Pharmacy Association Uses AHRQ Module to Teach Patients About Adverse Drug Interactions

Comparative Effectiveness
August 2005

The American Pharmacy Services Corporation (APSC) is using a learning module developed under AHRQ's sponsorship to help patients avoid the ill effects of drug interactions. The module, titled "Preventable Adverse Drug Reactions: A Focus on Drug Interactions," is the basis for APSC's continuing education (CE) classes.

Trish Freeman, RPh, PhD, Director of Education and Research for APSC, adapted the adverse drug reaction learning module for the CE classes she presented to pharmacists and advanced registered nurse practitioners (ARNPs). In addition, she conducted a lecture and discussion, which was based on the module, with dental students at the University of Kentucky.

To adapt the module for her CE classes, Freeman tailored it a bit to focus on CYP-mediated drug interactions, which she found to be most clinically significant. CYP is a protein similar to hemoglobin that is primarily found in the liver, intestines, and other organs that protect the body from foreign compounds. It is important in the detoxification of a variety of chemical substances in the diet and the environment and in catalyzing the metabolism of medications, steroid hormones, and fatty acids.

"Approximately 100 pharmacists attended the pharmacy CE program, and about 15 ARNPs attended the nursing CE program. There were approximately 50 dental students at the lecture," Freeman reports. Attendees' evaluations were overwhelmingly positive. Freeman heard from attendees that they felt the topic was of great importance and that the program was very beneficial to them as practitioners.

Formed in 1983, APSC is based in Frankfort, Kentucky. It is owned and operated by independent pharmacies with a mission to represent the interests of its 250 members in the pharmacy marketplace. For more information, visit

The Adverse Drug Reaction learning module was developed by AHRQ's Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics at the University of Arizona in Tucson (formerly at Georgetown University). In collaboration with the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Curt Rosebraugh, MD, MPH; the principal investigator, Raymond Woosley, MD, PhD; and colleagues developed the module based on a needs survey sent to all U.S. third-year medicine clerkship directors and medicine residency program directors.

For more information on the Adverse Drug Reaction learning module, visit The module is also available at: For more information about CERTs research and locations, visit

Impact Case Study Identifier: 
AHRQ Product(s): CERTs
Topics(s): Patient Safety, Adverse Drug Events (ADE)
Geographic Location: Kentucky
Implementer: American Pharmacy Services Corporation
Date: 08/01/2005
Page last reviewed October 2014