Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement

Chapter 4: Defining Language Need and Categories for Collection, cont.


Alba, R. 2005. Bilingualism still persists, but English still dominates. http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=282 (accessed February 20, 2009).

Alegría, M., D. Takeuchi, G. Canino, N. Duan, P. Shrout, X. L. Meng, W. Vega, N. Zane, D. Vila, M. Woo, M. Vera, P. Guarnaccia, S. Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. Sue, J. Escobar, K. M. Lin, and F. Gong. 2004a. Considering context, place and culture: The National Latino and Asian American Study. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13(4):208-220.

Alegría, M., D. Vila, M. Woo, G. Canino, D. Takeuchi, M. Vera, V. Febo, P. Guaranaccia, S. Aguilar-Gaxiola, P. Shrout. 2004b. Cultural relevance and equivalence in the NLAAS instrument: Integrating etic and emic in the development of cross-cultural measures for a psychiatric epidemiology and services study of Latinos. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13(4):270-288.

American College of Physicians. 2007. Language services for patients with limited English proficiency: Results of a national survey of internal medicine physicians. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians.

Anderson, L. M., S. C. Scrimshaw, M. T. Fullilove, J. E. Fielding, J. Normand, and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. 2003. Culturally competent healthcare systems-a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 24(3):68-79.

Andrulis, D., N. Goodman, and C. Pryor. 2002. What a difference an interpreter can make: Health care experiences of uninsured with limited English proficiency. Boston, MA: The Access Project.

ASIST Translation Services. 2009. Interpreting-verbal communication using bilingual interpreters. http://asisttranslations.com/interpreting.htm (accessed June 12, 2009).

Au, M., E. F. Taylor, and M. Gold. 2009. Improving access to language services in health care: A look at national and state efforts. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.

Ayanian, J. Z., A. M. Zaslavsky, E. Guadagnoli, C. S. Fuchs, K. J. Yost, C. M. Creech, R. D. Cress, L. C. O'Connor, D. W. West, and W. E. Wright. 2005. Patients' perceptions of quality of care for colorectal cancer by race, ethnicity, and language. Journal of Clinical Oncology 23(27):6576-6586.

Bagchi, A., and B. Stevens. 2006. Seeking solutions: Enhancing health care delivery for people in Connecticut with limited English proficiency. New Britain, CT: Connecticut Health.

Baker, D. W. 1998. Structured English immersion: Breakthrough in teaching limited-English-proficient students. Phi Delta Kappan 80(3):199-200.

Baker, D. W., R. Hayes, and J. P. Fortier. 1998a. Interpreter use and satisfaction with interpersonal aspects of care for Spanish-speaking patients. Medical Care 36(10):1461-1470.

Baker, D. W., R. M. Parker, M. V. Williams, W. C. Coates, and K. Pitkin. 1996a. Use and effectiveness of interpreters in an emergency department. Journal of the American Medical Association 275(10):783-788.

Baker, D. W., C. D. Stevens, and R. H. Brook. 1996b. Determinants of emergency department use: Are race and ethnicity important? Annals of Emergency Medicine 28(6):677-682.

Bard, M. R., C. E. Goettler, P. J. Schenarts, B. A. Collins, E. A. Toschlog, S. G. Sagraves, and M. F. Rotondo. 2004. Language barrier leads to the unnecessary intubation of trauma patients. American Surgeon 70(9):783-786.

Bernstein, J., E. Bernstein, A. Dave, E. Hardt, T. James, J. Linden, P. Mitchell, T. Oishi, and C. Safi. 2004. Trained medical interpreters in the emergency department: Effects on services, subsequent charges, and follow-up. Journal of Immigrant Health 4(4):171-176.

Brach, C., and F. M. Chevarley. 2008. Demographics and health care access and utilization of limited-English-proficient and English-proficient Hispanics. Research findings No. 28. Rockville, MD: AHRQ.

Brach, C., I. Fraser, and K. Paez. 2005. Crossing the language chasm. Health Affairs 24(2):424-434.

California Healthy Families. 2008a. Application form without instructions (English). Sacramento, CA: State of California, Managed Risk Medical Insurance Board.
— 2008b. Written materials by language. http://www.healthyfamilies.ca.gov/Plans_Providers/Non-English_Materials.aspx (accessed June 15, 2009).

Capps, R., M. Fix, J. S. Passel, J. Ost, and D. Perez-Lopez. 2003. A profile of the low-wage immigrant workforce. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Carrasquillo, O., E. J. Orav, T. A. Brennan, and H. R. Burstin. 1999. Impact of language barriers on patient satisfaction in an emergency department. Journal of General Internal Medicine 14(2):82-87.

Carter-Pokras, O., M. J. F. O'Neill, V. Cheanvechai, M. Menis, T. Fan, and A. Solera. 2004. Providing linguistically appropriate services to persons with limited English proficiency: A needs and resources investigation. American Journal of Managed Care 10:SP29-SP36.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2000. Race and Ethnicity Code Set version 1.0. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
— 2008. Most spoken languages in the United States. http://www.cdc.gov/Other/languages/ (accessed June 8, 2009).

Chan, K. S., E. Keeler, M. Schonlau, M. Rosen, and R. Mangione-Smith. 2005. How do ethnicity and primary language spoken at home affect management practices and outcomes in children and adolescents with asthma? Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159(3):283-289.

Chen, A. H., M. K. Youdelman, and J. Brooks. 2007. The legal framework for language access in healthcare settings: Title VI and beyond. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 (Suppl 2):362-367.

Cohen, A. L., F. Rivara, E. K. Marcuse, H. McPhillips, and R. Davis. 2005. Are language barriers associated with serious medical events in hospitalized pediatric patients? Pediatrics 116(3):575-579.

Cooper, L. A., and N. R. Powe. 2004. Disparities in patient experiences, health care processes, and outcomes: The role of patient-provider racial, ethnic, and language concordance. New York, NY: The Commonwealth Fund.

CPEHN (California Pan-Ethnic Health Network). 2008. A blueprint for success: Bringing language access to millions of Californians. Oakland, CA: California Pan-Ethnic Health Network.

D'Alessandro, D. M., P. Kingsley, and J. Johnson-West. 2001. The readability of pediatric patient education materials on the World Wide Web. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 155(7):807-812.

David, R. A., and M. Rhee. 1998. The impact of language as a barrier to effective health care in an underserved urban Hispanic community. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 65(5-6):393-397.

De Alba, I., and J. M. Sweningson. 2006. English proficiency and physicians' recommendation of Pap smears among Hispanics. Cancer Detection and Prevention 30(3):292-296.

Derose, K. P., and D. W. Baker. 2000. Limited English proficiency and Latinos' use of physician services. Medical Care Research and Review 57(1):76-91.

Divi, C., R. G. Koss, S. P. Schmaltz, and J. M. Loeb. 2007. Language proficiency and adverse events in US hospitals: A pilot study. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 19(2):60-67.

Dohan, D., and M. Levintova. 2007. Barriers beyond words: Cancer, culture, and translation in a community of Russian speakers. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22:300-305.

Downey, L. V., and L. Zun. 2007. Testing of a verbal assessment tool of English proficiency for use in the healthcare setting. Journal of the National Medical Association 99(7):795-798.

DuBard, C. A., and Z. Gizlice. 2008. Language spoken and differences in health status, access to care, and receipt of preventive services among US Hispanics. American Journal of Public Health 98(11):2021-2028.

Eamranond, P., R. Davis, R. Phillips, and C. Wee. 2009. Patient-physician language concordance and lifestyle counseling among Spanish-speaking patients. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. http://www.springerlink.com/content/kl676371u14586v2/ (accessed September 2, 2009).

Elderkin-Thompson, V., R. C. Silver, and H. Waitzkin. 2001. When nurses double as interpreters: A study of Spanish-speaking patients in a US primary care setting. Social Science and Medicine 52(9):1343-1358.

Enguidanos, E. R., and P. Rosen. 1997. Language as a factor affecting follow-up compliance from the emergency department. Journal of Emergency Medicine 15(1):9-12.

Estrada, A. L., F. M. Trevino, and L. A. Ray. 1990. Health care utilization barriers among Mexican Americans: Evidence from HHANES 1982-84. American Journal of Public Health 80 Suppl:27-31.

Executive Office of the President. 2000. Executive order 13166 - improving access to services for persons with limited English proficiency. Federal Register 65(159):50121-50122.

EXODUS On-line. 2009. Assembly passes bill to end the use of children as interpreters in medical situations: Speaker pro tem Yee's AB will protect kids and patients when seeking medical services. http://www.exodusnews.com/california/California084.htm (accessed June 12, 2009).

Feinberg, E., K. Swartz, A. M. Zaslavsky, J. Gardner, and D. K. Walker. 2002. Language proficiency and the enrollment of Medicaid-eligible children in publicly funded health insurance programs. Maternal & Child Health Journal 6(1):5-18.

Fix, M., and R. Capps. 2005. Immigrant children, urban schools, and the No Child Left Behind Act. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.

Flores, G. 2005. The impact of medical interpreter services on the quality of health care: A systematic review. Medical Care Research and Review 62(3):255-299.
— 2006a. Language barrier: The commentary. http://www.webmm.ahrq.gov/case.aspx?caseID=123 (accessed June 15, 2009).
— 2006b. Language barriers to health care in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 355(3):229-231.

Flores, G., M. Abreu, and S. C. Tomany-Korman. 2005a. Limited English proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: How language barriers are measured matters. Public Health Reports 120(4):418-430.

Flores, G., M. B. Laws, S. J. Mayo, B. Zuckerman, M. Abreu, L. Medina, and E. J. Hardt. 2003. Errors in medical interpretation and their potential clinical consequences in pediatric encounters. Pediatrics 111(1):6-14.

Gandhi, T. K., H. R. Burstin, E. F. Cook, A. L. Puopolo, J. S. Haas, T. A. Brennan, and D. W. Bates. 2000. Drug complications in outpatients. Journal of General Internal Medicine 15(3):149-154.

Gany, F., and Q. Ngo-Metzger. 2007. Language barriers in health care: Special supplement to the Journal of General Internal Medicine. http://www.commonwealthfund.org/Content/Publications/In-the-Literature/2... (accessed August 3, 2009).

GCIR (Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees). 2008. Language acquisition. http://www.gcir.org/immigration/facts/language (accessed February 20, 2009).

Glimpse, W. 2009. Assessing English language proficiency. http://proximityone.com/elp.htm (accessed June 8, 2009).

Gordon, R. G. J. 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Dallas, TX: SIL International. http://www.ethnologue.com/codes/default.asp (accessed February 18, 2009).

Green, A. R., Q. Ngo-Metzger, A. T. Legedza, M. P. Massagli, R. S. Phillips, and L. I. Iezzoni. 2005. Interpreter services, language concordance, and health care quality. Experiences of Asian Americans with limited English proficiency. Journal of General Internal Medicine 20(11):1050-1056.

Grieco, E. 2003. English Abilities of the US Foreign-Born Population. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.

Griffin, D. H., and H. B. Shin. 2007. Accessing and using language data from the Census Bureau. Presentation at the 2007 federal interagency conference on limited English proficiency, March 15, 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. PowerPoint Presentation.

Grow, R. W., M. D. Sztajnkrycer, and B. R. Moore. 2008. Language barriers as a reported cause of prehospital care delay in Minnesota. Prehospital Emergency Care 12(1):76-79.

Hammersmith, K. J., and J. Y. Lee. 2008. A survey of North Carolina safety-net dental clinics' methods for communicating with patients of limited English proficiency (LEP). Journal of Public Health Dentistry 69(2):90-94.

Hampers, L. C., S. Cha, D. J. Gutglass, H. J. Binns, and S. E. Krug. 1999. Language barriers and resource utilization in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics 103(6 Pt 1):1253-1256.

Hasnain-Wynia, R. 2007. Collecting race, ethnicity, and primary language data in small physician practices. Chicago, IL: Health Research & Educational Trust/AHA. PowerPoint Presentation.

Hasnain-Wynia, R., D. Pierce, A. Haque, C. H. Greising, V. Prince, and J. Reiter. 2007a. Health Research & Educational Trust Disparities Toolkit. www.hretdisparities.org (accessed December 18, 2008).

Hasnain-Wynia, R., J. Yonek, D. Pierce, R. Kang, and C. H. Greising. 2006. Hospital language services for patients with limited English proficiency: Results from a national survey. Chicago, IL: Health Research and Educational Trust/AHA.

Health Literacy Innovations. 2007. National survey of Medicaid guidelines for health literacy. http://www.healthliteracyinnovations.com/information/HLI_Medicaid_Survey... (accessed July 14, 2009).

HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2008. Civil rights: Hawaii Department of Human Services Resolution Agreement. http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/activities/agreements/hawaiiagree.html (accessed September 3, 2009).
— 2009a. Civil rights: Limited English proficiency (LEP). http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/resources/specialtopics/lep/index.html (accessed April 3, 2009).
— 2009b. Fact sheet on guidance to federal financial assistance recipients regarding Title VI prohibition against national origin discrimination affecting limited English proficient (LEP) persons. http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/resources/specialtopics/lep/factsheetguidanceforlep.html (accessed May 26, 2009).
— 2009c. Summary of selected OCR LEP complaint investigations and compliance reviews. http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/activities/examples/LEP/complaintcompliance.html (accessed March 4, 2009).

Hu, D. J., and R. M. Covell. 1986. Health care usage by Hispanic outpatients as function of primary language. Western Journal of Medicine 144(4):490-493.

IHA (Institute for Healthcare Advancement). 2009. HELP curriculum FAQ ... http://www.iha4health.org/default.aspx/MenuItemID/232/MenuGroup/_Health+... (accessed June 8, 2009).

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2004. Health literacy: A prescription to end confusion. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

ISMP (The Institute for Safe Medication Practices). 1997. ISMP medication safety alert! http://www.ismp.org/newsletters/acutecare/archives/Mar97.asp (accessed June 12, 2009).

Jacobs, E. A., K. Karavolos, P. J. Rathouz, T. G. Ferris, and L. H. Powell. 2005. Limited English proficiency and breast and cervical cancer screening in a multiethnic population. American Journal of Public Health 95(8):1410-1416.

Jacobs, E. A., D. S. Lauderdale, D. Meltzer, J. M. Shorey, W. Levinson, and R. A. Thisted. 2001. Impact of interpreter services on delivery of health care to limited-English-proficient patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine 16(7):468-474.

Jacobs, E. A., I. Rolle, C. E. Ferrans, E. E. Whitaker, and R. B. Warnecke. 2006. Understanding African Americans' views of the trustworthiness of physicians. Journal of General Internal Medicine 21(6):642-647.

Kagawa-Singer, M. 2009. Measure of race, ethnicity and culture: Population science isn't science unless you know the population. University of California, Los Angeles. Presentation to the IOM Committee on Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports, March 12, 2009. Newport Beach, CA. PowerPoint® Presentation.

Karliner, L. S., E. A. Jacobs, A. H. Chen, and S. Mutha. 2007. Do professional interpreters improve clinical care for patients with limited English proficiency? A systematic review of the literature. Health Services Research 42(2):727-754.

Karliner, L. S., A. M. Napoles-Springer, D. Schillinger, K. Bibbins-Domingo, and E. J. Perez-Stable. 2008. Identification of limited English proficient patients in clinical care. Journal of General Internal Medicine 23(10):1555-1560.

Karliner, L. S., E. J. Perez-Stable, and G. Gildengorin. 2004. The language divide. The importance of training in the use of interpreters for outpatient practice. Journal of General Internal Medicine 19(2):175-183.

Kettrick, C. 2008. Report: September 20-21, 2008 meeting. Washington, DC: National Coalition on Health Care Interpreter Certification.

Kindler, A. L. 2002. Survey of the state's limited English proficient students and available educational programs and services 2000-2001 summary report. Washington, DC: The George Washington University National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs.

Kirkman-Liff, B., and D. Mondragon. 1991. Language of interview: Relevance for research of Southwest Hispanics. American Journal of Public Health 81(11):1399-1404.

Kominski, R. 1985. Final report—documentation of Voting Rights Act determinations. Memo to Paul Siegel, Feb. 4, 1985. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 1989. How good is 'how well'? An examination of the Census English-speaking ability question. Paper read at 1989 Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, Washington, DC.

Kominski, R., H. Shin, and K. Marotz. April 16-18, 2008. Language needs of school-age children. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, LA.

Ku, L., and G. Flores. 2005. Pay now or pay later: Providing interpreter services in health care. Health Affairs 24(2):435-444.

Language Line Services. 2009. List of languages by language line services http://www.languageline.com/page/languages/ (accessed June 12, 2009).

Larsen, L. J. 2004. The foreign-born population in the United States: 2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

Library of Congress. 2007. ISO 639/joint advisory committee (ISO 639/JAC). http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/iso639jac.html (accessed May 26, 2009).

Malone, N., K. F. Baluja, J. M. Costano, and C. J. Davis. 2003. The foreign-born population: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

Manson, A. 1988. Language concordance as a determinant of patient compliance and emergency room use in patients with asthma. Medical Care 26(12):1119-1128.

Marcos, L. R. 1979. Effects of interpreters on the evaluation of psychopathology in non-English-speaking patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 136(2):171-174.

Marcos, L. R., M. Alpert, L. Urcuyo, and M. Kesselman. 1973. The effect of interview language on the evaluation of psychopathology in Spanish-American schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 130(5):549-553.

McArthur, E. K. 1991 (unpublished). Characteristics of persons in the United States by language spoken: 1979 and 1989. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

McQuillan, J., and L. Tse. 1995. Child language brokering in linguistic communities: Effects on cultural interaction, cognition, and literacy. Language and Education 9(3):195-215.

Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Rural Health Primary Care. 2008. Language access services in critical access hospitals for patients with limited English proficiency in rural Minnesota. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Health.

Mitchell, R. E. 2005. Can you tell me how many deaf people there are in the United States? http://gri.gallaudet.edu/Demographics/deaf-US.php (accessed May 14, 2009).

Modern Language Association. 2009a. All languages reported to the US Census in 2000. http://www.mla.org/map_data_langlist&mode=lang_tops Exit Disclaimer (accessed May 26, 2009).
— 2009b. The Modern Language Association Language Map: A map of languages in the United States. http://www.mla.org/map_main Exit Disclaimer (accessed May 26, 2009).

Moreno, M. R., R. Otero-Sabogal, and J. Newman. 2007. Assessing dual-role staff-interpreter linguistic competency in an integrated healthcare system. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 (Suppl 2):331-335.

Mutchler, J. E., G. Bacigalupe, A. Coppin, and A. Gottlieb. 2007. Language barriers surrounding medication use among older Latinos. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 22(1):101-114.

National Association of Community Health Centers. 2008. Serving patients with limited English proficiency: Results of a community health center survey. Bethesda, MD: National Association of Community Health Centers and National Health Law Program.

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. 2009. Quick statistics. http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/quick.htm (accessed May 26, 2009).

NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics). 2009. Acculturation-ACQ, NHANES. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.

NCQA (National Committee for Quality Assurance). 2007. Innovative practices in multicultural health care. Washington, DC: NCQA.

New Jersey Courts. 2009. List of languages and language codes: Sign languages. http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/interpreters/appendix.pdf (accessed May 26, 2009).

Ngo-Metzger, Q., D. H. Sorkin, R. S. Phillips, S. Greenfield, M. P. Massagli, B. Clarridge, and S. H. Kaplan. 2007. Providing high-quality care for limited English proficient patients: The importance of language concordance and interpreter use. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 (Suppl 2):324-330.

NQF (National Quality Forum). 2009. Cultural competency: An organizational strategy for high-performing delivery systems. Washington, DC: National Quality Forum.

Office of the Attorney General. 2008. Cuomo announces agreements with major pharmacies to provide customers with prescription medication instructions in their primary language. http://www.oag.state.ny.us/media_center/2009/apr/apr21a_09.html (accessed July 10, 2009).

Orrell, C., D. R. Bangsberg, M. Badri, and R. Wood. 2003. Adherence is not a barrier to successful antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. AIDS 17(9):1369-1375.

Pearson, W. S., I. B. Ahluwalia, E. S. Ford, and A. H. Mokdad. 2008. Language preference as a predictor of access to and use of healthcare services among Hispanics in the United States. Ethnicity and Disease 18(1):93-97.

Perez-Stable, E. J., A. Napoles-Springer, and J. M. Miramontes. 1997. The effects of ethnicity and language on medical outcomes of patients with hypertension or diabetes. Medical Care 35(12):1212-1219.

Perkins, J., and M. Youdelman. 2008. Summary of state law requirements addressing language needs in health care. Washington, DC: National Health Law Program.

Phelan, M., and S. Parkman. 1995. How to do it: Work with an interpreter. British Medical Journal 311(7004):555-557.

Pippins, J. R., M. Alegría, and J. S. Haas. 2007. Association between language proficiency and the quality of primary care among a national sample of insured Latinos. Medical Care 45(11):1020-1025.

Ponce, N. A., R. D. Hays, and W. E. Cunningham. 2006a. Linguistic disparities in health care access and health status among older adults. Journal of General Internal Medicine 21(7):786-791.

Ponce, N. A., L. Ku, W. E. Cunningham, and E. R. Brown. 2006b. Language barriers to health care access among Medicare beneficiaries. Inquiry 43(1):66-76.

Price, C. S., and I. Cuellar. 1981. Effects of language and related variables on the expression of psychopathology in Mexican American psychiatric patients. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 3:145-160.

Ratzan, S. C., and R. M. Parker. 2000. Introduction. In National Library of Medicine current bibliographies in medicine: Health literacy. NLM Pub. No. CBM 2000-1, edited by Selden C. R., M. Zorn, Ratzan S. C. and P. R. M. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Regenstein, M. 2009. How will we know? Screening for preferred language and strategies for measurement. The George Washington University. Presentation to the IOM Committee on Future Directions for the Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports, February 9, 2009. Washington, DC. PowerPoint® Presentation.

Regenstein, M., and D. Sickler. 2006. Race, ethnicity, and language of patients: Hospital practices regarding collection of information to address disparities in health care. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Rivadeneyra, R., V. Elderkin-Thompson, R. C. Silver, and H. Waitzkin. 2000. Patient centeredness in medical encounters requiring an interpreter. American Journal of Medicine 108(6):470-474.

Roat, C. E. 2005. Addressing language access issues in your practice: A toolkit for physicians and their staff members. San Francisco, CA: California Academy of Family Physicians.

RTI International—University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center. 2009. Evidence report/technology assessment number 87: Literacy and health outcomes. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International.

RWJF (The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation). 2008a. Speaking Together Toolkit. http://www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=29653 Exit Disclaimer (accessed June 12, 2009).
— 2008b. Training and tools to ensure accurate screening and registration of patient language needs. http://www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=30582 Exit Disclaimer (accessed July 10, 2009).

Saha, S., and A. Fernandez. 2007. Language barriers in health care. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 (Suppl 2):281-282.

Sarver, J., and D. W. Baker. 2000. Effect of language barriers on follow-up appointments after an emergency department visit. Journal of General Internal Medicine 15(4):256-264.

Schlemmer, A., and B. Mash. 2006. The effects of a language barrier in a South African district hospital. South African Medical Journal. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde 96(10):1084-1087.

Sentell, T., M. Shumway, and L. Snowden. 2007. Access to mental health treatment by English language proficiency and race/ethnicity. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 Suppl 2:289-293.

Shin, H. B., and R. Bruno. 2003. Language use and English-speaking ability: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

Siegel, P., E. Martin, and R. Bruno. 2001. Language use and linguistic isolation: Historical data and methodological issues. Paper presented at FSCM Statistical Policy Seminar, Bethesda, MD.

SIL International. 2009a. Language family trees: Deaf sign language. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=23-16 Exit Disclaimer (accessed July 20, 2009).
— 2009b. Relationship between ISO 639-3 and the other parts of ISO 639. http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/relationship.asp Exit Disclaimer (accessed July 20, 2009).
— 2009c. Scope of denotation for language identifiers. http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/scope.asp Exit Disclaimer (accessed July 20, 2009).

Stone, M. A., H. Patel, K. K. Panja, D. B. Barnett, and J. F. Mayberry. 1998. Reasons for non-compliance with screening for infection with Helicobacter pylori, in a multi-ethnic community in Leicester, UK. Public Health 112(3):153-156.

Sudore, R. L., C. S. Landefeld, E. J. Pérez-Stable, K. Bibbins-Domingo, B. A. Williams, and D. Schillinger. 2009. Unraveling the relationship between literacy, language proficiency, and patient-physician communication. Patient Education and Counseling 75(3):398-402.

Sun, W. Y., B. Sangweni, G. Butts, and M. Merlino. 1998. Comparisons of immunisation accessibility between non-US born and US-born children in New York City. Public Health 112(6):405-408.

Tang, G. 2009. Defining race, ethnicity and language populations. Kaiser Permanente. Presentation to the IOM Committee on Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports, March 11, 2009. Newport Beach, CA. PowerPoint Presentation.

Thornton, J. D., K. Pham, R. A. Engelberg, J. C. Jackson, and J. R. Curtis. 2009. Families with limited English proficiency receive less information and support in interpreted intensive care unit family conferences. Critical Care Medicine 37(1):89-95.

Ting, G. 2009. Applications of indirect estimation of race/ethnicity data in health plan activities. Wellpoint. Presentation to the IOM Committee on Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports, March 12, 2009. Newport Beach, CA. PowerPoint Presentation.

Tocher, T. M., and E. Larson. 1998. Quality of diabetes care for non-English-speaking patients. A comparative study. Western Journal of Medicine 168(6):504-511.

Tocher, T. M., and E. B. Larson. 1999. Do physicians spend more time with non-English-speaking patients? Journal of General Internal Medicine 14(5):303-309.

Unicode ISO. 2009. Codes for the representation of names of scripts. http://unicode.org/iso15924/iso15924-codes.html Exit Disclaimer (accessed July 20, 2009).
U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. Voting Rights Act amendments of 1992, determinations under section 203. Federal Register 67(144): 48871-48876.
— 2003a. Ability to speak English by language spoken at home (PHC-T-37). http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t37/index.html (accessed August 3, 2009).
— 2003b. PHC-T-20 table 2. In Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003c. PHC-T-20 table 3. In Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003d. PHC-T-20 table 6. In Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003e. PHC-T-37 table 1a. In Ability to Speak English by Language Spoken at Home. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003f. PHC-T-37 table 2a. In Ability to Speak English by Language Spoken at Home. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003g. PHC-T-37 table 17a. In Ability to Speak English by Language Spoken at Home. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003h. PHC-T-37 table 49a. In Ability to Speak English by Language Spoken at Home. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
— 2003i. Table 1. Language use, English ability, and linguistic isolation for the population years and over by state: 2000. http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t20/tables/tab01... (accessed August 3, 2009).
— 2003j. Table 5. Detailed list of languages spoken at home for the population years and over by state: 2000. http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t20/tables/tab05... (accessed August 3, 2009).
— 2007. Census 2000 Summary File : Technical Documentation. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf (accessed August 3, 2009).

U.S. Department of Justice. 2002. Guidance to federal financial assistance recipients regarding Title VI prohibition against national origin discrimination affecting limited English proficient persons. http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/cor/lep/DOJLEPGuidApr122002.php (accessed August 3, 2009).

— 2003. ADA business brief: Communicating with people who are deaf or hard of hearing in hospital settings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section.
— 2008. About language minority voting rights. http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/voting/sec_203/activ_203.php#coverage (accessed June 12, 2009).

U.S. English Foundation. 2009a. Languages in America. http://www.usefoundation.org/view/29 (accessed May 26, 2009).
— 2009b. Top languages by county. http://www.usefoundation.org/userdata/file/Research/top_languages_by_cou... (accessed June 17, 2009).
— 2009c. United States: Number of languages spoken by county. http://www.usefoundation.org/userdata/file/Research/Regions/united_state... (accessed May 26, 2009).

Waxman, M. A., and M. A. Levitt. 2000. Are diagnostic testing and admission rates higher in non-English-speaking versus English-speaking patients in the emergency department? Annals of Emergency Medicine 36(5):456-461.

Weech-Maldonado, R., L. S. Morales, M. Elliott, K. Spritzer, G. Marshall, and R. D. Hays. 2003. Race/ethnicity, language, and patients' assessments of care in Medicaid managed care. Health Services Research 38(3):789-808.

Weinick, R. M., and N. A. Krauss. 2000. Racial/ethnic differences in children's access to care. American Journal of Public Health 90(11): 1771-1774.

Wilson, E., A. H. Chen, K. Grumbach, F. Wang, and A. Fernandez. 2005. Effects of limited English proficiency and physician language on health care comprehension. Journal of General Internal Medicine 20(9):800-806.

Wisnivesky, J. P., M. Kattan, D. Evans, H. Leventhal, T. J. Musumeci-Szabo, T. McGinn, and E. A. Halm. 2009. Assessing the relationship between language proficiency and asthma morbidity among inner-city asthmatics. Medical Care 47(2):243-249.

Woloshin, S., N. A. Bickell, L. M. Schwartz, F. Gany, and H. G. Welch. 1995. Language barriers in medicine in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 273(9):724-728.

Woloshin, S., L. M. Schwartz, S. J. Katz, and H. G. Welch. 1997. Is language a barrier to the use of preventive services? Journal of General Internal Medicine 12(8):472-477.

Wrigley, H. S., E. Richer, K. Martinson, H. Kubo, and J. Strawn. 2003. The language of opportunity: Expanding employment prospects for adults with limited English skills. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

Wu, S. M., R. M. Nyman, M. D. Kogan, Z. J. Huang, and R. H. Schwalberg. 2004. Parent's language of interview and access to care for children with special health care needs. Ambulatory Pediatrics 4(2):181-187.

Youdelman, M. 2007. Medicaid and SCHIP reimbursement models for language services. Washington, DC: National Health Law Program.

Youdelman, M. K. 2008. The medical tongue: U.S. laws and policies on language access. Health Affairs 27(2):424-433.

Zun, L. S., T. Sadoun, and L. Downey. 2006. English-language competency of self-declared English-speaking Hispanic patients using written tests of health literacy. Journal of the National Medical Association 98(6):912-917.

1 12 percent of active patients in overall practice.
2 Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009, Public Law 111-3, 111th Cong., 1st sess. (February 4, 2009).
3 Search terms in PubMed included "health care quality," "limited English proficiency," "language barrier," and "health care disparity." Selected articles from this review are cited due to space limitations. Few studies were identified that reported no language proficiency effects, suggesting the possibility that the literature base itself is biased toward reporting positive effects. The few studies reporting no effects had methodological issues (Enguidanos and Rosen, 1997; Estrada et al., 1990; Stone et al., 1998).
4 New York State requires translation and interpretation services by pharmacies (Office of the Attorney General, 2008).
5 Lau v Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974).
6 Department of Justice. 42 U.S.C. Chapter 20 § 1973aa-1a. The Public Health and Welfare Act, Elective Franchise.
7 TTY stands for TeleTYwriter or text telephone, and TDD is telecommunication device for deaf persons.
8Department of Justice. 28 CFR Part 36 § 36.303. ADA Standards for Accessible Design (July 1, 1994).
9 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Public Law 115-5 § 3002(b)(2)(B)(vii), 111th Cong., 1st Sess. (February 17, 2009).
10 Personal communication, O. Tiutin, Contra Costa Health Plan, August 4, 2009.
11 CDC has access on its website to a limited set of informational materials based on top languages spoken in the United States: Spanish, German, Italian, Russian, Vietnamese, Chinese, French, Tagalog (CDC, 2008).
12 Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008, Public Law 110-275 § 118, 110th Cong., 2nd sess. (July 15, 2008).
13 Health Care Language Assistance Act of 2003, California S.B. 853 § 1367 (October 8, 2003).
14 California Health and Safety Code § 1259 (January 12, 2009).
15 California Code of Regulations, Title 9 § 1810.410 (f) (3).
16 Health Care Language Assistance Act of 2003, California S.B. 853 § 1367 (October 8, 2003).
17 Personal communication, E. Sanchez, California Managed Risk Medical Insurance Board, July 20, 2009. Languages include English (46.1 percent of applicants), Spanish (45.3 percent), Asian (6.3 percent, including Cantonese, Chinese, Korean, Mandarin and Vietnamese), and other languages (2.1 percent, including Russian, Farsi, Armenia, Tagalog, Arabic, Hmong, Japanese, Cambodian, Thai, Hebrew, Lao, Portuguese, Samoan, Polish, Turkish, French, Mien, Llacano, Italian, and American Sign Language).
18 Personal communication, H. Shin, U.S. Census Bureau, July 13, 2009.
19 During July 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005, interpretation was provided in Superior Court for 77 languages across 83,548 events, with 16 major languages accounting for most events (New Jersey Courts, 2009).
20 Personal communication, H. Shin, U.S. Census Bureau, July 13, 2009.

Return to Contents
Proceed to Next Section

Page last reviewed October 2014
Internet Citation: Chapter 4: Defining Language Need and Categories for Collection, cont.. October 2014. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/final-reports/iomracereport/reldata4c.html