Rural and inner-city populations each face unique healthcare challenges. Geographic isolation, persistent shortages of healthcare providers, lower socioeconomic status and levels of educational attainment, cultural and social differences, and lack of health insurance all contribute to healthcare disparities in rural and inner city areas. Rural residents experience a higher prevalence of substance abuse, smoking, obesity, and chronic conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Rural residents also have a higher proportion of injury-related deaths, including drug overdoses, vehicular fatalities, and youth suicide. Inner-city residents, meanwhile, are more impacted by sexually transmitted diseases/infections (STDs/STIs), HIV, and drug-resistant tuberculosis, as well as higher rates of homelessness/inadequate housing and exposure to environmental pollutants. Given the extent of healthcare disparities and differences in health outcomes, particularly when compared to suburban residents, it is important to address healthcare issues affecting both rural and inner-city populations.