Leadership: Instructor Materials

TeamSTEPPS Long-Term Care Version: Module 3

The Long-Term Care version of TeamSTEPPS adapts the core concepts of the TeamSTEPPS program to reflect the environment of nursing homes and other other long-term care settings such as assisted living and continuing care retirement communities. The examples, discussions, and exercises below are tailored to the long-term care environment.

Contents


Slide 1: Leadership

Penguin dressed as a doctor.

Leadership: the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it.

— Dwight D. Eisenhower

Subsections

  • Types of Team Leaders.
  • Roles of Team Leaders.
  • Resource Management.
  • Delegation.
  • Team Leader Strategies (Briefs, Huddles, and Debriefs).
  • Conflict Resolution.
  • Teamwork Actions.

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Slide 2: Objectives

Objectives: Describe different types of team leaders. Describe roles and responsibilities of an effective team leader. Describe the leader's role in resource management. Describe the delegation process. Describe strategies for team leaders to include briefs, huddles, and debriefs. Describe how effective team leaders facilitate conflict resolution. Identify the barriers, tools, strategies, and outcomes of leadership.

Icon of a clock.Module Time: 40 Minutes

Say:

In this module, we will:

  • Describe different types of team leaders.
  • Describe the roles and responsibilities of an effective team leader.
  • Describe the leader's role in resource management.
  • Describe the delegation process.
  • Describe strategies for team leaders to use, including briefs, huddles, and debriefs.
  • Describe how effective team leaders facilitate conflict resolution.
  • Identify the barriers, tools, strategies, and outcomes of leadership.

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Slide 3: TeamSTEPPS Framework

TeamSTEPPS logo. For details, go to [D] Text Description.

[D] Select for Text Description

Say:

Leadership is the linchpin that holds a teamwork system together. Effective leaders create the climate that allows teamwork to flourish. The actions of leaders are intimately linked to the other three essential elements of teamwork:

  • First, leaders must constantly monitor the situation to better anticipate team members' needs and effectively manage the resources to meet those needs.
  • Second, leaders must communicate effectively with their team members to model appropriate behavior and reinforce and reward that behavior when it is exhibited by team members.
  • Third, leaders must foster an environment of mutual support by role-modeling and reinforcing the use of those types of behaviors.

Leaders also have a responsibility to support the resident care team.

Leadership has been identified by team researchers as an important piece in the teamwork skills puzzle. Salas and colleagues point out that leaders "impact team effectiveness not by handing down solutions to teams, rather by facilitating team problem-solving through cognitive processes (e.g., shared mental models), coordination processes (e.g., environmental monitoring, resource management), and the team's collective motivation and behaviors (e.g., performance expectations)."

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Slide 4: Team Leader

Team Leader. Two types of leaders: Designated—The person assigned to lead and organize a designated core team, establish clear goals, and facilitate open communication and teamwork among team members. Situational—Any team member who has the skills to manage the situation-at-hand.

Say:

Team leaders are well-informed team members who make decisions and take actions. Team leaders establish the goals of the team and help maintain its focus. There are two types of leaders.

The first type is the designated team leader. For a team to function successfully, a leader must be designated. This leader must possess the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to achieve the established goals.

The second type is the situational leader. Designated leadership may change depending upon the situation. Situational leaders emerge at designated times, such as during care planning, and at spontaneous times, for instance, the first responder to an emergency.

In effective teams, any member of the team with the skills to best manage the situation can assume the role of situational leader. Once the situation has been resolved or the designated leader is ready to assume control, the situational leader again assumes the role of team member.

Ask:

  • Are there designated team leaders on your unit?
  • Is the role of team leader acknowledged and understood by team members?
  • How do leaders' roles change from situation to situation?
  • Can the roles of the designated leader and situational leader be better defined on your unit, work area, or department?

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Slide 5: Effective Team Leaders

Effective Team Leaders: Organize the team. Articulate clear goals. Make decisions through collective input of members. Empower members to speak up and challenge, when appropriate. Actively promote and facilitate good teamwork. Skillful at conflict resolution.

Say:

Team leaders must possess a set of effective skills regardless of the type of team that they lead. Team leaders should be able to effectively:

  • Organize the team.
  • Articulate clear goals.
  • Make decisions based on input of team members.
  • Empower team members to speak up and openly challenge when appropriate.
  • Promote and facilitate good teamwork.
  • Resolve conflict.

Evidence also suggests that effective team leaders:

  • Are responsible for ensuring that team members are sharing information, monitoring situational cues, resolving conflicts, and helping each other when needed.
  • Manage resources to ensure team performance.
  • Facilitate team actions by communicating through informal exchange sessions.
  • Develop norms for information sharing.
  • Ensure that team members are aware of situational changes to plans.

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Slide 6: Resource Management Is...

Resource Management is... A strategy for achieving workload balance within and across teams in a unit. Refers to people, knowledge or information, materials and time that can be drawn upon to accomplish a task. Goal is to prevent work overload situations that compromise situation awareness and increase the risk of error.

Say:

Resource management is the active handling of resources available to teams. These resources can include time, people, equipment, and information. The goal of resource management is to make best use of all available resources to increase situation awareness among team members and decrease the risk of error.

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Slide 7: Resource Management

Penguin medical team in center of chart represents Human Capital. Surrounding Human Capital are Core Team Leader (Information [resident and family; plan of care; and facilities], time, and equipment), Coordinating Team Leader (information [administrative, facilities] time, equipment, resident flow, and other departments), FOCUS (team and your unit), and FOCUS (support units).

Icon showing an exclamation point in a box.Key Point: Resource management is a key component of team leadership.

Say:

This slide depicts the responsibilities of the core and the coordinating team leaders in managing resources. Management of resources within the department and across teams is primarily a function of the coordinating team leader. The core team leader manages resources within the team.

Some methods of resource management may include:

  • Determining available resources and requirements.
  • Prioritizing tasks that need to be completed.
  • Collaborating within or across teams to develop a plan for the use of resources.
  • Anticipating potential problems with the plan.
  • Revising the plan as necessary.

Ask:

  • How do your unit, work area, or department team leaders handle the items listed on this slide?
  • What has been effective and what has not been effective?

Examples:

  • Consider a situation in which a nursing assistant calls out sick on a 60-bed unit. Due to the illness of the nursing assistant, the unit is working with eight nursing assistants instead of the usual nine:
    • Who is responsible for securing the replacement nursing assistant for the shift?
    • How are the nursing assistant assignments redistributed so that the workload is optimally distributed between teams or people?
    • Are there additional staff that can assist with nonclinical tasks? How are they contacted?
    • Has an "on-call" replacement nursing assistant been secured for tomorrow's shift as a contingency plan?
    • Is all necessary equipment functioning and readily available?

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Slide 8: Delegation

Delegation: Method of re-distributing tasks or assignments. Process includes 4 steps: 1. Decide what to delegate. 2. Decide to whom to delegate. 3. Communicate clear expectations. 4. Request feedback. Right side of slide shows penguin doctor with clipboard in conversation with two penguins wearing scrub tops.

Say:

Delegation is a method of redistributing tasks or resident/nursing assignments. Delegation can occur within and between teams and be utilized across all role groups depending on the task requirements. There are four steps to the delegation process:

  • Determine what to delegate:
    • Consider priorities, work requirements, and availability of resources.
  • Determine to whom to delegate:
    • Consider skill, availability, scope of practice.
  • Communicate clear expectations of what needs to be done:
    • Communicate the plan, as well as the tasks to be completed.
  • Request feedback:
    • Verify task completion and outcomes.
    • Recognize achievement.

Ask:

  • How do your unit team leaders handle the items listed on this slide?
  • What has been effective and what has not been effective?

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Slide 9: Promoting and Modeling Teamwork

Promoting and Modeling Teamwork. Effective leaders cultivate desired team behaviors and skills through: Open sharing of information; Role modeling and effectively cueing team members to employ prescribed teamwork behaviors and skills; Constructive and timely feedback; and Facilitation of briefs, huddles, debriefs, and conflict resolution.

Say:

Effective team leaders cultivate desired team behaviors and skills through:

  • Facilitating information sharing:
    • Briefs.
    • Huddles.
    • Debriefs.
  • Facilitating mutual support:
    • Delegating tasks.
  • Facilitating conflict resolution:
    • Providing constructive and timely feedback.
  • Facilitating situation awareness:
    • Identifying important aspects of the plan.
    • Conducting briefs, huddles, and debriefs.
  • Serving as a role model:
    • Effectively role-model the desired teamwork behaviors and skills.
Icon showing an exclamation point in a box.Key Point: To be effective, team leaders must model the behavior that they would like their team members to perform and reinforce those behaviors.

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Slide 10: Exercise: Leadership

Exercise: Leadership. Instructions: Begin by selecting a leader and scribe for your group. The group will have ten minutes to address the questions, record your answers, and report back to the group at large.

ExerciseExercise: Leadership

Do:

  • Have participants form groups and discuss the questions. (7 minutes).
  • Then reconvene group and facilitate discussion of the following questions.

Icon of a talk balloon. Discussion:

  • What characteristics, attitudes, or skills made the leaders that you have known effective and successful?
  • If there was room for improvement, what could they have done to be more effective?
  • Does your group feel that leadership can be learned or taught or is it an innate skill?
  • What one characteristic is most important to the success of effective leaders?
Icon of a clock.Time: 15 Minutes

Icon of a pencil tip.Materials: Leadership Exercise Sheet

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Slide 11: Team Events

Team Events. Briefs--planning; Huddles--problem solving; and Debriefs--process improvement. Leaders are responsible to assemble the team and facilitate team events. But remember... Anyone can request a brief, huddle, or debrief.

Say:

Three strategies that team leaders can use to promote teamwork are:

  • Briefs.
  • Huddles.
  • Debriefs.

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Slide 12: Briefs

Briefs. Planning: Form the team; Designate team roles and responsibilities; Establish climate and goals; and Engage team in short and long-term planning. At right is photo of a medical team in hallway briefing prior to treating resident. At bottom right is penguin director icon to denote a video link.

Say:

Briefs are held for planning purposes, which is sometimes referred to as a team meeting.

The designated team leader is responsible for organizing a 3-5 minute brief to discuss essential team information. The following information should be discussed in a brief:

  • Team membership and roles—who is on the team and who is the designated team leader.
  • Clinical status of the team's residents—the current condition, plan of care, and schedule of each resident assigned to the team are reviewed.
  • Team goals, pitfalls, and barriers—what is to be accomplished and who is to do it.
  • Issues affecting team operations—resources normally available that may be restricted during the current shift.

Performance goals are an intrinsic part of the team's purpose. Successful teams measure their effectiveness in terms of goal achievement. Performance goals are typically established during the team brief. The designated team leader facilitates the process, and team members actively participate to establish both clinical and team work goals.

Icon of two stars in circles. Do: Play the video by selecting the director icon on the slide.

Icon of a talk balloon. Discussion:

  • Who is the team leader?
    Gayle Patel, the nurse manager. She reviewed the activities of the day and highlighted the clinical status of one resident who was found wandering during the night, which was a change for this resident.
  • Did the team develop a comprehensive plan for Mrs. Smith?
    Yes. The nurse manager instructs the nursing assistant in the plan of care for Mrs. Smith. The nursing assistant is to watch her and encourage rest periods.
  • Did the team address contingencies?
    Yes, the nurse explained that the resident may have an infection brewing and to encourage fluids.
Icon showing an exclamation point in a box.Key Point: Planning is an important first step in understanding who is on your team, what needs to be done, and any issues that need to be resolved or considered in order to operate.

Video TimeVideo Time: 0:45 seconds

Icon of a pencil tip.Materials: Brief_LTC Video

Icon of sheets of paper. Customizable Content

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Slide 13: Planning Essentials for Teams

Planning Essentials for Teams: Leader usually initiates the planning process. Team members are included in the planning process. Team members have a common understanding of the problem and their roles.

Say:

The team leader usually initiates the planning process, but any core team member can do so.

Team members are included in the planning process or are informed of the team's plan.

Planning ensures that team members have a common understanding of the plan of care and any potential problems, along with an understanding of their roles in carrying out the solution.

Involvement of all team members in the planning process is essential because team members need to know what is going on, where the team is headed, and what tasks need to be performed.

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Slide 14: Briefing Checklist

At left is photograph of medical team receiving a briefing. At right is a Briefing Checklist. Topic: Who is on core team? All members understand and agree upon goals? Roles and responsibilities understood? Plan of care? Staff availability? Workload? Available resources?

Say:

Similar to a preflight checklist used in aviation, during a brief, the team leader should cover the items on the checklist. As in aviation, the briefings before flights provide the ideal forum for building a team dynamic that allows everyone to work together when carrying out routine tasks and when tackling unexpected problems.

Briefs serve the following purposes:

  • They clarify who will be leading the team so that others know to whom to look for guidance.
  • They open lines of communication among team members, ensuring that everyone can contribute their unique knowledge base to the task, and thereby set the tone for the upcoming day or shift. Protocols, responsibilities, and expected behaviors are discussed and reinforced so that possible misunderstandings are avoided.
  • They prepare the team for the flow of the shift/day/event, contingency plans, and the means for resolving any unusual circumstances.
  • By delineating expectations, they reduce disruptive or unexpected behaviors.

Ask:

  • Have you participated in a brief? Did the items on this checklist occur? If not, what was not done?

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Slide 15: Huddle

Huddle--Problem solving: Hold ad hoc, 'touch-base' meetings to regain situation awareness. Discuss critical issues and emerging events. Anticipate outcomes and likely contingencies. Assign resources. Express concerns. Two images are at right: 1. Five penguins in football uniforms, huddling for discussion. 2. Medical team in hallway conference. At bottom right is penguin director icon to denote a video link.

Say:

The huddle is a tool for reinforcing the plans already in place for the treatment of residents and for assessing the need to change plans. It serves as a tool for developing shared understanding between team members of the plan of care. It also provides team leaders with an opportunity to informally monitor resident and unit-level situations. In other words, it is a formal way of checking in and updating the team.

Information will change over time and that will require monitoring and updating of the team. Note that a sudden increase in the activity level of an individual or the team indicates the need to reevaluate workload status. Workload distribution may need to be adjusted on the basis of this information.

Information updates within the team should occur as often as necessary. Updates can take the form of a huddle at the nurses' station or can occur between individual team members whenever new information needs to be shared.

Example:

The second shift team working together on the secured dementia unit has been reporting gastrointestinal symptoms for multiple residents. During a huddle, the team leader identifies that most of the residents are sick. She informs the team that infection control and housekeeping have been alerted and dietary will be delivering extra fluids to the unit. The team is informed that the evening meal will be restricted to in-room dining only and group activities have been canceled. She checks in with how the team is feeling and reviews the symptoms to monitor.

Icon of two stars in circles. Do: Play the video by selecting the director icon on the slide.

Icon of a talk balloon. Discussion:

  • What event necessitated the need for the huddle?
    • The nurse manager instructed the nursing assistant to encourage fluids in case there was an infection.
  • What key information was shared in the huddle?
    • The resident did not accept the drinks offered and ate only a small portion of her breakfast. Also, that she has a cough and is not acting like herself.
Icon showing an exclamation point in a box.Key Point: Huddles provide team members with an opportunity to update each other on emerging or significant changes in the status of the environment so all team members can adapt appropriately.

Video TimeVideo Time: 0:25 seconds

Icon of a pencil tip.Materials: Huddle_LTC video

Icon of sheets of paper. Customizable Content

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Slide 16: Debrief

Debrief -- Process Improvement: Brief, informal information exchange and feedback sessions; Occur after an event or shift; Designed to improve teamwork skills; Designed to improve outcomes. An accurate reconstruction of key events; Analysis of why the event occurred; What should be done differently next time.

Say:

Debriefs include:

  • Accurate recounting and documentation of key events.
  • Analysis of why the event occurred, what worked, and what did not work.
  • Discussion of lessons learned and how they will alter the plan next time.
  • Establishment of a method to formally change the existing plan to incorporate lessons learned.

Debriefs are most effective when conducted in an environment where honest mistakes are viewed as learning opportunities. Debriefs should be the subject of a brief (about 3 minutes or less) team event typically initiated and facilitated by the team leader. Debriefs are most useful when they relate to specific team goals or address particular issues related to recent actions of the team. Debriefs also maintain effectiveness by not assigning blame or failure to an individual.

Although the debrief is meant to be a process improvement tool, at times it may be necessary to conduct a complete process review and system redesign if the same issues or events continue to reoccur. These recurring issues may be identified during a debrief and could then be mapped out and assessed at a designated time in the near future.

While you strive to have a flexible and adaptive team, be cautious of creating workaround processes to accommodate certain issues.

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Slide 17: Debrief Checklist

Debrief Checklist. At left, Penguin coach describing play on chalkboard for three penguin players in uniform. Textbox: Communication clear? Check. Roles and responsibilities understood? Check. Situation awareness maintained? Check. Workload distribution? Check. Did we ask for or offer assistance? Check. Were errors made or avoided? Check. What went well, what should change, what can improve? Check.

Say:

How to conduct a debrief:

  • Facilitate the discussion as a leader by asking questions related to team performance. What did we do well?
  • Recap the situation, background, and key events that occurred.

As a team, assess how the following played a role in the performance of the team:

  • Team leadership.
  • Situation awareness.
  • Mutual support.
  • Communication.

Then summarize lessons learned and set goals for improvement.

This checklist can be used by the team during a debriefing to ensure that all information is discussed.

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Slide 18: Debrief Video

Debrief. Medical team in hallway being debriefed. At bottom right is penguin director icon to denote a video link.

Say:

Debriefing immediately facilitates the discussion among team members who have an opportunity to share lessons learned and valuable feedback with the entire team.

Icon of two stars in circles. Do: Play the video by selecting the director icon on the slide.

Video TimeVideo Time: 0:61 Seconds

Icon of a pencil tip.Materials: Debrief_Subacute Video

Icon of sheets of paper. Customizable Content

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Slide 19: Debrief Video (continued)

Icon of a talk balloon. Discussion:

  • What were some of the positive effects from this debrief?
    • Team members provided feedback on other team members' actions that were most helpful.
    • Team member offered suggestion for future training to further improve performance.
    • All team members were encouraged to participate.
    • Reinforced that teamwork skills produce good outcomes.
  • Describe the tone set for the debrief:
    • Set a positive tone for open communication.
    • Encouraged feedback.
    • Facilitated lessons learned.
    • Reinforced team behaviors and successes with the team.

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Slide 20: Facilitating Conflict Resolution

Facilitating Conflict Resolution: Effective leaders facilitate conflict resolution techniques through invoking: Two-Challenge rule; and DESC script. Effective leaders also assist by: Helping team members master conflict resolution techniques; and Serving as a mediator.

Say:

Conflict is inevitable and can be caused by differences in clinical knowledge, work approaches, values, opinions, or personality. Resolution of conflict is necessary in the delivery of safe, quality care. Leadership skill in conflict resolution can enhance team effectiveness and performance. An effective team leader does not allow interpersonal or irrelevant issues to negatively impact the team.

NoteInstructor Note: The Mutual Support module provides specific strategies for resolving conflict (i.e., Two-Challenge rule and DESC script).

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Slide 21: Team Formation Video—Optional

Team Formation Video. Female nurse and four female staff members talking. At bottom right is penguin director icon to denote a video link.

Say:

Now that we've discussed the importance that leadership plays in creating positive teamwork outcomes, let's watch the entire case of Mrs. Smith under the care of a team that utilizes effective and timely leadership strategies, including:

  • Briefs.
  • Huddles.
  • Briefing Checklists.
  • Conflict Resolution.
  • Debrief.

Icon of two stars in circles. Do: Play the video by selecting the director icon on the slide.

Additional Content: Sub-Acute Care Team Success video is also playable from this slide.

Video TimeVideo Time: 8:43 minutes

Icon of a pencil tip.Materials: TeamSTEPPS Successful Outcomes_LTC Video

Icon of sheets of paper. Customizable Content

 

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Slide 22: Team Formation Video—Optional (continued)

Icon of a talk balloon. Discussion:

  • What leadership tools were utilized?
    • Brief at the beginning of the shift to establish the nurse manager as leader and prepare the team for the shift.
    • Huddle with nurse manager and nursing assistant to follow up on the status of Mrs. Smith.
  • How was leadership demonstrated?
    • Nurse manager used brief and huddle.
    • Supervisor provided feedback to Jennifer when she reported using the Two-Challenge rule without success.
  • Was conflict resolution needed?
    • Jennifer used DESC script to express her feelings when Carmen dismissed her concerns about Mrs. Smith.

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Slide 23: Leadership

Leadership. Three column table: Column 1-Barriers: Hierarchical Culture; Lack of Resources or Information; Ineffective Communication; Conflict. Column 2-Tools and Strategies: Brief; Huddle; Debrief. Column 3-Outcomes: Shared Mental Model; Adaptability; Team Orientation; Mutual Trust.

Say:

Within this module, we identified some barriers to effective leadership. Some tools and strategies were introduced to overcome these barriers. The outcomes of effective leadership are a shared mental model, adaptability, team orientation, and mutual trust.

Effective leadership in teams results in:

  • Increased mutual trust.
  • Better developed common understanding among team members through information sharing.
  • Quicker adaptation by the team to changing situations through an improved ability to predict and anticipate.
  • Better utilization of resources—more likely to have resources when needed through planning.
  • Increased ability to learn from situations in resident care.
  • Improved climate of teamwork developed through praise, encouragement, feedback, and empowerment.

Leaders have an impact on team effectiveness by ensuring that all changes in information are shared and understood by team members. They also ensure that teams and team members have the resources necessary to perform the task required.

Leaders must ensure that information sharing, monitoring, helping, and other team actions are taking place by reinforcing shared mental models and by modeling actions for team members. Leaders must provide team members with the appropriate human and material resources (e.g., team member with proper skills) to perform. Facilitating team actions aids in the development of shared mental models, while managing resources ensures that teams can be adaptable when necessary.

Icon showing an exclamation point in a box.Key Point: Team leaders must ensure information is being shared, all team members have the resources they need to do their job, the situation within the work environment is continually monitored, and appropriate behaviors are modeled and reinforced across the team.

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Slide 24: Teamwork Actions

Teamwork Actions: Empower team members to speak freely and ask questions; Utilize resources efficiently to maximize team performance; Balance workload within the team; Delegate tasks or assignments, as appropriate; Conduct briefs, huddles, and debriefs; and Utilize conflict resolution techniques (i.e., Two-Challenge rule and DESC script).

Say:

  • Empower team members to speak freely and ask questions.
  • Utilize resources efficiently to maximize team performance.
  • Balance workload within the team.
  • Promote and model teamwork.
  • Delegate tasks or assignments, as appropriate.
  • Conduct briefs, huddles, and debriefs.

Ask:

What teamwork actions will you begin to implement?

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Slide 25: References

DeChurch, L. A. and M. A. Marks. "Teams Leading Teams: Examining the Role of Leadership in Multi-Team Systems." Journal of Applied Psychology 89. 2003.

Fleishman, E. A., M. D. Mumford, S. J. Zaccaro, et al. "Taxonomic Efforts in the Description of Leader Behavior: A Synthesis and Functional Interpretation." Leadership Quarterly 2: 245, 1991.

Harris, T. C. and J. L. Barnes-Farrell. "Components of Teamwork: Impact on Evaluations of Contributions to Work Team Effectiveness." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 27, 1694-1715. 1997.

Kozlowski, S. W. and B. S. Bell. "Work Groups and Teams in Organizations." Borman, W. C., D. R. Ilgen, D. R., and R. Klimoski. In Comprehensive Handbook of Psychology: Vol. 12 Industrial and Organizational Psychology. New York, Wiley.

McGrath, J. E. "The Influence of Quasi-Therapeutic Relations on Adjustment and Effectiveness in Rifle Teams." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 65, 365-375. 1962.

Morgeson, F. P. "Leading as Event Management: Toward a New Conception of Team Leadership." Poster session presented at meeting of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, St. Louis, MO. 1997.

Salas, E., C. S. Burke, and K. C. Stagl. "Developing Teams and Team Leaders: Strategies and Principles." Leader Development for Transforming Organizations. Edited by Demaree, R. G., S. J. Zaccaro, and S. M. Halpin. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, NJ, 2004.

Sims, D. E., E. Salas, and C. S. Burke. "Is There a 'Big Five' in Teamwork?" 19th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 4. Chicago, IL, 2004.

Sundstrom, E. "Supporting Work Team Effectiveness: Best Management Practices for Fostering High Performance." Jossey-Bass, Inc., San Francisco, CA, 1-1-1999.

Tjosvold, D. "Flight Crew Collaboration to Manage Safety Risks." Group and Organization Studies 15, 177-191. 1990.

Zaccaro, S. J., A. L. Rittman, and M. A. Marks. "Team Leadership." Leadership Quarterly, 12: 451, 2001.

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Current as of November 2012
Internet Citation: Leadership: Instructor Materials: TeamSTEPPS Long-Term Care Version: Module 3. November 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education/curriculum-tools/teamstepps/longtermcare/module3/igltcleadership.html