Table 16B: Outcome Indicators by State Socioeconomic Status

Assessing the Health and Welfare of the HCBS Population

Table 16: Outcome Indicators by County and State Socioeconomic Status, 2005a

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HCBS SubpopulationOutcome IndicatorMedian
Income
Percent in
Poverty
Supply of
Federally Qualified
Health Centers
per Capita
Percent of
People 65+ Living
Alone
Percent Female
Labor Force
Participation
>Median≤Median>Median≤Median>Median≤Median>Median≤Median>Median≤Median
National HCBS PopulationShort-Term Complications of Diabetes254342287293360263337249294284
Asthma or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease3,3144,7203,8963,7824,5173,6324,8063,1164,3653,428
Congestive Heart Failure4,4466,1935,1804,9995,5544,9795,6814,6935,4934,815
Composite: Potentially Preventable Infection6,8549,8577,9938,1348,8397,7428,6527,5378,7657,390
    Bacterial Pneumonia4,2695,9534,8895,0385,5954,6915,4064,5505,3494,562
    Urinary Tract Infection2,5853,9043,1043,0963,2453,0513,2462,9873,4152,828
Infection Due to Device or Implant687864737807827731803718785731
Dehydration1,5762,4091,8701,9902,1291,8212,1051,7412,2221,624
Composite: ACSC Chronic Conditions10,41214,21712,02611,57513,22511,43013,78610,40512,89911,034
Composite: ACSC Acute Conditions6,1799,1317,3047,4218,3886,9597,9966,8107,9326,815
Composite: ACSC Overall16,59023,34719,32818,99421,61218,38821,78117,21520,82917,849
Pressure Ulcer3,0504,1603,5143,4063,6673,4203,7783,2523,7733,233
Injurious Falls252369291315388265268321294301
Dually Eligible HCBS ParticipantsShort-Term Complications of Diabetes207267222256288210260208236227
Asthma or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease3,4255,0794,1204,0074,8953,7955,0233,3514,5343,690
Congestive Heart Failure5,0487,1805,9705,7296,3695,7356,4985,4356,3275,525
Composite: Potentially Preventable Infection7,70411,2009,0909,1559,9798,7909,8228,5449,9488,355
    Bacterial Pneumonia4,7576,7465,5175,6596,3425,2696,1245,1076,0305,130
    Urinary Tract Infection2,9474,4553,5733,4973,6373,5223,6983,4383,9183,225
Infection Due to Device or Implant669834727757803710764712767706
Dehydration1,8022,6772,1282,2202,3542,0802,3362,0092,4771,863
Composite: ACSC Chronic Conditions11,17115,51813,03212,61114,35412,39214,75811,46213,92312,015
Composite: ACSC Acute Conditions6,99010,4388,3638,4069,5127,9609,1297,7799,0777,745
Composite: ACSC Overall18,16025,95521,39321,01623,86520,35123,88519,24022,99719,760
Pressure Ulcer3,4784,5424,0093,6293,9183,9004,1153,7394,1753,663
Injurious Falls327453373390485339330416368387
Medicaid-Only HCBS ParticipantsShort-Term Complications of Diabetes382581471408582411557370471441
Asthma or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease3,0113,5763,2583,1033,3593,1694,1892,4273,8482,706
Congestive Heart Failure2,8053,0432,9262,7973,0622,8343,3532,5172,9402,853
Composite: Potentially Preventable Infection4,5395,5684,8655,0505,3544,7645,3194,5845,1434,728
    Bacterial Pneumonia2,9403,4223,0983,1633,3083,0503,3602,9173,2662,993
    Urinary Tract Infection1,5992,1461,7661,8872,0461,7141,9591,6671,8771,734
Infection Due to Device or Implant735959766958902788916736839799
Dehydration9611,5531,1341,2951,4411,0871,4489561,440963
Composite: ACSC Chronic Conditions8,34510,0659,1588,4479,7738,70011,0177,3099,7698,326
Composite: ACSC Acute Conditions3,9684,9594,2864,4484,9504,1184,7683,9724,4294,247
Composite: ACSC Overall12,31215,02213,44312,89414,72212,81715,78411,28014,19612,573
Pressure Ulcer1,8832,9432,1042,7332,8982,0562,8171,8242,5462,044
Injurious Falls451015788945691446863
I/DD SubpopulationShort-Term Complications of Diabetes135187171128157154131184155155
Asthma or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease678802762663628763788650786652
Congestive Heart Failure573788743505640662661650707593
Composite: Potentially Preventable Infection4,2004,7664,6074,0934,2114,4984,6944,0884,5834,218
    Bacterial Pneumonia2,8773,0853,0482,8002,8093,0143,2482,6083,1032,780
    Urinary Tract Infection1,3231,6811,5591,2921,4031,4831,4451,4801,4801,438
Infection Due to Device or Implant269366331262296310290325296318
Dehydration607846737634738684722672741648
Composite: ACSC Chronic Conditions1,8932,4142,2971,7431,9252,1592,1172,0662,2181,942
Composite: ACSC Acute Conditions3,1463,7803,5773,0683,3733,3973,5683,1763,4663,298
Composite: ACSC Overall5,0396,1945,8744,8115,2995,5555,6855,2435,6845,240
Pressure Ulcer1,2061,7201,5601,1361,3801,4141,3791,4351,4131,394
Injurious Falls61907568866773728558
SMI SubpopulationShort-Term Complications of Diabetes438612499523577481524486479546
Asthma or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease4,4695,7995,0614,8115,3974,8435,5844,3374,9715,009
Congestive Heart Failure2,9214,1423,5802,9593,5523,3423,5613,2173,2733,578
Composite: Potentially Preventable Infection6,3308,8717,1197,7947,9177,1107,4677,1577,4117,182
    Bacterial Pneumonia4,1755,5354,5365,1025,1784,5384,9194,4704,7774,596
    Urinary Tract Infection2,1553,3362,5832,6922,7392,5722,5482,6872,6342,587
Infection Due to Device or Implant664862693855842706723761664854
Dehydration1,6742,4691,9572,0452,1931,9101,9731,9942,0381,902
Composite: ACSC Chronic Conditions10,41413,60912,00210,83712,40011,39712,70110,52211,39812,039
Composite: ACSC Acute Conditions6,0388,5066,8137,4407,8326,7077,1856,7956,9397,086
Composite: ACSC Overall16,45122,11418,81318,27720,23218,10319,88517,31618,33619,125
Pressure Ulcer2,3293,2382,7372,5552,9342,5952,6932,6732,6062,796
Injurious Falls205299238251314217217269225266
HCBS Population Aged 18-64 Without I/DD or SMIShort-Term Complications of Diabetes557731626635812549793511616636
Asthma or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease4,5525,3784,8045,1555,4844,6376,7603,5706,0794,108
Congestive Heart Failure4,9155,3475,0585,1985,3134,9986,1094,3745,6004,758
Composite: Potentially Preventable Infection6,4907,8716,7937,8497,6696,7957,9986,3947,7916,575
    Bacterial Pneumonia3,7944,3503,8984,3974,3763,8714,6013,6144,3843,785
    Urinary Tract Infection2,6963,5202,8963,4523,2932,9243,3972,7803,4072,790
Infection Due to Device or Implant1,6581,8681,6542,0151,7841,7272,0111,5562,0101,569
Dehydration1,5352,0611,6222,1361,9381,6712,1511,4692,2521,420
Composite: ACSC Chronic Conditions13,81816,16014,62915,24016,22114,16218,66712,03316,78913,457
Composite: ACSC Acute Conditions5,5056,9605,8576,8416,9985,7197,1545,3626,6315,757
Composite: ACSC Overall19,32223,11820,48422,08223,21719,88125,81917,39423,41719,213
Pressure Ulcer4,2085,8944,5146,0635,6074,5995,8784,2125,6164,432
Injurious Falls111175135143167124162119156125
HCBS Population Aged 65+Short-Term Complications of Diabetes124151126163147130174108170107
Asthma or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease3,9596,2454,6775,4006,0644,4606,4953,7585,8804,036
Congestive Heart Failure6,6919,9857,5909,2239,2477,5639,7396,8009,3506,887
Composite: Potentially Preventable Infection9,11414,38910,73312,56913,13810,53212,9319,98813,2109,554
    Bacterial Pneumonia5,6018,7256,5247,7668,4786,2857,9926,0337,9515,920
    Urinary Tract Infection3,5145,6644,2094,8034,6594,2474,9393,9555,2583,634
Infection Due to Device or Implant458603488601550503571476596450
Dehydration2,1833,4802,5493,1413,1382,5423,2042,3443,3422,173
Composite: ACSC Chronic Conditions13,50819,66215,24118,06118,50715,06720,03613,16518,84813,584
Composite: ACSC Acute Conditions8,60913,73210,16412,02212,8759,87412,4619,36212,4509,143
Composite: ACSC Overall22,11633,39225,40430,07931,37924,93932,49522,52531,29522,726
Pressure Ulcer3,7754,8484,1984,1634,1224,2114,8803,7375,0133,549
Injurious Falls436657486644754449493541533513
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Notes: 

ACSC = ambulatory care-sensitive condition; HCBS = home and community-based services; I/DD = intellectual and development disabilities; SMI = serious mental illness.

a. All outcome indicators expressed as potentially avoidable hospital stays per 100,000 persons in the HCBS population. HCBS population for outcome indicators excludes: individuals under age 18; people with only institutional use in a given quarter; people on managed care plans; and persons in the States of Arizona, Maine, Washington, and Wisconsin.

Dually eligible = dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare. Eligibility for Medicare defined as inclusion in Medicare denominator file.

Medicaid only = part of Medicaid HCBS population but not enrolled in Medicare.

HCBS subpopulations of I/DD, SMI, Under 65 Without I/DD or SMI, and 65+ are defined as in the Appendix.

Median is defined as the value at which half of States are below and half of States are above.

Source for Outcome Indicators: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data, and Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MedPAR) data.

Sources for column heading data are described in the Appendix.

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Current as of December 2012
Internet Citation: Table 16B: Outcome Indicators by State Socioeconomic Status: Assessing the Health and Welfare of the HCBS Population. December 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/systems/long-term-care/resources/hcbs/hcbsfindings/hcbsfindtab16b.html