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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 148 Research Studies Displayed
Shover CL, Rosen A, Mata J
Engaging same-day peer ambassadors to increase coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination among people experiencing unsheltered homelessness in Los Angeles County: a hybrid feasibility-evaluation study.
This study’s goal was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of engaging unhoused peer ambassadors (PAs) in COVID-19 vaccination efforts to reach people experiencing unsheltered homelessness in Los Angeles County. A total of 117 PAs were enrolled at 103 events, participating for an average of 2 hours. Findings showed that 197 additional people were vaccinated over 167 PA hours, accounting for >25% of all vaccines given at these events, indicating that recruiting same-day unhoused PAs is a feasible, acceptable, and preliminarily effective technique to increase COVID-19 vaccination in unsheltered settings.
Citation: Shover CL, Rosen A, Mata J . Engaging same-day peer ambassadors to increase coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination among people experiencing unsheltered homelessness in Los Angeles County: a hybrid feasibility-evaluation study. J Infect Dis 2022 Oct 7;226(suppl 3):S346-s52. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiac291..
Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccination, Vulnerable Populations, Public Health
Glenn BA, Nonzee NJ, Herrmann AK
Impact of a multi-level, multi-component, system intervention on HPV vaccination in a federally qualified health center.
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-component, system-level intervention to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates in Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinics. The eight participating clinics were randomly assigned to study condition (four intervention, four usual care) that serve a primarily low-income Latino population. The intervention included parent reminders for HPV vaccine series completion, provider training, clinic-level audit and feedback, and workflow modifications to reduce missed opportunities for vaccination. The authors compared HPV vaccination rates among patients, ages 11 to 17 during a 12-month preintervention period and a 15-month intervention period. There was a greater increase in vaccination completion rates among boys, but not girls.
Citation: Glenn BA, Nonzee NJ, Herrmann AK . Impact of a multi-level, multi-component, system intervention on HPV vaccination in a federally qualified health center. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2022 Oct 4;31(10):1952-58. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.Epi-22-0156..
Keywords: Infectious Diseases, Sexual Health, Vaccination
Qin CX, Auerbach SR, Charnaya O
Antibody response to three SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in adolescent solid organ transplant recipients.
The purpose of this observational cohort study was to assess whether a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine would improve immunogenicity in adolescent solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), and to report the antibody response and safety of a third mRNA vaccine dose (D3) in adolescent SOTRs. Forty-two participants received three BNT162b2 doses and one received three mRNA-1273 doses. Participants were 6-13 years from transplant (median 10 [IQR]), and heart transplant was the most common procedure, in 41.9% of the participants. 9.3% of participants reported pre-D1 SARS-CoV-2 infections and 9.3% reported breakthrough infections. The study found that 88.4% of adolescent SOTRs had positive antibody responses 1 month post-D3, an increase from 63–73% post-D2. 54.5% of participants with prior negative responses seroconverted and 100% with positive responses increased or remained at maximum titer. Titers remained stable 3 months post-D3. There were no vaccine-related adverse events and four breakthrough infections. The researchers concluded that although this was a convenience sample, the results suggest there is an antibody response benefit to a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in adolescent SOTRs.
Citation: Qin CX, Auerbach SR, Charnaya O . Antibody response to three SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in adolescent solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2022 Oct;22(10):2481-83. doi: 10.1111/ajt.17085..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Vaccination, Transplantation
Khorasani S, Zubiago J, Carreiro J
Influenza vaccination in Massachusetts jails: a mixed-methods analysis.
The objectives of this study were to survey health administrators in Massachusetts county jails about institutional influenza vaccine policies and practices and estimate influenza vaccination rates in Massachusetts jails from 2013 to 2020. Findings showed that influenza vaccination rates in Massachusetts jails were low, and delivery practices in jails varied. The authors noted that lack of influenza vaccinations in jails is a gap in health care that needs to be prioritized, especially considering the current COVID-19 pandemic. They suggested that further investigations for effective and equitable vaccination in this population should involve people who are incarcerated and people who make influenza vaccine policies in jails.
Citation: Khorasani S, Zubiago J, Carreiro J . Influenza vaccination in Massachusetts jails: a mixed-methods analysis. Public Health Rep 2022 Sep-Oct;137(5):936-43. doi: 10.1177/00333549211041659..
Keywords: Influenza, Vaccination, Respiratory Conditions
Banerji A, Norton AE, Blumenthal KG
Rapid progress in our understanding of COVID-19 vaccine allergy: a cause for optimism, not hesitancy.
This paper is a review of current understanding of COVID-19 vaccine allergy. Rapid progress has been made over the past several years in large part due to important research efforts from individuals in the allergy community. Better data has shown safety of repeat vaccination despite an initial reaction. The review ran from December 2020 through early 2022.
AHRQ-funded; HS026395; HS025375
Citation: Banerji A, Norton AE, Blumenthal KG . Rapid progress in our understanding of COVID-19 vaccine allergy: a cause for optimism, not hesitancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2022 Jul;150(1):12-16. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.03.023..
Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccination, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
AHRQ Author: Huppert J
Adolescents with vulvar ulcers: COVID-19 disease, COVID-19 vaccines, and the value of case reports.
The author indicates that there are too few cases reporting aphthosis after COVID disease or COVID-19 vaccination to infer a statistical association, but that case reports are a valuable source of rich details about conditions that are difficult to study with more rigorous designs and can be synthesized to help guide medical care. She recommends that it is time for a high-quality systematic review of vulvar aphthosis in order for clinicians to incorporate the existing evidence into decision-making and best care for patients.
Citation: Huppert J . Adolescents with vulvar ulcers: COVID-19 disease, COVID-19 vaccines, and the value of case reports. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2022 Apr;35(2):109-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2022.01.006..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Vaccination, Research Methodologies
Chu DK, Abrams EM, Golden BK
Risk of second allergic reaction to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of case studies and case reports was to assess the risk of severe immediate allergic reactions to a second dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in people who experienced an immediate allergic reaction to the first dose. The researchers evaluated the World Health Organization Global Coronavirus database, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and Embase from the date of inception through October 4th, 2021. The main outcomes and measures were a risk of severe immediate allergic reaction and repeated severe immediate allergic reactions with a second vaccine dose. The study found that among 22 studies of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, 1366 individuals had immediate allergic reactions to their first vaccination. Of these, 87.8% were women with a mean age of 46.1 years. Six patients developed severe immediate allergic reactions after their second vaccination, 232 developed mild symptoms, and 1360 tolerated the dose. Among 78 persons with severe immediate allergic reactions to their first SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, 4 people had a second severe immediate reaction, and 15 had non-severe symptoms. There were no deaths. The study concluded that in a supervised setting equipped to manage severe allergic reactions, revaccination of individuals with an immediate allergic reaction to a first SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose can be safe.
Citation: Chu DK, Abrams EM, Golden BK . Risk of second allergic reaction to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med 2022 Apr;182(4):376-85. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.8515..
Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccination, Risk, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Choi K, Becerra-Culqui T, Bhakta B
Parent intentions to vaccinate children with autism spectrum disorder against COVID-19.
This study’s purpose was to investigate associations between parent vaccine confidence and intentions to have their child with autism vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine. A cross-sectional, web-based survey of 332 parents of children with autism spectrum disorder who were members of an integrated healthcare system in Southern California was conducted from May to July 2021. Approximately 35% of parents were going to vaccinate their child against COVID-19. Positive vaccine beliefs, healthcare provider trust, or parent vaccination status were associated with intention to vaccinate.
Citation: Choi K, Becerra-Culqui T, Bhakta B . Parent intentions to vaccinate children with autism spectrum disorder against COVID-19. J Pediatr Nurs 2022 Mar-Apr;63:108-10. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2021.11.019..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Vaccination, Autism, Chronic Conditions
Qin CX, Auerbach SR, Charnaya O
Antibody response to 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.
While many adult solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) have impaired antibody response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, pediatric SOTRs’ response has not been assessed. In this article, the researchers reported the immunogenicity and safety of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in pediatric SOTRs.
Citation: Qin CX, Auerbach SR, Charnaya O . Antibody response to 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2022 Feb;22(2):669-72. doi: 10.1111/ajt.16841..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Vaccination, COVID-19, Transplantation
Bastani R, Glenn BA, Singhal R
Increasing HPV vaccination among low-income, ethnic minority adolescents: effects of a multicomponent system intervention through a county health department hotline.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has cancer prevention benefits, yet low uptake. The purpose of the study was to evaluate an intervention intended to improve vaccine uptake in low-income, ethnic minority adolescents using a telephone hotline to seek county health department services. The researchers recruited participants through randomization of health department hotline callers who were caregivers of never-vaccinated adolescents aged 11-17. The intervention included multi-lingual print and telephone education and personalized referral to a low cost or free provider of vaccines. Participants completed baseline, 3-month, and 9-month telephone surveys. The study found that by the end of the 9-month follow up period, the HPV vaccination rates had increased, however there were no differences between the intervention (45%) and control (42%) groups. The researchers also observed significant improvements in perceived HPV knowledge, perceived HPV risk, and barriers to vaccination. The study concluded that the county hotline intervention did not produce a greater increase in HPV vaccine rates in the intervention group than the group without the intervention. The study authors recommend that future studies should evaluate interventions which are more intensive and address accessing and using services in complex, safety net settings. The authors also noted that because 44% of unvaccinated adolescents in both the intervention and control groups received at least one dose of the vaccine during the study period, investigators of future studies should be aware of the potential priming effects of participation in the study, which may impact the results of interventions.
Citation: Bastani R, Glenn BA, Singhal R . Increasing HPV vaccination among low-income, ethnic minority adolescents: effects of a multicomponent system intervention through a county health department hotline. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2022 Jan;31(1):175-82. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.Epi-20-1578..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Vaccination, Low-Income, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Sexual Health, Prevention
Koo G, Anvari S, Friedman DL
mRNA COVID-19 vaccine safety in patients with previous immediate hypersensitivity to pegaspargase.
The authors sought to understand the safety of PEG2000-containing mRNA COVID vaccines in patients who reported a label of immediate pegaspargase hypersensitivity. They found that all 19 studied patients tolerated their first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech SARS-CoV-2 vaccine with no symptoms. Subsequently, all 19 patients tolerated their second doses uneventfully as well.
Citation: Koo G, Anvari S, Friedman DL . mRNA COVID-19 vaccine safety in patients with previous immediate hypersensitivity to pegaspargase. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2022 Jan;10(1):322-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.09.051..
Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccination
Oster NV, Williams EC, Unger JM
A risk prediction model to identify newborns at risk for missing early childhood vaccinations.
Approximately 30% of US children aged 24 months have not received all recommended vaccines. This retrospective cohort study aimed to develop a prediction model to identify newborns at high risk for missing early childhood vaccines. The investigators concluded that their prediction model using information readily available in birth hospitalization records consistently identified newborns at high risk for undervaccination.
Citation: Oster NV, Williams EC, Unger JM . A risk prediction model to identify newborns at risk for missing early childhood vaccinations. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2021 Dec 31;10(12):1080-86. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piab073..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Vaccination, Risk
Feldman AG, O'Leary ST, Danziger-Isakov L
The risk of resurgence in vaccine-preventable infections due to coronavirus disease 2019-related gaps in immunization.
This paper discusses the decline in immunization delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. The global community is at risk for a resurgence in vaccine-preventable infections including measles, pertussis, and polio. Outbreaks in the United States are likely to occur when social distancing stops and children return to school. Partnerships between healthcare providers, community leaders, and local, state, regional, and national public health departments are needed to reassure families that vaccine delivery during COVID-19 is safe as well as to identify and catch up those children who are under-immunized.
Citation: Feldman AG, O'Leary ST, Danziger-Isakov L . The risk of resurgence in vaccine-preventable infections due to coronavirus disease 2019-related gaps in immunization. Clin Infect Dis 2021 Nov 16;73(10):1920-23. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab127..
Keywords: COVID-19, Children/Adolescents, Vaccination, Infectious Diseases
Cox SN, Wedlock PT, Pallas SW
A systems map of the economic considerations for vaccination: application to hard-to-reach populations.
The authors developed a systems map of the mechanisms involved in vaccination, and associated costs and benefits, focused at the service delivery level, in order to identify the mechanisms that may be different for hard-to-reach populations. They concluded that decision-makers can use this systems map to understand where steps in the vaccination process may be interrupted or weak and identify where gaps exist in the understanding of the economics of vaccination. With improved understanding of system-wide effects, their map can help decision-makers inform targeted interventions and policies to increase vaccination coverage in hard-to-reach populations.
AHRQ-funded; HS023317; HS028165.
Citation: Cox SN, Wedlock PT, Pallas SW . A systems map of the economic considerations for vaccination: application to hard-to-reach populations. Vaccine 2021 Nov 5;39(46):6796-804. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.05.033..
Keywords: Vaccination, Healthcare Costs
Krantz MS, Stone CA, Rolando LA
An academic hospital experience screening mRNA COVID-19 vaccine risk using patient allergy history.
This retrospective cohort study examined the outcomes of screening mRNA COVID-19 vaccine risk using patient-reported anaphylactic history at a single academic hospital employee vaccination program. Although rare, m-RNA COVID-19 vaccines have been contraindicated in patients with known allergy to polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2000 present in the lipid nanoparticle carrier system of these vaccines. Health care workers and other affiliates who met criteria based on the Tennessee Department of Health COVID-19 Vaccination Plan received the first dose of Pfizer m-RNA vaccine. Out of 23,035 individuals who were screened before dose 1, 31 reported a high-risk allergy history that triggered a focused review by the Allergist On-Call. Out of those 31, only 3 were recommended not to proceed to Dose 1 and were referred to the Drug Allergy Clinic for assessment. Ultimately, all individuals were cleared to receive their first dose, and none reported an adverse reaction.
Citation: Krantz MS, Stone CA, Rolando LA . An academic hospital experience screening mRNA COVID-19 vaccine risk using patient allergy history. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Oct;9(10):3807-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.07.010..
Keywords: COVID-19, Screening, Vaccination
Bartsch SM, Wedlock PT, O'Shea KJ
Lives and costs saved by expanding and expediting coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination.
The authors developed a computational model representing the United States population, COVID-19 coronavirus spread (February 2020-December 2022), and vaccination to determine the impact of increasing coverage and expediting time to achieve coverage. They concluded that their study quantified the potential value of decreasing vaccine hesitancy and increasing vaccination coverage and how this value may decrease with the time it takes to achieve coverage, emphasizing the need to reach high coverage levels as soon as possible, especially before the fall/winter.
Citation: Bartsch SM, Wedlock PT, O'Shea KJ . Lives and costs saved by expanding and expediting coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination. J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 17;224(6):938-48. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiab233..
Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccination, Public Health
Hofstetter AM, Opel DJ, Stockwell MS
Associations between health care professional communication practices and influenza vaccination of hospitalized children.
The objective of this study was to describe the communication of health care professionals (HCPs) with parents of hospitalized children concerning the influenza vaccine. A survey was conducted online or via telephone with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of influenza vaccine-eligible children hospitalized at a pediatric hospital after discharge. Findings showed that a parent-reported HCP conversation and recommendation were associated with influenza vaccination during hospitalization.
Citation: Hofstetter AM, Opel DJ, Stockwell MS . Associations between health care professional communication practices and influenza vaccination of hospitalized children. Acad Pediatr 2021 Sep-Oct;21(7):1142-50. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.06.014..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Influenza, Vaccination, Communication, Health Promotion, Clinician-Patient Communication
Dutta S, McEvoy DS, Stump T
Clinical decision support reduces unnecessary tetanus vaccinations in the emergency department.
The authors implemented a clinical decision support alert in the electronic health record that warned providers when ordering a tetanus vaccine if a prior one had been given within 10 years and studied its efficacy to reduce potentially unnecessary vaccines in the ED. They found that a clinical decision support alert that warns ED clinicians that a patient may have an up-to-date tetanus vaccination status reduced potentially unnecessary vaccinations.
Citation: Dutta S, McEvoy DS, Stump T . Clinical decision support reduces unnecessary tetanus vaccinations in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 2021 Sep;78(3):370-80. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2021.02.021..
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Decision Making, Vaccination, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Holaday LW, Balasuriya L, Roy B
Medicare beneficiaries' plans for the COVID-19 vaccine in Fall 2020, and why some planned to decline.
This study uses data from a survey of Medicare beneficiaries conducted in the fall of 2020 before the COVID-19 vaccine was approved to try and predict COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and decline rates. A cross-sectional analysis using the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) Fall COVID-19 Supplement was used to conduct telephone interviews administered by NORC at the University of Chicago. The analysis included 8,455 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries, representative of 50.2 million people. Overall, 58.7% said they would get the vaccine, 15.3% said they would not, and 26.1% were unsure. Least likely to say they would get a vaccine were beneficiaries under 65 years old (48.8%), Black beneficiaries (36.2%) and Hispanic beneficiaries (50.5%). Reasons given for not planning to get vaccinated included 1) the vaccine could have side effects or is not safe (42.4%), 2) do not trust what the government says about the vaccine (42.4%), 3) do not think the vaccine would prevent COVID-19 (11.%), and 4) do not like vaccines or needles (8.2%). Black and Hispanic beneficiaries were more likely to say they were declining because they don’t trust the government than White beneficiaries. Younger beneficiaries were more likely to say the vaccine could cause COVID-19, and only 2% of respondents said they would decline the vaccine because COVID-19 is not serious. The latter group was disproportionately male (77.5%) and White (94.5%).
AHRQ-funded; HS022882; HS025164.
Citation: Holaday LW, Balasuriya L, Roy B . Medicare beneficiaries' plans for the COVID-19 vaccine in Fall 2020, and why some planned to decline. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Sep;69(9):2434-37. doi: 10.1111/jgs.17285..
Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccination, Medicare
Khorasani SB, Koutoujian PJ, Zubiago J
COVID-19 vaccine interest among corrections officers and people who are incarcerated at Middlesex County jail, Massachusetts.
The Middlesex [Massachusetts] Sheriff’s Office developed and distributed two self-response surveys to assess COVID-19 vaccine willingness among people incarcerated in the jail and among people who work at the jail. The goal of this study was to characterize vaccine willingness in these two populations at the Middlesex House of Correction and Jail. Findings showed that 59% of people incarcerated in jail did not want the COVID-19 vaccine, while 82% of jail staff were interested in receiving the vaccine. Among people who were incarcerated, those who identified as Black had significantly decreased odds of wanting the vaccine compared to those who identified as white. Race was not significantly associated with vaccine willingness among jail employees when adjusting for role and gender.
Citation: Khorasani SB, Koutoujian PJ, Zubiago J . COVID-19 vaccine interest among corrections officers and people who are incarcerated at Middlesex County jail, Massachusetts. J Urban Health 2021 Aug;98(4):459-63. doi: 10.1007/s11524-021-00545-y..
Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccination, Vulnerable Populations
Caballero ML, Krantz MS, Quirce S
Hidden dangers: recognizing excipients as potential causes of drug and vaccine hypersensitivity reactions.
In this paper, the authors provided a review of the evidence-based literature outlining epidemiology and mechanisms of excipient reactions and provided strategies for heightened recognition and allergy testing.
Citation: Caballero ML, Krantz MS, Quirce S . Hidden dangers: recognizing excipients as potential causes of drug and vaccine hypersensitivity reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Aug;9(8):2968-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.03.002..
Keywords: Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Medication, Medication: Safety, Vaccination, Patient Safety
Hofstetter AM, Opel DJ, Stockwell MS
Influenza-related knowledge, beliefs, and experiences among caregivers of hospitalized children.
Caregivers frequently decline influenza vaccine for their hospitalized child. In this study, the investigators aimed to examine factors impacting their influenza vaccine decision-making. The investigators conducted a cross-sectional survey study of English- and Spanish-speaking caregivers of children hospitalized at a tertiary care pediatric hospital between November 2017 and April 2018.They identified key factors impacting influenza vaccine decision-making among caregivers of hospitalized children, a critical step to improving uptake in this population.
Citation: Hofstetter AM, Opel DJ, Stockwell MS . Influenza-related knowledge, beliefs, and experiences among caregivers of hospitalized children. Hosp Pediatr 2021 Aug;11(8):815-32. doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2020-003459..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Caregiving, Influenza, Vaccination
Orenstein EW, ElSayed-Ali O, Kandaswamy S
Evaluation of a clinical decision support strategy to increase seasonal influenza vaccination among hospitalized children before inpatient discharge.
The authors’ goal was to design and evaluate a clinical decision support (CDS) strategy to increase the proportion of eligible hospitalized children who receive a seasonal influenza vaccine prior to inpatient discharge. They found that a user-centered CDS may be associated with significantly improved influenza vaccination rates among hospitalized children.
Citation: Orenstein EW, ElSayed-Ali O, Kandaswamy S . Evaluation of a clinical decision support strategy to increase seasonal influenza vaccination among hospitalized children before inpatient discharge. JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul;4(7):e2117809. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17809..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Influenza, Vaccination, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Health Information Technology (HIT), Hospital Discharge
Glenn BA, Nonzee NJ, Tieu L
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the transition between adolescence and adulthood.
This study looked at the barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young adults receiving care at the student health center of a large public university. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews (n=27) and four focus groups with undergraduate and graduate students (n=18) and semi-structured interviews with 6 health care providers. The interviews and focus groups explored perceived risk of HPV infection, benefits of the HPV vaccine, and motivations for and barriers to HPV vaccination. Many students cited their parents’ views and recommendations from their medical providers as influential on their decision-making process. Cervical cancer prevention was considered the main benefit of the HPV vaccine and sexual activity was a risk factor for HPV infection. Students often lacked knowledge about the vaccine’s benefit for males. Safety and side effects of the vaccine perceived as new were also cited. Providers’ vaccine recommendations were impacted by health system factors including clinical infrastructure, office visit priorities, and processes for recommending and documentation vaccination. Providers suggested various promotion strategies including improving the timing and messaging of outreach efforts on campus and bolstering clinical infrastructure.
Citation: Glenn BA, Nonzee NJ, Tieu L . Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the transition between adolescence and adulthood. Vaccine 2021 Jun 8;39(25):3435-44. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.04.019..
Keywords: Young Adults, Sexual Health, Infectious Diseases, Vaccination, Prevention, Cancer: Cervical Cancer, Cancer, Women
Hofstetter AM, Schaffer S
Childhood and adolescent vaccination in alternative settings.
This article reviews the unique advantages, challenges, and experiences regarding vaccine delivery in alternative settings, such as schools, emergency rooms, hospitals, and pharmacies. It describes the key components that each setting must possess as well as other important factors to consider when assessing the ability of each to deliver vaccines to the children and adolescents they serve. It is important to emphasize that these settings should not replace the medical home as the primary location for vaccination, but rather serve as a critical safety net for high-risk individuals and communities and in situations where access to traditional locations may be limited, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Citation: Hofstetter AM, Schaffer S . Childhood and adolescent vaccination in alternative settings. Acad Pediatr 2021 May-Jun;21(4s):S50-s56. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.02.001..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Vaccination, Healthcare Delivery, Public Health