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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 4 of 4 Research Studies Displayed
Lai LY, Oerline MK, Caram MEV
Risk of metabolic and cardiovascular adverse events with abiraterone or enzalutamide among men with advanced prostate cancer.
Investigators examined the association between the use of abiraterone or enzalutamide and the risk of metabolic or cardiovascular adverse events while on treatment for advanced prostate cancer. They found that, compared with men not receiving abiraterone, men receiving abiraterone were at increased risk of both a major composite adverse event and a minor composite adverse event. Compared with men not receiving enzalutamide, men receiving enzalutamide were at an increased risk of a major composite adverse event but not a minor composite adverse event. They recommended careful monitoring and management of men on abiraterone or enzalutamide through team-based approaches.
Citation: Lai LY, Oerline MK, Caram MEV . Risk of metabolic and cardiovascular adverse events with abiraterone or enzalutamide among men with advanced prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2022 Aug 8;114(8):1127-34. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djac081..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Cancer, Risk, Adverse Events, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Medication: Safety, Patient Safety
Kerlikowske K, Su YR, Sprague BL
Association of screening with digital breast tomosynthesis vs digital mammography with risk of interval invasive and advanced breast cancer.
The purpose of this study was to compare digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) with digital mammography to determine whether DBT was correlated with lower rates of internal invasive cancer and advanced breast cancer, taking into consideration breast density and breast cancer risk. From 2011 through 2018, the researchers studied a cohort of 504,427 women between the ages of 40 and 79 who underwent 375,189 screening DBT exams and 1,003,900 screening digital mammography exams, and who were then followed up for cancer diagnoses between 2011 and 2019 after being identified via linkage to state or regional cancer registries. The median age at the time of screening was 58 years (IQR 50-65 years) and the diagnostic screenings took place at 44 Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) facilities in the United States. The study found that among women at low to average risk, or at high risk with almost entirely fatty, scattered fibroglandular densities, or heterogeneously dense breasts, advanced cancer rates were not significantly different for DBT vs digital mammography. There was no significant difference between DBT and digital mammography for interval cancer rates per 1000 exams. Interval invasive cancer rates were also not significantly different among the 413,061 examinations with BCSC 5-year risk of 1.67% or higher (high risk) across breast density categories, or among all the 836,250 examinations with BCSC 5-year risk less than 1.67% (low to average-risk). For the 3.6% of women with extremely dense breasts and at high risk of breast cancer (13,291 examinations in the DBT group and 31,300 in the digital mammography group) advanced cancer rates per 1000 examinations were significantly lower for DBT vs digital mammography, but not for women at low to average risk (10,611 examinations in the DBT group and 37,796 in the digital mammography group). The researchers reported that there was no significant difference in the 96.4% of women with extremely dense breasts not at high risk, heterogeneously dense breasts, or nondense breasts, and concluded that screening with DBT vs digital mammography was associated with a significantly lower risk of advanced breast cancer among the 3.6% of women with extremely dense breasts and at high risk of breast cancer, and was not associated with a significant difference in risk of interval invasive cancer.
Citation: Kerlikowske K, Su YR, Sprague BL . Association of screening with digital breast tomosynthesis vs digital mammography with risk of interval invasive and advanced breast cancer. JAMA 2022 Jun 14;327(22):2220-30. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.7672..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Screening, Women, Imaging, Risk
Carpenter K, Scavotto M, McGovern A
Early parental knowledge of late effect risks in children with cancer.
This study assessed early parental knowledge of late effect risks in children with cancer. The cohort included parents of children receiving cancer treatment at Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. The parents were surveyed about their knowledge of their child’s likelihood of eight late effects. Only 11 out of 96 parents correctly identified all their child’s risk for the eight late effects. Five of eight effects were the median number of correctly identified late effect risks. Among the 21 parents whose children were at risk for ototoxicity, 95% correctly identified this risk. Conversely, parents were less knowledgeable about risks of second malignancy, cardiac toxicity, neurocognitive impairment, and infertility.
Citation: Carpenter K, Scavotto M, McGovern A . Early parental knowledge of late effect risks in children with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022 Feb;69(2):e29473. doi: 10.1002/pbc.29473..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Cancer, Risk, Education: Patient and Caregiver, Health Literacy
Nelson HD, Pappas M, Zakher B
Risk assessment, genetic counseling, and genetic testing for BRCA-related cancer in women: a systematic review to update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation.
This systematic review was done in support of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) updated recommendation on the benefit and harms of risk assessment, genetic testing, and genetic counseling for BRCA-related cancer in women. A systematic review was done on literature from 2004 to July 30, 2013 from MEDLINE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Health Technology Assessment, Scopus, and reference lists. Data on the participants, study design, analysis, follow-up, and results was extracted and a second investigator confirmed key data. The studies were rated on study quality and applicability. The analysis found women with high-risk for breast cancer had decreased risk of breast cancer by 85% to 100% by having a mastectomy, and risk of mortality by 81% to 100% compared to women without surgery. There was also a lower risk of breast and ovarian cancer after having salpingo-oopherectomy surgery.
Citation: Nelson HD, Pappas M, Zakher B . Risk assessment, genetic counseling, and genetic testing for BRCA-related cancer in women: a systematic review to update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. Ann Intern Med 2014 Feb 18;160(4):255-66. doi: 10.7326/m13-1684..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer: Ovarian Cancer, Cancer, Genetics, Screening, Prevention, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice, Women, Risk, Family Health and History