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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 25 of 337 Research Studies Displayed
Taylor KK, Neiman PU, Bonner S
Unmet social health needs as a driver of inequitable outcomes after surgery: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health Interview Survey.
The objective of this study was to identify opportunities to improve surgical equity by evaluating unmet social health needs by race, ethnicity, and insurance type. Researchers used the National Health Interview Survey for 2008-2018 to identify adults aged 18 and older who reported surgery in the past year. The results indicated that unmet social health needs varied significantly by race, ethnicity, and insurance, and were independently associated with poor health among surgical populations.
AHRQ-funded; HS028672; HS027788.
Citation: Taylor KK, Neiman PU, Bonner S . Unmet social health needs as a driver of inequitable outcomes after surgery: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health Interview Survey. Ann Surg 2023 Aug 1; 278(2):193-200. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000005689.
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Surgery, Disparities, Outcomes
Vest JR, Mazurenko O
Non-response bias in social risk factor screening among adult emergency department patients.
This study assessed differences between respondents and those refusing participation in social factor screening questionnaires to determine if non-response contributed to selection bias. Study subjects were patients from a mid-western state safety-net hospital's emergency department aged 18 or older, English or Spanish speakers, and able to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Results indicated that subjects with prior documentation of financial insecurity were less likely to respond to the screening questionnaire, but no other factors were significantly associated with response. The authors concluded that this study contributed to the growing social determinants of health literature by confirming that selection bias might exist within screening practices and research studies.
Citation: Vest JR, Mazurenko O . Non-response bias in social risk factor screening among adult emergency department patients. J Med Syst 2023 Jul 22; 47(1):78. doi: 10.1007/s10916-023-01975-8..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Screening, Social Determinants of Health
Ackerman SL, Wing H, Acves B
“We were trying to do quality versus quantity”: challenges and opportunities at the intersection of standardized and personalized social care in community health centers.
The purpose of this study was to explore activities to incorporate social risk programs into community health centers (CHCs) providing primary care services in Oregon. CHCs took part in either one or both of two large programs with the goal of incorporating standardized social risk screening and referral processes. The researchers conducted 42 semi-structured interviews with clinicians, managers and staff at 12 clinics affiliated with five CHCs to understand implementation procedures and challenges to those procedures. Thematic analysis utilized the Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to discover the dynamic, interactional nature of activities to integrate a complex sociotechnical intervention. The study found that standardized social care was expected to correspond well with institutional commitments and priorities. However, challenges maintaining support among staff was encountered, affected by competing priorities, staff turnover, and uncertainties about roles and responsibilities. The new tools were frequently altered or abandoned to retain the advantages of existing social care practices. Across clinics, the association between standardized procedures and existing social care activities, had a key role in patterns of adoption, non-adoption and adaptation, with standardized tools frequently experienced as undermining more relational, team-based social care.
Citation: Ackerman SL, Wing H, Acves B . “We were trying to do quality versus quantity”: challenges and opportunities at the intersection of standardized and personalized social care in community health centers. SSM Qual Res Health 2023 Jun; 3:100267. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmqr.2023.100267..
Keywords: Community-Based Practice, Social Determinants of Health, Primary Care
Rees CA, Stewart AM, Portillo EN
Reporting of important social determinants of health in pediatric clinical trials.
The purpose of this study was to assess the rates and trends in the reporting of sexual orientation, gender identity, preferred language, and socioeconomic factors in published pediatric clinical trials. The researchers conducted a cross-sectional study of pediatric clinical trials in the United States published from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2020 in 5 general pediatric and 5 general medical journals with the highest impact factor in their respective fields. Outcomes included reporting of sexual orientation, gender identity, socioeconomic factors, and preferred language. The study found that in 612 trials, 29.6% reported preferred language. Among these, 64.6% exclusively enrolled participants whose preferred language was English. From 2011 to 2020, there was a relative increase in the reporting of preferred language. Socioeconomic factors were reported in 47.9% of trials. There was no significant change in the reporting of socioeconomic factors of published trial results among adolescent participants reported any measure of sexual orientation, and 1.1% reported gender identity. The researchers concluded that despite sexual orientation, gender identity, preferred language, and socioeconomic factors being increasingly recognized as social determinants of health these variables were infrequently included in pediatric clinical trial results reporting.
Citation: Rees CA, Stewart AM, Portillo EN . Reporting of important social determinants of health in pediatric clinical trials. Am J Prev Med 2023 Jun; 64(6):918-26. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2022.12.004..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Social Determinants of Health, Health Services Research (HSR)
Field C, Lynch CD, Fareed N
Association of community walkability and glycemic control among pregnant individuals with pregestational diabetes mellitus.
The role of community walkability in influencing glycemic regulation in expectant individuals with pre-existing diabetes is yet to be established. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the walkability of a neighborhood at the community level and glycemic control, as indicated by hemoglobin A1c (A1C), in pregnant individuals with pregestational diabetes. The researchers conducted a retrospective examination of expectant individuals with pregestational diabetes who participated in a combined prenatal and diabetic care program from 2012 to 2016. The determinant of interest was community walkability, determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency National Walkability Index (score range 1-20), which includes intersection concentration (design), closeness to transit stops (distance), and a combination of job and household varieties (diversity). Participants from the most walkable neighborhoods were contrasted with those from less walkable neighborhoods as per the National Environmental Protection Agency's definition. The outcomes were glycemic control, including A1C, measured both in early and late pregnancy, and the average change in A1C throughout pregnancy. The study found that out of 417 expectant individuals, 10% resided in the most walkable areas. All 417 participants had an A1C assessment in early pregnancy, and 376 had another A1C assessment in late pregnancy. Pregnant individuals living in the most walkable areas were more likely to have an A1C <6.0% in early pregnancy, and an A1C <6.5% in late pregnancy compared with those in less walkable areas. The change in A1C across pregnancy was not related to walkability. The study concluded that individuals with pre-existing diabetes residing in more walkable areas demonstrated better glycemic control during both early and late pregnancy.
Citation: Field C, Lynch CD, Fareed N . Association of community walkability and glycemic control among pregnant individuals with pregestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2023 May; 5(5):100898. doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2023.100898..
Keywords: Diabetes, Maternal Care, Social Determinants of Health, Women
Mota L, Marcaccio CL, Zhu M
Impact of neighborhood social disadvantage on the presentation and management of peripheral artery disease.
This study’s goal was to examine the impact of neighborhood social disadvantage on the presentation and management of peripheral artery disease (PAD). An area deprivation index (ADI) score was assigned to each patient in the Vascular Quality Initiative registry who underwent infrainguinal revascularization (open or endovascular) or amputation for symptomatic PAD between 2003 and 2020. ADI scores range from 1 to 100 based on residential zip code, and patients were categorized by ADI quintiles (Q1 to Q5). Outcomes of interest included indication for procedure (claudication, rest pain, or tissue loss) and rates of revascularization (vs primary amputation). The 79,974 identified patients were categorized as: Q1: 9604 (12%), Q2:14,961 (18.7%), Q3: 19,800 (24.8%), Q4: 21,735 (27.2%), and Q5: 13,873 (17.4%). There were significant trends toward lower rates of claudication (Q1: 39% vs Q5: 34%), higher rates of rest pain (Q1: 12.4% vs Q5: 17.8%) as the indication for intervention, and lower rates of revascularization (Q1: 80% vs Q5: 69%) with increasing ADI quintiles. There was a progressively higher likelihood of presenting with rest pain vs claudication, with patients in Q5 having the highest probability when compared with those in Q1 in adjusted analyses. Patients in Q5, when compared with those in Q1, also had a higher likelihood of presenting with tissue loss vs claudication. Patients in Q2-Q5 also had a lower likelihood of undergoing any revascularization procedure compared with patients in Q1.
Citation: Mota L, Marcaccio CL, Zhu M . Impact of neighborhood social disadvantage on the presentation and management of peripheral artery disease. J Vasc Surg 2023 May; 77(5):1477-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.12.062..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Disparities, Social Determinants of Health
Shi M, Fiori K, Kim RS
Social needs assessment and linkage to community health workers in a large urban hospital system.
The purpose of this study was to determine predictors of successful linkage with a community health worker (CHW) in patients with social needs. The researchers utilized a cross-sectional analysis of social needs assessments administered in an urban health system between April 2018 and December 2019. Social needs in the study included safety, getting along with household members, housing quality, housing instability, food insecurity, care for dependents, healthcare cost, healthcare related transportation, utilities, and legal assistance. Patients were entered into a separate database when they encountered a CHW. The main outcome was a successful "linkage," which was defined as having a positive social needs assessment in the medical record with a corresponding record in the CHW database. The study found that 25% of patients with at least 1 social need accepting help were linked to a CHW. Positive predictors included female gender, Spanish language preference compared to English, and having a food-related need. Negative predictors included age 18 to 65 and 0 to 5 compared to over 65, non-Hispanic White race compared to Hispanic race, and having needs of getting along with household members and safety.
Citation: Shi M, Fiori K, Kim RS . Social needs assessment and linkage to community health workers in a large urban hospital system. J Prim Care Community Health 2023 Jan-Dec; 14:21501319231166918. doi: 10.1177/21501319231166918..
Keywords: Urban Health, Healthcare Delivery, Social Determinants of Health, Community-Based Practice, Rural/Inner-City Residents
Steeves-Reece AL, Davis MM, Hiebert Larson J
Patients' willingness to accept social needs navigation after in-person versus remote screening.
The authors conducted a cross-sectional study in order to assess possible adverse effects of screening patients remotely on patient engagement and interest in accepting social needs navigation. Participants were Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries in the Oregon Accountable Health Communities (AHC) model. The results indicated that over 70% of participants were willing to accept help with social needs; neither the mode of screening nor interaction term were significantly associated with willingness to accept navigation assistance. The authors concluded remote screening may not adversely affect patient willingness to accept health care-based navigation for social needs.
Citation: Steeves-Reece AL, Davis MM, Hiebert Larson J . Patients' willingness to accept social needs navigation after in-person versus remote screening. J Am Board Fam Med 2023 Apr 3;36(2):229-39. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2022.220259R1.
Keywords: Telehealth, Screening, Health Information Technology (HIT), Social Determinants of Health
Eneanya ND, Adingwupu OM, Kostelanetz S
Social determinants of health and their impact on the Black race coefficient in serum creatinine-based estimation of GFR: secondary analysis of MDRD and CRIC studies.
The rationale behind the disparity in blood creatinine levels between Black and non-Black individuals factored into previous GFR prediction formulas remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate if social health determinants could explain this gap. The researchers conducted a secondary examination of the initial data from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort investigations. Data from these cohorts were divided based on racial characteristics (Black versus non-Black). The study initially assessed the degree to which the Black race coefficient in the GFR estimation from creatinine is influenced by the interrelation of race with social health determinants and non-GFR creatinine determinants. Researchers then assessed whether the discrepancy in adjusted mean creatinine between racial groups could be attributed to social health determinants and non-GFR creatinine determinants. The study found that in models that associated measured GFR with creatinine, age, sex, and race, the Black race coefficient was 21% in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study and 13% in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort, and was not weakened by the inclusion of social health determinants, either singularly or in combination. In both studies, the Black race coefficient was more pronounced at lower income levels as compared to higher ones. In models associating creatinine with measured GFR, age, and sex, average creatinine was elevated in Black participants in comparison with non-Black participants in both studies, with social health determinants having no impact.
Citation: Eneanya ND, Adingwupu OM, Kostelanetz S . Social determinants of health and their impact on the Black race coefficient in serum creatinine-based estimation of GFR: secondary analysis of MDRD and CRIC studies. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2023 Apr; 18(4):446-54. doi: 10.2215/cjn.0000000000000109..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Kidney Disease and Health, Disparities
Mota L, Marcaccio CL, Patel PB
The impact of neighborhood social disadvantage on abdominal aortic aneurysm severity and management.
This study measured the impact of neighborhood social disadvantage on abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) severity and management. The authors identified all patients who underwent endovascular or open repair of an AAA in the Vascular Quality Initiative registry between 2003 and 2020. An area deprivation index (ADI) score of 1 to 100 was assigned to each patient based on their residential zip code, with higher ADI scores corresponding with increasing deprivation, which was then divided into quintiles. Outcomes looked at were rates of ruptured AAA (rAAA) repair versus an intact AAA repair and rates of endovascular repair (EVAR) versus the open approach. Among the 55,931 patients who underwent AAA repair, 6649 (12%) were in the lowest ADI quintile, 11,692 (21%) in the second, 15,958 (29%) in the third, 15,035 (27%) in the fourth, and 6597 (12%) in the highest ADI quintile. Patients in the two highest ADI quintiles had a higher proportion of rAAA repair (vs intact repair) compared with those in the lowest ADI quintile (8.8% and 9.1% vs 6.2%). They were also less likely to undergo EVAR (vs open approach) when compared with the lowest ADI quintile (81% and 81% vs 88%). Increasing ADI quintiles trended towards increasing rAAA and decreasing EVAR rates. In adjusted analyses, when compared with patients in the lowest ADI quintile, patients in the highest ADI quintile had higher odds of rAAA repair and lower odds of undergoing EVAR.
Citation: Mota L, Marcaccio CL, Patel PB . The impact of neighborhood social disadvantage on abdominal aortic aneurysm severity and management. J Vasc Surg 2023 Apr;77(4):1077-86.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.10.048.
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Surgery, Disparities
Harle CA, Wu W, Vest JR
Accuracy of electronic health record food insecurity, housing instability, and financial strain screening in adult primary care.
The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of electronic health record–based multidomain screening questionnaires on social risk factors. Researchers used single-domain questionnaires on individual factors such as food insecurity, housing instability, and financial strain as external standards.
Citation: Harle CA, Wu W, Vest JR . Accuracy of electronic health record food insecurity, housing instability, and financial strain screening in adult primary care. JAMA 2023 Feb 7; 329(5):423-24. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.23631..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Primary Care, Screening, Social Determinants of Health
Diaz A, Lindau ST, Obeng-Gyasi S
Association of hospital quality and neighborhood deprivation with mortality after inpatient surgery among Medicare beneficiaries.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare postoperative mortality among Medicare beneficiaries based on the level of neighborhood deprivation where they live and the hospital quality where they received care. The researchers examined outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries undergoing one of five common surgical procedures (colon resection, coronary artery bypass, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, or incisional hernia repair) between 2014 and 2018. Hospital quality was assigned using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Star Rating. Each beneficiary's neighborhood was identified at the census tract level and sorted into quintiles based on its Area Deprivation Index score. A risk matrix across hospital quality and neighborhood deprivation was created to determine the relative contribution of each to mortality after surgery. Data were analyzed from June 1 to December 31, 2021. The study included 1,898,829 Medicare beneficiaries. Patients from all neighborhood deprivation group quintiles sought care at hospitals across hospital quality levels. Thirty-day risk-adjusted mortality varied across high- and low-quality hospitals and across the least and most deprived neighborhoods. When combined, comparing patients from the least deprived neighborhoods going to high-quality hospitals vs patients from the most deprived neighborhoods going to low-quality hospitals, the variation increased further. The researchers concluded that both a patient's neighborhood and the hospital where they received treatment were associated with the risk of death after commonly performed inpatient surgical procedures. The associations of these factors on mortality may be additive. Efforts to address variation in postoperative mortality should include both hospital quality improvement and addressing drivers of neighborhood deprivation.
Citation: Diaz A, Lindau ST, Obeng-Gyasi S . Association of hospital quality and neighborhood deprivation with mortality after inpatient surgery among Medicare beneficiaries. JAMA Netw Open 2023 Jan; 6(1):e2253620. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.53620..
Keywords: Hospitals, Quality of Care, Surgery, Mortality, Social Determinants of Health
Soulsby WD, Lawson E, Pantell MS
Cumulative social disadvantage associated with childhood arthritis: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Survey of Children's Health.
The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis study was to explore cumulative social disadvantage on childhood arthritis. The researchers developed a cumulative social disadvantage score, assigning 1 point to each of the following variables with a maximum total score of 4: low guardian education (high school or less), low household income level (0-199% of federal poverty level), underinsured status (public or uninsured), and a high adverse childhood experience (ACE) score of 4 or greater. The study found that of the 131,774 surveys completed, a total of 365 children reported current arthritis. Of those 365, cumulative social disadvantage was related with an arthritis diagnosis, with the greatest odds in those with a total score of 4. Cumulative social disadvantage also was related with higher odds of moderate-to-severe arthritis severity.
Citation: Soulsby WD, Lawson E, Pantell MS . Cumulative social disadvantage associated with childhood arthritis: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Survey of Children's Health. Arthritis Care Res 2023 Jan; 75(1):3-8. doi: 10.1002/acr.24991..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Arthritis, Social Determinants of Health, Low-Income
Beidler LB, Razon N, Lang H
"More than just giving them a piece of paper": interviews with primary care on social needs referrals to community-based organizations.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe primary care practice’s referrals to community-based organizations. The researchers utilized semi-structured interviews with 50 healthcare administrators in charge of social care efforts within their organization. Fifty diverse United States healthcare organizations and agencies were included. The study found that social needs referrals were an essential element of administrator’s social care activities. Administrators described the optimal referral program as one which places limited burden on care teams, provides patients with customized referrals, and facilitates closed-loop referrals. The researchers identified three key challenges organizations encounter when trying to implement the optimal referrals program: 1) developing and maintaining resources lists; 2) aligning referrals with patient needs; and 3) measuring the efficacy of referrals. Administrators The study concluded that primary care practice referrals to community-based organizations were used to improve patients' social conditions, but administrators report challenges providing customized and current information to their patients.
Citation: Beidler LB, Razon N, Lang H . "More than just giving them a piece of paper": interviews with primary care on social needs referrals to community-based organizations. J Gen Intern Med 2022 Dec;37(16):4160-67. doi: 10.1007/s11606-022-07531-3..
Keywords: Primary Care, Social Determinants of Health, Community-Based Practice, Healthcare Delivery
Stransky ML, Fuchu P, Prendergast K
Beyond housing for health: using flexible funds to improve maternal and child health.
The purpose of this article is to describe the Upstreaming Housing for Health’s (UHfH) use of a flexible fund. The UHfH was a pilot program developed and implemented to improve housing stability and decrease health inequities among people with high-risk pregnancies and their babies. The flexible fund is a cash transfer policy that served 50 families from 2019 to 2020 and addressed housing stability and material needs that encouraged family stability within the context of their housing. The researchers found that 76% of the families accessed flexible funds for items such as rental assistance, cribs, and breast pumps, with average financial support of $1343 (standard deviation = $625). The researchers advise that cash transfer policies such as the flexible fund have been shown to positively impact family health and well-being around the world.
Citation: Stransky ML, Fuchu P, Prendergast K . Beyond housing for health: using flexible funds to improve maternal and child health. J Urban Health 2022 Dec;99(6):1027-32. doi: 10.1007/s11524-022-00686-8..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Behavioral Health, Social Determinants of Health, Outcomes
Burgermaster M, Rodriguez VA
Psychosocial-behavioral phenotyping: a novel precision health approach to modeling behavioral, psychological, and social determinants of health using machine learning.
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a novel application of machine learning for psychosocial-behavioral phenotyping, which includes the identification of subgroups with similar combinations of psychosocial characteristics. The researchers conducted a secondary analysis of psychosocial and behavioral data from a community cohort (n = 5,883). The study found 20 psychosocial-behavioral phenotypes. Each phenotype suggested different contextual considerations for intervention design. The researchers concluded that psychosocial-behavioral phenotypes can identify possible targets of intervention.
Citation: Burgermaster M, Rodriguez VA . Psychosocial-behavioral phenotyping: a novel precision health approach to modeling behavioral, psychological, and social determinants of health using machine learning. Ann Behav Med 2022 Nov 18;56(12):1258-71. doi: 10.1093/abm/kaac012..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Health Information Technology (HIT), Research Methodologies
Fraze TK, Beidler LB, Savitz LA
"It's not just the right thing . . . It's a survival tactic": disentangling leaders' motivations and worries on social care.
The purpose of this study was to understand the motivations and concerns of health care organizations when implementing activities targeted at improving patients’ social conditions, such as housing, food, and economic insecurity. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with the administrators of 29 health care organizations to explore their issues around their agency’s provision of social care. Participants described an interconnected set of motivations for delivering social care: 1) doing the right thing for their patients, 2) improving health outcomes, and 3) business/ financial aspects. Administrators voiced uncertainty around a) responsible for social care, b) whether health care has the capacity and abilities to provide social care, and c) whether social care activities can be sustained. The researchers concluded that administrators of health care agencies and organizations could benefit from policy-maker guidance and support on how to effectively prioritize social care activities, partner with other sectors to provide social care, and develop the workforce that would be required to do so.
Citation: Fraze TK, Beidler LB, Savitz LA . "It's not just the right thing . . . It's a survival tactic": disentangling leaders' motivations and worries on social care. Med Care Res Rev 2022 Oct;79(5):701-16. doi: 10.1177/10775587211057673..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Workforce
Sonik RA, Herrera AL
Associations between inspections for unsafe housing conditions and evictions in New York City public housing buildings.
The authors sought to examine the relationship between evictions and formal housing safety inspections triggered by tenant complains about poor conditions. Studying residential buildings within New York City Housing Authority developments, they found that these buildings were in areas with greater social vulnerability than 90% of other census tracts in the state. Further, adjusted predicted probabilities of an eviction increased from 34 to 43% in the presence of a rodent inspection and from 34 to 46% in the presence of an indoor environmental inspection, indicating that inspections for unsafe housing conditions were associated with evictions at the building level.
Citation: Sonik RA, Herrera AL . Associations between inspections for unsafe housing conditions and evictions in New York City public housing buildings. J Community Health 2022 Oct;47(5):849-52. doi: 10.1007/s10900-022-01114-3..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Public Health
Guo JW, Wallace AS, Luther BL
Psychometric evaluation of the screener for intensifying community referrals for health.
The purpose of this study was to explore the Screener for Intensifying Community Referrals for Health (SINCERE) literacy screening tool. The researchers invited patients seeking care in a tertiary care emergency department (ED) to complete the SINCERE during their registration, with a total of 5,081 patients in the final sample. The study found that SINCERE’s items measure one construct, as verified through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The researchers concluded that the SINCERE is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring health and social needs.
Citation: Guo JW, Wallace AS, Luther BL . Psychometric evaluation of the screener for intensifying community referrals for health. Eval Health Prof 2022 Sep;45(3):270-76. doi: 10.1177/01632787211029360..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health
Rogstad TL, Gupta S, Connolly J
Social risk adjustment In the hospital readmissions reduction program: a systematic review and implications for policy.
Investigators reviewed fourteen studies of social risk adjustment in Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). They concluded that their findings support the use of social risk adjustment to improve provider payment equity and highlight opportunities to enhance social risk adjustment in value-based payment programs.
Citation: Rogstad TL, Gupta S, Connolly J . Social risk adjustment In the hospital readmissions reduction program: a systematic review and implications for policy. Health Aff 2022 Sep;41(9):1307-15. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2022.00614..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Hospital Readmissions, Risk, Policy
Jackson P, Goodin BR, Long DL
The area deprivation index corresponds effectively with other measures of objective socioeconomic status in adults with chronic low back pain.
The purpose of this study was to compare the Area Deprivation Index (ADI) and other measures of socioeconomic status (SES), including income, education, and subjective social status (SSS), in their ability to predict pain severity/ interference in patients with chronic low back pain. The study found that pain severity/ interference correlated negatively with income and education and correlated positively with ADI. Criterion scores of the pain severity model indicate income performs best followed by ADI, with similar results with the pain interference model. The study concluded that when attempting to understand the impact of SES on chronic low back pain, neighborhood-level and individual-level factors should be considered.
Citation: Jackson P, Goodin BR, Long DL . The area deprivation index corresponds effectively with other measures of objective socioeconomic status in adults with chronic low back pain. J Nurs Meas 2022 Sep 1;30(3):433-48. doi: 10.1891/jnm-d-20-00126..
Keywords: Back Health and Pain, Pain, Chronic Conditions, Social Determinants of Health
Fraze TK, Beidler LB, Gottlieb LM
A missed opportunity? How health care organizations engage primary care clinicians in formal social care efforts.
The purpose of this study was to explore how health care organizations include clinicians in formal social care efforts. Administrators of 29 health care organizations participated in 33 semi-structured interviews in 2019. Administrators were hesitant to increase primary care providers' responsibilities with social care activities, but believed clinicians could engage in social care programs in 4 ways: 1) Strengthen relationships with patients by discussing social risks; 2) adjust follow-up clinical care plans based on social risks; 3) adapt prescriptions based on social risks; and (4) refer patients to other care team members who can directly assist with social risks.
Citation: Fraze TK, Beidler LB, Gottlieb LM . A missed opportunity? How health care organizations engage primary care clinicians in formal social care efforts. Popul Health Manag 2022 Aug;25(4):509-16. doi: 10.1089/pop.2021.0306..
Keywords: Primary Care, Provider: Clinician, Social Determinants of Health
Miller-Rosales C, McCloskey J, Uratsu CS
Associations between different self-reported social risks and neighborhood-level resources in Medicaid patients.
Investigators sought improved understanding of how social risk factors interact with each other and with neighborhood characteristics in order to inform efforts to reduce health disparities. They found that among 5 commonly associated social risk factors, Medicaid patients in a large Northern California health system typically reported only a single factor and that these factors did not correlate strongly with each other. They found only modestly greater social risk reported by patients in the least resourced neighborhoods. They concluded that their results suggested that individual-level interventions should be targeted to specific needs whereas community-level interventions may be similarly important across diverse neighborhoods.
Citation: Miller-Rosales C, McCloskey J, Uratsu CS . Associations between different self-reported social risks and neighborhood-level resources in Medicaid patients. Med Care 2022 Aug;60(8):563-69. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001735..
Keywords: Medicaid, Social Determinants of Health
Leifheit KM, Schwartz GL, Pollack CE
Building health equity through housing policies: critical reflections and future directions for research.
This article provides a series of recommendations to help build health equity through housing policies. The authors recommend more justice- and action-oriented research to help address current levels of housing insecurity that are the result of clear and inequitable policy choices, leading to the entrenchment of health inequities-particularly, across race and class.
Citation: Leifheit KM, Schwartz GL, Pollack CE . Building health equity through housing policies: critical reflections and future directions for research. J Epidemiol Community Health 2022 Aug;76(8):759-63. doi: 10.1136/jech-2021-216439.
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Vulnerable Populations, Policy
Kim B, Mulready-Ward C, Thorpe LE
Housing environments and asthma outcomes within population-based samples of adults and children in NYC.
This study assessed the relationship between housing type (i.e., home ownership, public housing, rental assistance, rent-controlled housing, and other rental housing) and asthma outcomes among New York City (NYC) adults and children (ages 1-13). The authors used the 2019 NYC Community Health Survey (CHS) and 2019 NYC KIDS survey to analyze associations between housing type and ever having been diagnosed with asthma (“ever asthma”) and experiencing an asthma attack within the past year. They also examined whether associations were modified by smoking status (among adults), smoking within the house (among children), and overweight/obesity. Among adults, living in public housing, compared to home ownership, was associated with higher odds of ever asthma and past-year asthma attack. Rental assistance housing living was also significantly associated with ever asthma. Public or rental assistance housing associations and ever asthma were marginally significant among children but were more pronounced among ever smokers than among never smokers.
Citation: Kim B, Mulready-Ward C, Thorpe LE . Housing environments and asthma outcomes within population-based samples of adults and children in NYC. Prev Med 2022 Aug;161:107147. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.107147..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Asthma, Respiratory Conditions, Social Determinants of Health, Vulnerable Populations, Urban Health, Chronic Conditions