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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 7 of 7 Research Studies Displayed
McCoy RG, Van Houten HK, Dunlay SM
Race and sex differences in the initiation of diabetes drugs by privately insured US adults.
The authors examined the differences in the use of three glucose-lowering medications as a function of both sex and race. They found that, compared to white men, GLP-1RA were 43% more likely to be started by White women, 12% more likely to be started by non-White men, and 21% less likely to be started by non-White women. SGLT2i were at least 10% less likely to be started by all groups compared to White men, and DPP4i were used more often by non-White than White patients of both sexes.
Citation: McCoy RG, Van Houten HK, Dunlay SM . Race and sex differences in the initiation of diabetes drugs by privately insured US adults. Race and sex differences in the initiation of diabetes drugs by privately insured US adults..
Keywords: Diabetes, Chronic Conditions, Medication, Sex Factors, Racial / Ethnic Minorities
Mody P, Pandey A, Slutsky AS
AHRQ Author: Bierman AS
Gender-based differences in outcomes among resuscitated patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
In this study, the investigators examined gender based differences in outcomes among resuscitated patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Studies examining gender-based differences in outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients have demonstrated that despite a higher likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation, women do not have higher survival. The investigators concluded that among resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, discharge to survival was significantly lower in women compared with men especially among patients considered to have a favorable prognosis.
Citation: Mody P, Pandey A, Slutsky AS . Gender-based differences in outcomes among resuscitated patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 2021 Feb 16;143(7):641-49. doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.120.050427..
Keywords: Sex Factors, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Outcomes
Stakeholder experiences with gender identity data capture in electronic health records: implementation effectiveness and a visibility paradox.
Advocates have endorsed transgender visibility via gender identity (GI) data capture with the advent of the Affordable Care Act and electronic health record (EHR) requirements. Visibility in data in order to enumerate a population contrasts with ways in which other LGBT and public health scholars have deployed these concepts. This article aims to assess the effectiveness of GI data capture in EHRs and implications for trans health care quality improvements and research.
Citation: Thompson HM . Stakeholder experiences with gender identity data capture in electronic health records: implementation effectiveness and a visibility paradox. Health Educ Behav 2021 Feb;48(1):93-101. doi: 10.1177/1090198120963102.
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Health Services Research (HSR), Vulnerable Populations, Sex Factors
Dakwar E, Levin FR, Olfson M
First treatment contact for ADHD: predictors of and gender differences in treatment seeking.
The investigators aimed to estimate ADHD treatment-seeking probabilities over the lifetime and to identify predictors of treatment seeking for ADHD separately for males and females. They found that a large proportion of persons with ADHD do not seek treatment, and that treatment seeking by males was affected by a greater number of identifiable characteristics, suggesting that males might be more responsive to efforts directed toward expediting treatment entry.
Citation: Dakwar E, Levin FR, Olfson M . First treatment contact for ADHD: predictors of and gender differences in treatment seeking. Psychiatr Serv 2014 Dec;65(12):1465-73. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201300298.
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Sex Factors, Patient Adherence/Compliance
Duffy RP, Adams JE, Callas PW
The influence of gender on functional outcomes of lower extremity bypass.
The researchers aimed to evaluate the effect of gender on early and late procedural and functional outcomes of lower extremity bypass (LEB). They found that women have complication rates similar to men with inferior early and late functional outcomes after LEB. The reduced patency rates in women with critical limb ischemia did not translate into differences in limb salvage.
Citation: Duffy RP, Adams JE, Callas PW . The influence of gender on functional outcomes of lower extremity bypass. J Vasc Surg 2014 Nov;60(5):1282-90, 90.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2014.05.008.
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Outcomes, Sex Factors, Surgery
Strom Williams JL, Lynch CP, Winchester R
Gender differences in composite control of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.
This study examined the gender differences in multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor control in adults with type 2 diabetes seen in diverse clinical settings. It found that women had significantly poorer composite control of CVD risk outcomes compared with men, adjusting for relevant confounding factors. In unadjusted analyses, women had higher mean systolic blood pressure and LDL cholesterol levels compared with men.
Citation: Strom Williams JL, Lynch CP, Winchester R . Gender differences in composite control of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther 2014 Jul;16(7):421-7. doi: 10.1089/dia.2013.0329..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Risk, Diabetes, Outcomes, Sex Factors
Boehme AK, Siegler JE, Mullen MT
Racial and gender differences in stroke severity, outcomes, and treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
This study sought to determine the association of race and gender on initial stroke severity, thrombolysis, and functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The investigators concluded that race and gender were not significantly associated with short-term outcome, although black women were significantly less likely to be treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Black women had more tPA exclusions than any other group. The primary reason for tPA exclusion in this study was not arriving within 3 hours of stroke symptom onset.
Citation: Boehme AK, Siegler JE, Mullen MT . Racial and gender differences in stroke severity, outcomes, and treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2014 Apr;23(4):e255-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2013.11.003..
Keywords: Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Outcomes, Sex Factors, Stroke