Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement
Chapter 4: Defining Language Need and Categories for Collection, cont.
Alba, R. 2005. Bilingualism still persists, but English still dominates. http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=282 (accessed February 20, 2009).
Alegría, M., D. Takeuchi, G. Canino, N. Duan, P. Shrout, X. L. Meng, W. Vega, N. Zane, D. Vila, M. Woo, M. Vera, P. Guarnaccia, S. Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. Sue, J. Escobar, K. M. Lin, and F. Gong. 2004a. Considering context, place and culture: The National Latino and Asian American Study. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13(4):208-220.
Alegría, M., D. Vila, M. Woo, G. Canino, D. Takeuchi, M. Vera, V. Febo, P. Guaranaccia, S. Aguilar-Gaxiola, P. Shrout. 2004b. Cultural relevance and equivalence in the NLAAS instrument: Integrating etic and emic in the development of cross-cultural measures for a psychiatric epidemiology and services study of Latinos. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13(4):270-288.
American College of Physicians. 2007. Language services for patients with limited English proficiency: Results of a national survey of internal medicine physicians. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians.
Anderson, L. M., S. C. Scrimshaw, M. T. Fullilove, J. E. Fielding, J. Normand, and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. 2003. Culturally competent healthcare systems-a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 24(3):68-79.
ASIST Translation Services. 2009. Interpreting-verbal communication using bilingual interpreters. http://asisttranslations.com/interpreting.htm (accessed June 12, 2009).
Ayanian, J. Z., A. M. Zaslavsky, E. Guadagnoli, C. S. Fuchs, K. J. Yost, C. M. Creech, R. D. Cress, L. C. O'Connor, D. W. West, and W. E. Wright. 2005. Patients' perceptions of quality of care for colorectal cancer by race, ethnicity, and language. Journal of Clinical Oncology 23(27):6576-6586.
Baker, D. W., R. M. Parker, M. V. Williams, W. C. Coates, and K. Pitkin. 1996a. Use and effectiveness of interpreters in an emergency department. Journal of the American Medical Association 275(10):783-788.
Bard, M. R., C. E. Goettler, P. J. Schenarts, B. A. Collins, E. A. Toschlog, S. G. Sagraves, and M. F. Rotondo. 2004. Language barrier leads to the unnecessary intubation of trauma patients. American Surgeon 70(9):783-786.
Bernstein, J., E. Bernstein, A. Dave, E. Hardt, T. James, J. Linden, P. Mitchell, T. Oishi, and C. Safi. 2004. Trained medical interpreters in the emergency department: Effects on services, subsequent charges, and follow-up. Journal of Immigrant Health 4(4):171-176.
Brach, C., and F. M. Chevarley. 2008. Demographics and health care access and utilization of limited-English-proficient and English-proficient Hispanics. Research findings No. 28. Rockville, MD: AHRQ.
California Healthy Families. 2008a. Application form without instructions (English). Sacramento, CA: State of California, Managed Risk Medical Insurance Board.
— 2008b. Written materials by language. http://www.healthyfamilies.ca.gov/Plans_Providers/Non-English_Materials.aspx (accessed June 15, 2009).
Carter-Pokras, O., M. J. F. O'Neill, V. Cheanvechai, M. Menis, T. Fan, and A. Solera. 2004. Providing linguistically appropriate services to persons with limited English proficiency: A needs and resources investigation. American Journal of Managed Care 10:SP29-SP36.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2000. Race and Ethnicity Code Set version 1.0. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
— 2008. Most spoken languages in the United States. http://www.cdc.gov/Other/languages/ (accessed June 8, 2009).
Chan, K. S., E. Keeler, M. Schonlau, M. Rosen, and R. Mangione-Smith. 2005. How do ethnicity and primary language spoken at home affect management practices and outcomes in children and adolescents with asthma? Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159(3):283-289.
Cooper, L. A., and N. R. Powe. 2004. Disparities in patient experiences, health care processes, and outcomes: The role of patient-provider racial, ethnic, and language concordance. New York, NY: The Commonwealth Fund.
D'Alessandro, D. M., P. Kingsley, and J. Johnson-West. 2001. The readability of pediatric patient education materials on the World Wide Web. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 155(7):807-812.
DuBard, C. A., and Z. Gizlice. 2008. Language spoken and differences in health status, access to care, and receipt of preventive services among US Hispanics. American Journal of Public Health 98(11):2021-2028.
Eamranond, P., R. Davis, R. Phillips, and C. Wee. 2009. Patient-physician language concordance and lifestyle counseling among Spanish-speaking patients. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. http://www.springerlink.com/content/kl676371u14586v2/ (accessed September 2, 2009).
Elderkin-Thompson, V., R. C. Silver, and H. Waitzkin. 2001. When nurses double as interpreters: A study of Spanish-speaking patients in a US primary care setting. Social Science and Medicine 52(9):1343-1358.
EXODUS On-line. 2009. Assembly passes bill to end the use of children as interpreters in medical situations: Speaker pro tem Yee's AB will protect kids and patients when seeking medical services. http://www.exodusnews.com/california/California084.htm (accessed June 12, 2009).
Feinberg, E., K. Swartz, A. M. Zaslavsky, J. Gardner, and D. K. Walker. 2002. Language proficiency and the enrollment of Medicaid-eligible children in publicly funded health insurance programs. Maternal & Child Health Journal 6(1):5-18.
Flores, G. 2005. The impact of medical interpreter services on the quality of health care: A systematic review. Medical Care Research and Review 62(3):255-299.
— 2006a. Language barrier: The commentary. http://www.webmm.ahrq.gov/case.aspx?caseID=123 (accessed June 15, 2009).
— 2006b. Language barriers to health care in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 355(3):229-231.
Flores, G., M. Abreu, and S. C. Tomany-Korman. 2005a. Limited English proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: How language barriers are measured matters. Public Health Reports 120(4):418-430.
Flores, G., M. B. Laws, S. J. Mayo, B. Zuckerman, M. Abreu, L. Medina, and E. J. Hardt. 2003. Errors in medical interpretation and their potential clinical consequences in pediatric encounters. Pediatrics 111(1):6-14.
Gany, F., and Q. Ngo-Metzger. 2007. Language barriers in health care: Special supplement to the Journal of General Internal Medicine. http://www.commonwealthfund.org/Content/Publications/In-the-Literature/2... (accessed August 3, 2009).
GCIR (Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees). 2008. Language acquisition. http://www.gcir.org/immigration/facts/language (accessed February 20, 2009).
Glimpse, W. 2009. Assessing English language proficiency. http://proximityone.com/elp.htm (accessed June 8, 2009).
Gordon, R. G. J. 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Dallas, TX: SIL International. http://www.ethnologue.com/codes/default.asp (accessed February 18, 2009).
Green, A. R., Q. Ngo-Metzger, A. T. Legedza, M. P. Massagli, R. S. Phillips, and L. I. Iezzoni. 2005. Interpreter services, language concordance, and health care quality. Experiences of Asian Americans with limited English proficiency. Journal of General Internal Medicine 20(11):1050-1056.
Griffin, D. H., and H. B. Shin. 2007. Accessing and using language data from the Census Bureau. Presentation at the 2007 federal interagency conference on limited English proficiency, March 15, 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. PowerPoint Presentation.
Hammersmith, K. J., and J. Y. Lee. 2008. A survey of North Carolina safety-net dental clinics' methods for communicating with patients of limited English proficiency (LEP). Journal of Public Health Dentistry 69(2):90-94.
Hasnain-Wynia, R., D. Pierce, A. Haque, C. H. Greising, V. Prince, and J. Reiter. 2007a. Health Research & Educational Trust Disparities Toolkit. www.hretdisparities.org (accessed December 18, 2008).
Hasnain-Wynia, R., J. Yonek, D. Pierce, R. Kang, and C. H. Greising. 2006. Hospital language services for patients with limited English proficiency: Results from a national survey. Chicago, IL: Health Research and Educational Trust/AHA.
Health Literacy Innovations. 2007. National survey of Medicaid guidelines for health literacy. http://www.healthliteracyinnovations.com/information/HLI_Medicaid_Survey... (accessed July 14, 2009).
HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2008. Civil rights: Hawaii Department of Human Services Resolution Agreement. http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/activities/agreements/hawaiiagree.html (accessed September 3, 2009).
— 2009a. Civil rights: Limited English proficiency (LEP). http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/resources/specialtopics/lep/index.html (accessed April 3, 2009).
— 2009b. Fact sheet on guidance to federal financial assistance recipients regarding Title VI prohibition against national origin discrimination affecting limited English proficient (LEP) persons. http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/resources/specialtopics/lep/factsheetguidanceforlep.html (accessed May 26, 2009).
— 2009c. Summary of selected OCR LEP complaint investigations and compliance reviews. http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/activities/examples/LEP/complaintcompliance.html (accessed March 4, 2009).
IHA (Institute for Healthcare Advancement). 2009. HELP curriculum FAQ ... http://www.iha4health.org/default.aspx/MenuItemID/232/MenuGroup/_Health+... (accessed June 8, 2009).
ISMP (The Institute for Safe Medication Practices). 1997. ISMP medication safety alert! http://www.ismp.org/newsletters/acutecare/archives/Mar97.asp (accessed June 12, 2009).
Jacobs, E. A., K. Karavolos, P. J. Rathouz, T. G. Ferris, and L. H. Powell. 2005. Limited English proficiency and breast and cervical cancer screening in a multiethnic population. American Journal of Public Health 95(8):1410-1416.
Jacobs, E. A., D. S. Lauderdale, D. Meltzer, J. M. Shorey, W. Levinson, and R. A. Thisted. 2001. Impact of interpreter services on delivery of health care to limited-English-proficient patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine 16(7):468-474.
Jacobs, E. A., I. Rolle, C. E. Ferrans, E. E. Whitaker, and R. B. Warnecke. 2006. Understanding African Americans' views of the trustworthiness of physicians. Journal of General Internal Medicine 21(6):642-647.
Kagawa-Singer, M. 2009. Measure of race, ethnicity and culture: Population science isn't science unless you know the population. University of California, Los Angeles. Presentation to the IOM Committee on Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports, March 12, 2009. Newport Beach, CA. PowerPoint® Presentation.
Karliner, L. S., E. A. Jacobs, A. H. Chen, and S. Mutha. 2007. Do professional interpreters improve clinical care for patients with limited English proficiency? A systematic review of the literature. Health Services Research 42(2):727-754.
Karliner, L. S., A. M. Napoles-Springer, D. Schillinger, K. Bibbins-Domingo, and E. J. Perez-Stable. 2008. Identification of limited English proficient patients in clinical care. Journal of General Internal Medicine 23(10):1555-1560.
Karliner, L. S., E. J. Perez-Stable, and G. Gildengorin. 2004. The language divide. The importance of training in the use of interpreters for outpatient practice. Journal of General Internal Medicine 19(2):175-183.
Kindler, A. L. 2002. Survey of the state's limited English proficient students and available educational programs and services 2000-2001 summary report. Washington, DC: The George Washington University National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs.
Kominski, R. 1985. Final report—documentation of Voting Rights Act determinations. Memo to Paul Siegel, Feb. 4, 1985. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 1989. How good is 'how well'? An examination of the Census English-speaking ability question. Paper read at 1989 Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, Washington, DC.
Language Line Services. 2009. List of languages by language line services http://www.languageline.com/page/languages/ (accessed June 12, 2009).
Library of Congress. 2007. ISO 639/joint advisory committee (ISO 639/JAC). http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/iso639jac.html (accessed May 26, 2009).
Marcos, L. R., M. Alpert, L. Urcuyo, and M. Kesselman. 1973. The effect of interview language on the evaluation of psychopathology in Spanish-American schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 130(5):549-553.
Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Rural Health Primary Care. 2008. Language access services in critical access hospitals for patients with limited English proficiency in rural Minnesota. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Health.
Mitchell, R. E. 2005. Can you tell me how many deaf people there are in the United States? http://gri.gallaudet.edu/Demographics/deaf-US.php (accessed May 14, 2009).
Modern Language Association. 2009a. All languages reported to the US Census in 2000. http://www.mla.org/map_data_langlist&mode=lang_tops (accessed May 26, 2009).
— 2009b. The Modern Language Association Language Map: A map of languages in the United States. http://www.mla.org/map_main (accessed May 26, 2009).
Moreno, M. R., R. Otero-Sabogal, and J. Newman. 2007. Assessing dual-role staff-interpreter linguistic competency in an integrated healthcare system. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 (Suppl 2):331-335.
National Association of Community Health Centers. 2008. Serving patients with limited English proficiency: Results of a community health center survey. Bethesda, MD: National Association of Community Health Centers and National Health Law Program.
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. 2009. Quick statistics. http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/quick.htm (accessed May 26, 2009).
NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics). 2009. Acculturation-ACQ, NHANES. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.
New Jersey Courts. 2009. List of languages and language codes: Sign languages. http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/interpreters/appendix.pdf (accessed May 26, 2009).
Ngo-Metzger, Q., D. H. Sorkin, R. S. Phillips, S. Greenfield, M. P. Massagli, B. Clarridge, and S. H. Kaplan. 2007. Providing high-quality care for limited English proficient patients: The importance of language concordance and interpreter use. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 (Suppl 2):324-330.
Office of the Attorney General. 2008. Cuomo announces agreements with major pharmacies to provide customers with prescription medication instructions in their primary language. http://www.oag.state.ny.us/media_center/2009/apr/apr21a_09.html (accessed July 10, 2009).
Pearson, W. S., I. B. Ahluwalia, E. S. Ford, and A. H. Mokdad. 2008. Language preference as a predictor of access to and use of healthcare services among Hispanics in the United States. Ethnicity and Disease 18(1):93-97.
Perez-Stable, E. J., A. Napoles-Springer, and J. M. Miramontes. 1997. The effects of ethnicity and language on medical outcomes of patients with hypertension or diabetes. Medical Care 35(12):1212-1219.
Price, C. S., and I. Cuellar. 1981. Effects of language and related variables on the expression of psychopathology in Mexican American psychiatric patients. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 3:145-160.
Ratzan, S. C., and R. M. Parker. 2000. Introduction. In National Library of Medicine current bibliographies in medicine: Health literacy. NLM Pub. No. CBM 2000-1, edited by Selden C. R., M. Zorn, Ratzan S. C. and P. R. M. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Regenstein, M. 2009. How will we know? Screening for preferred language and strategies for measurement. The George Washington University. Presentation to the IOM Committee on Future Directions for the Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports, February 9, 2009. Washington, DC. PowerPoint® Presentation.
Regenstein, M., and D. Sickler. 2006. Race, ethnicity, and language of patients: Hospital practices regarding collection of information to address disparities in health care. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
RTI International—University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center. 2009. Evidence report/technology assessment number 87: Literacy and health outcomes. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International.
RWJF (The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation). 2008a. Speaking Together Toolkit. http://www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=29653 (accessed June 12, 2009).
— 2008b. Training and tools to ensure accurate screening and registration of patient language needs. http://www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=30582 (accessed July 10, 2009).
SIL International. 2009a. Language family trees: Deaf sign language. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=23-16 (accessed July 20, 2009).
— 2009b. Relationship between ISO 639-3 and the other parts of ISO 639. http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/relationship.asp (accessed July 20, 2009).
— 2009c. Scope of denotation for language identifiers. http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/scope.asp (accessed July 20, 2009).
Stone, M. A., H. Patel, K. K. Panja, D. B. Barnett, and J. F. Mayberry. 1998. Reasons for non-compliance with screening for infection with Helicobacter pylori, in a multi-ethnic community in Leicester, UK. Public Health 112(3):153-156.
Sudore, R. L., C. S. Landefeld, E. J. Pérez-Stable, K. Bibbins-Domingo, B. A. Williams, and D. Schillinger. 2009. Unraveling the relationship between literacy, language proficiency, and patient-physician communication. Patient Education and Counseling 75(3):398-402.
Tang, G. 2009. Defining race, ethnicity and language populations. Kaiser Permanente. Presentation to the IOM Committee on Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports, March 11, 2009. Newport Beach, CA. PowerPoint Presentation.
Thornton, J. D., K. Pham, R. A. Engelberg, J. C. Jackson, and J. R. Curtis. 2009. Families with limited English proficiency receive less information and support in interpreted intensive care unit family conferences. Critical Care Medicine 37(1):89-95.
Ting, G. 2009. Applications of indirect estimation of race/ethnicity data in health plan activities. Wellpoint. Presentation to the IOM Committee on Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports, March 12, 2009. Newport Beach, CA. PowerPoint Presentation.
Unicode ISO. 2009. Codes for the representation of names of scripts. http://unicode.org/iso15924/iso15924-codes.html (accessed July 20, 2009).
U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. Voting Rights Act amendments of 1992, determinations under section 203. Federal Register 67(144): 48871-48876.
— 2003a. Ability to speak English by language spoken at home (PHC-T-37). http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t37/index.html (accessed August 3, 2009).
— 2003b. PHC-T-20 table 2. In Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003c. PHC-T-20 table 3. In Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003d. PHC-T-20 table 6. In Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003e. PHC-T-37 table 1a. In Ability to Speak English by Language Spoken at Home. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003f. PHC-T-37 table 2a. In Ability to Speak English by Language Spoken at Home. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003g. PHC-T-37 table 17a. In Ability to Speak English by Language Spoken at Home. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003h. PHC-T-37 table 49a. In Ability to Speak English by Language Spoken at Home. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003i. Table 1. Language use, English ability, and linguistic isolation for the population years and over by state: 2000. http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t20/tables/tab01... (accessed August 3, 2009).
— 2003j. Table 5. Detailed list of languages spoken at home for the population years and over by state: 2000. http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t20/tables/tab05... (accessed August 3, 2009).
— 2007. Census 2000 Summary File : Technical Documentation. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf (accessed August 3, 2009).
U.S. Department of Justice. 2002. Guidance to federal financial assistance recipients regarding Title VI prohibition against national origin discrimination affecting limited English proficient persons. http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/cor/lep/DOJLEPGuidApr122002.php (accessed August 3, 2009).
— 2003. ADA business brief: Communicating with people who are deaf or hard of hearing in hospital settings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section.
— 2008. About language minority voting rights. http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/voting/sec_203/activ_203.php#coverage (accessed June 12, 2009).
U.S. English Foundation. 2009a. Languages in America. http://www.usefoundation.org/view/29 (accessed May 26, 2009).
— 2009b. Top languages by county. http://www.usefoundation.org/userdata/file/Research/top_languages_by_cou... (accessed June 17, 2009).
— 2009c. United States: Number of languages spoken by county. http://www.usefoundation.org/userdata/file/Research/Regions/united_state... (accessed May 26, 2009).
Waxman, M. A., and M. A. Levitt. 2000. Are diagnostic testing and admission rates higher in non-English-speaking versus English-speaking patients in the emergency department? Annals of Emergency Medicine 36(5):456-461.
Weech-Maldonado, R., L. S. Morales, M. Elliott, K. Spritzer, G. Marshall, and R. D. Hays. 2003. Race/ethnicity, language, and patients' assessments of care in Medicaid managed care. Health Services Research 38(3):789-808.
Wilson, E., A. H. Chen, K. Grumbach, F. Wang, and A. Fernandez. 2005. Effects of limited English proficiency and physician language on health care comprehension. Journal of General Internal Medicine 20(9):800-806.
Wisnivesky, J. P., M. Kattan, D. Evans, H. Leventhal, T. J. Musumeci-Szabo, T. McGinn, and E. A. Halm. 2009. Assessing the relationship between language proficiency and asthma morbidity among inner-city asthmatics. Medical Care 47(2):243-249.
Wrigley, H. S., E. Richer, K. Martinson, H. Kubo, and J. Strawn. 2003. The language of opportunity: Expanding employment prospects for adults with limited English skills. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.
Wu, S. M., R. M. Nyman, M. D. Kogan, Z. J. Huang, and R. H. Schwalberg. 2004. Parent's language of interview and access to care for children with special health care needs. Ambulatory Pediatrics 4(2):181-187.
Zun, L. S., T. Sadoun, and L. Downey. 2006. English-language competency of self-declared English-speaking Hispanic patients using written tests of health literacy. Journal of the National Medical Association 98(6):912-917.
1 12 percent of active patients in overall practice.
2 Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009, Public Law 111-3, 111th Cong., 1st sess. (February 4, 2009).
3 Search terms in PubMed included "health care quality," "limited English proficiency," "language barrier," and "health care disparity." Selected articles from this review are cited due to space limitations. Few studies were identified that reported no language proficiency effects, suggesting the possibility that the literature base itself is biased toward reporting positive effects. The few studies reporting no effects had methodological issues (Enguidanos and Rosen, 1997; Estrada et al., 1990; Stone et al., 1998).
4 New York State requires translation and interpretation services by pharmacies (Office of the Attorney General, 2008).
5 Lau v Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974).
6 Department of Justice. 42 U.S.C. Chapter 20 § 1973aa-1a. The Public Health and Welfare Act, Elective Franchise.
7 TTY stands for TeleTYwriter or text telephone, and TDD is telecommunication device for deaf persons.
8Department of Justice. 28 CFR Part 36 § 36.303. ADA Standards for Accessible Design (July 1, 1994).
9 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Public Law 115-5 § 3002(b)(2)(B)(vii), 111th Cong., 1st Sess. (February 17, 2009).
10 Personal communication, O. Tiutin, Contra Costa Health Plan, August 4, 2009.
11 CDC has access on its website to a limited set of informational materials based on top languages spoken in the United States: Spanish, German, Italian, Russian, Vietnamese, Chinese, French, Tagalog (CDC, 2008).
12 Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008, Public Law 110-275 § 118, 110th Cong., 2nd sess. (July 15, 2008).
13 Health Care Language Assistance Act of 2003, California S.B. 853 § 1367 (October 8, 2003).
14 California Health and Safety Code § 1259 (January 12, 2009).
15 California Code of Regulations, Title 9 § 1810.410 (f) (3).
16 Health Care Language Assistance Act of 2003, California S.B. 853 § 1367 (October 8, 2003).
17 Personal communication, E. Sanchez, California Managed Risk Medical Insurance Board, July 20, 2009. Languages include English (46.1 percent of applicants), Spanish (45.3 percent), Asian (6.3 percent, including Cantonese, Chinese, Korean, Mandarin and Vietnamese), and other languages (2.1 percent, including Russian, Farsi, Armenia, Tagalog, Arabic, Hmong, Japanese, Cambodian, Thai, Hebrew, Lao, Portuguese, Samoan, Polish, Turkish, French, Mien, Llacano, Italian, and American Sign Language).
18 Personal communication, H. Shin, U.S. Census Bureau, July 13, 2009.
19 During July 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005, interpretation was provided in Superior Court for 77 languages across 83,548 events, with 16 major languages accounting for most events (New Jersey Courts, 2009).
20 Personal communication, H. Shin, U.S. Census Bureau, July 13, 2009.