Quartile (highest)
Expected at Best Rate466,661485,052476,129460,991
Excess640,616365,064228,999135,670

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Figure 7.8. Perforated appendixes per 1,000 admissions for appendicitis, age 18 and over, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2004-2009

Race/Ethnicity20042005200720082009
Non-Hispanic, White287.8282.8271.3275.7275.4
Non-Hispanic, Black308.7317.3302.1298.2291.7
API266.8270.3268.5261.9262.7
Hispanic (all races)291.8283.3276.2271.9258.2

 

Area Income20042005200720082009
High Income Quartile272.5270.5257250266.3
Middle Income Quartile291280.7283.4268278.7
Near Poor Income Quartile302.4292.8282.9281.3274.9
Lowest Income Quartile313.9305.1300286.4282.3

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases disparities analysis file, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, and 2009.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Data for 2006 were not available this year, because a new version of the PQI software was used to calculate rates and 2006 was not included in the calculation.

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Figure 7.9. Perforated appendixes per 1,000 admissions for appendicitis, age 18 and over, in IHS, Tribal, and contract hospitals, by age and gender, 2004-2010

Age2004200520062007200820092010
18-44268.7254.8247.8275.4219.8263.5208.9
45-64415.9469.8356.2509.7387.9407.9424.6
65+514.3428.6560583.3656.3555.6457.1

 

Gender2004200520062007200820092010
Total363.3355.8332.6402.7347.7353.4324.1
Male309.2355.6315378.2333.3327.3315.6
Female312.3277.2253.4309.2229279.0250.0

Source: Indian Health Service, National Patient Information Reporting System, National Data Warehouse, Workload and Population Data Mart, 2004-2010.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. The total for each year is age adjusted.

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Current as of May 2013
Internet Citation: 2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report: Chapter 7, Text Descriptions for Figures. May 2013. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr12/chap7-text.html