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AHRQ Research Studies
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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 97 Research Studies Displayed
Goldstein E, King C, Crits-Cristoph P
The association between trauma and interpersonal problems in a United States community mental health setting.
Prior studies have established connections between traumatic experiences and issues in interpersonal relationships. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of trauma on interpersonal difficulties in depressed individuals seeking assistance within a community mental health framework. The study included 453 patients who sought treatment and were screened for a comparative effectiveness analysis of depression therapies. The relationship between the 32-item Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-32) and trauma indicators was investigated. The study found that a staggering 99.1% of participants had undergone a traumatic event. Notable correlations were identified between the total count of traumas, the number of sexually and physically abusive traumas, and factors such as gender and ethnicity. The number of sexually abusive traumas demonstrated a significant connection to the IIP-32 "excessively nurturing" subscale. After adjusting for demographic variables and other IIP-32 subscales, the overall number of traumas retained a significant association with the IIP-32 "excessively nurturing" category.
Citation: Goldstein E, King C, Crits-Cristoph P . The association between trauma and interpersonal problems in a United States community mental health setting. J Clin Psychol 2023 Apr;79(4):1192-207. doi: 10.1002/jclp.23467.
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Community-Based Practice
Kaufman EJ, Khatri U, Hall EC
Law enforcement in the trauma bay: a survey of members of the American Academy for the Surgery of Trauma.
This study surveyed members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) to assess their perspectives on frequency, circumstances, and implications of law enforcement officer (LEO) presence in trauma bays nationwide. The survey was distributed electronically to AAST members in September and October 2020, with 234 responding. Of those respondents, 189 (80.7%) were attending surgeons, 169 (72.2%) identified as white, and 144 (61.5%) as male. 187 respondents (79.9%) observed LEO presence at least weekly. Respondents found LEOs helpful for public safety, followed by clinical care, and then for patients. Older respondents rated LEO presence as helpful more often than younger respondents. Respondents assessed severity of the patient's condition, the safety of emergency department staff, the safety of LEOs, and a patient's potential role as a threat to public safety when determining LEO access.
Citation: Kaufman EJ, Khatri U, Hall EC . Law enforcement in the trauma bay: a survey of members of the American Academy for the Surgery of Trauma. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2023 Mar 13;8(1):e001022. doi: 10.1136/tsaco-2022-001022.
Keywords: Emergency Department
Wells KB, Skrine Jeffers K, Mango J
Integration of arts and health sciences in developing an opera on veteran resilience and recovery.
This case study describes development of an opera on veteran resilience and recovery that integrated arts and health sciences. The opera libretto was developed using themes informed from deidentified interviews from 280 adults with a history of depression at 10-year follow-up to a randomized trial. The opera was written using the following key themes: a) resilience in the face of stress; b) post-Vietnam depression or anxiety; c) pathways to recovery; and d) a “collage” of coping strategies. Three main lead characters were developed including a lead veteran, the veteran’s wife, and a second veteran.
Citation: Wells KB, Skrine Jeffers K, Mango J . Integration of arts and health sciences in developing an opera on veteran resilience and recovery. Health Promot Pract 2023 Mar; 24(2):207-13. doi: 10.1177/15248399211065402..
Keywords: Veterans, Social Stigma, Behavioral Health
Scott JW, Scott KW, Moniz M
Financial outcomes after traumatic injury among working-age US adults with commercial insurance.
This cross-sectional study linked insurance claims and consumer credit report data to evaluate the experience of financial distress in commercially insured adults after traumatic injury. Data from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan’s preferred provider organization insurance claims from 2019 through 2021 were included. The authors identified working-age adults aged 21 to 64 whose January 2021 credit reports occurred more than 6 months after hospital admission for traumatic injury. This cohort of 3164 adults was compared demographically to 2223 patients in the comparison cohort. Relative to the comparison cohort, the post injury cohort had a 23% higher likelihood of having medical debt in collections, a 70% higher amount of medical debt in collections, and a 110% higher bankruptcy rate. For many commercially insured patients, the burden of out-of-pocket costs after hospitalization exceeded their ability to pay and could be associated with bankruptcy risk.
AHRQ-funded; HS028672; HS025465; HS028817.
Citation: Scott JW, Scott KW, Moniz M . Financial outcomes after traumatic injury among working-age US adults with commercial insurance. JAMA Health Forum 2022 Nov;3(11):e224105. doi: 10.1001/jamahealthforum.2022.4105..
Keywords: Healthcare Costs, Health Insurance
Bowden CF, Simmel C, Mendez A
The complexity of psychotropic medication prescription and treating trauma among youth in foster care: perspectives from the lived experience.
The purpose of this study was to examine stakeholders' perspectives of the relationship between psychotropic medications and trauma informed care (TIC) for youth in foster care. The researchers recruited foster caseworkers, prescribing clinicians, caregivers, and alumni of the foster care system and conducted semi-structured individual and group interviews. Data were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a directed content analysis approach. Five themes emerged across the recorded and transcribed data within stakeholder groups: 1) acknowledging trauma; 2) role of psychotropic medication; 3) psychosocial resources; 4) additional supports; and, 5) training and education. Stakeholders identified TIC as an important component of mental health services for youth in foster care. Most stakeholders felt that psychotropic medication was overused in treating trauma. Respondents suggested including additional supportive team members to help guide youth through the mental health treatment system and stated the importance of support from individuals with common lived experiences. The study concluded that there is a need for: improved training and education for stakeholders, additional sources of support for youth in foster care, and an overall system that emphasizes trauma-sensitive clinical interactions and psychosocial supports.
Citation: Bowden CF, Simmel C, Mendez A . The complexity of psychotropic medication prescription and treating trauma among youth in foster care: perspectives from the lived experience. Adm Policy Ment Health 2022 Sep;49(5):821-33. doi: 10.1007/s10488-022-01203-4..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Vulnerable Populations, Behavioral Health, Medication
The lasting consequences of childhood sexual abuse on human capital and economic well-being.
The objective of this study was to examine impacts on human capital and economic well-being of childhood sexual abuse by estimating likely ranges around causal effects, using a nationally representative U.S. sample. Findings suggested that childhood sexual abuse led to lower educational attainment and worse labor market outcomes. Further, childhood sexual abuse by someone other than a caregiver was as influential or more so than caregiver sexual abuse in predicting worse outcomes.
Citation: Henkhaus LE . The lasting consequences of childhood sexual abuse on human capital and economic well-being. Health Econ 2022 Sep;31(9):1954-72. doi: 10.1002/hec.4557..
Marks MR, Dux MC, Rao V
Treatment patterns of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic brain injury.
Investigators examined psychotropic medication use and psychotherapy patterns among individuals diagnosed with anxiety disorders and PTSD post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). They found that receipt of pharmacotherapy pre- and post-TBI was considerably more common than receipt of psychotherapy. Individuals diagnosed with anxiety were 66% less likely to receive psychotherapy compared with individuals diagnosed with PTSD. Overall, psychotropic medication use and rates of antidepressant prescription use in the anxiety group were higher compared to those in the PTSD group.
Citation: Marks MR, Dux MC, Rao V . Treatment patterns of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2022 Summer;34(3):247-53. doi: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.21040104..
Keywords: Anxiety, Behavioral Health, Brain Injury, Treatments, Practice Patterns, Medication
Danan ER, Brunner J, Bergman A
The relationship between sexual assault history and cervical cancer screening completion among women veterans in the Veterans Health Administration.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a history of sexual assault in women Veterans is associated with decreased cervical cancer screening completion. The researchers analyzed data from a 2015 survey of 1049 women Veterans who accessed primary care services at 12 Veterans health administration facilities (VA’s) in nine states, and linked responses with electronic health data from the VA system. Fifty-seven percent (616) of women Veterans reported lifetime sexual assault, and those who did so had a greater likelihood of reporting a high level of distress associated with pelvic examinations and delaying a gynecologic exam due to distress. However, in the final adjusted model, there was not a significant association between lifetime sexual assault and reduced odds of cervical cancer screening completion. The study concluded that there was no significant association between sexual assault and gaps in cervical cancer screening completion.
Citation: Danan ER, Brunner J, Bergman A . The relationship between sexual assault history and cervical cancer screening completion among women veterans in the Veterans Health Administration. J Womens Health 2022 Jul;31(7):1040-47. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2021.0237.AHRQ-funded; HS026379..
Keywords: Women, Veterans, Cancer: Cervical Cancer, Cancer, Screening
Neiman PU, Flaherty MM, Salim A
Evaluating the complex association between social vulnerability index and trauma mortality.
Researchers merged CDC Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) data with a statewide trauma registry and employed three analytic models to evaluate the association between SVI quartile and inpatient trauma mortality. Results showed that, while higher SVI was associated with worse mortality in the unadjusted model, there was no significant association between SVI and inpatient mortality after adjusting for covariates common to trauma. Higher SVI was associated with a higher likelihood of presenting with penetrating injuries. These findings suggested that the burden of trauma mortality is not driven by variation in quality of treatment, but by lethality of injuries. The researchers concluded that improvement in trauma survival among high-risk communities will require interventions and policies which target social and structural inequities upstream of trauma center admission.
AHRQ-funded; HS028672; HS027788.
Citation: Neiman PU, Flaherty MM, Salim A . Evaluating the complex association between social vulnerability index and trauma mortality. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2022 May; 92(5):821-30. doi: 10.1097/ta.0000000000003514..
Keywords: Social Determinants of Health, Mortality
Maughan BC, Lin A, Caughey AB
Field trauma triage among older adults: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
The authors evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a high-sensitivity triage strategy for older adults. They used a microsimulation model with a retrospective cohort of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries transported by emergency medical services after an acute injury. They found that high-sensitivity trauma field triage is not cost-effective among older adults.
Citation: Maughan BC, Lin A, Caughey AB . Field trauma triage among older adults: a cost-effectiveness analysis. J Am Coll Surg 2022 Feb 1;234(2):139-54. doi: 10.1097/xcs.0000000000000025..
Keywords: Elderly, Healthcare Costs, Value
Hoonakker PLT, Hose BZ, Carayon P
Scenario-based evaluation of team health information technology to support pediatric trauma care transitions.
This study’s objective was to examine if the Teamwork Transition Technology (T(3)) supports teams and team cognition. Using a scenario-based mock-up methodology with 36 clinicians and staff from the different units and departments who are involved in pediatric trauma to examine T(3), results showed that most participants agreed that the technology helped to achieve the goals set out in the design phase. Respondents thought that T(3) organized and presented information in a different way that was helpful to them. The authors concluded that the results of their evaluation showed that participants agreed that T(3) does support them in their work and increases their situation awareness.
Citation: Hoonakker PLT, Hose BZ, Carayon P . Scenario-based evaluation of team health information technology to support pediatric trauma care transitions. Appl Clin Inform 2022 Jan;13(1):218-29. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-1742368.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Transitions of Care, Health Information Technology (HIT), Teams
Johnson BN, McKernan L
Co-occurring trauma and non-suicidal self-injury among people with chronic pain: a systematic review.
The authors conducted a systematic review on the intersection of trauma, chronic pain, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). They found that self-harm rates varied across studies, though appeared elevated among patients with chronic pain, and childhood trauma was linked to this co-occurrence. Further, causal links between trauma, NSSI, and pain were proposed, highlighting the need for a comprehensive theoretical model. They recommended assessing for childhood trauma when treating patients with chronic pain and querying regarding NSSI when patients present with indicators of NSSI risk and to treat or refer such patients to specialized treatment.
Citation: Johnson BN, McKernan L . Co-occurring trauma and non-suicidal self-injury among people with chronic pain: a systematic review. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2021 Nov 11;25(11):70. doi: 10.1007/s11916-021-00984-x..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Chronic Conditions
Holler E, Meagher AD, Ortiz D
Preinjury functional independence is not associated with discharge location in older trauma patients.
This study’s purpose was to evaluate the association between pre-injury Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL) functional status and discharge to a facility in non-neurologically injured trauma patients. Data from 207 subjects in the Trauma Medical Home study cohort was obtained. Patients were predominantly white (89.4%) and female (52.2%). The most common trauma injury was a fall (48.3%), followed by automobile crash (41.1%). There was no relationship between pre-injury independence and the likelihood of discharge home. Over half of patients (51.7%) were discharged home, 37.7% to subacute rehabilitation., 10.1% to acute rehabilitation, and 0.5% to long-term acute care. Patients who self-reported depression and anxiety who weren’t sent home was associated with age, being single, and being female.
Citation: Holler E, Meagher AD, Ortiz D . Preinjury functional independence is not associated with discharge location in older trauma patients. J Surg Res 2021 Oct;266:413-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2021.04.029..
Keywords: Elderly, Hospital Discharge
Bongiovanni T, Hernandez S, Ledesma Y
Surviving traumatic injury, only to die of acute drug poisoning: should trauma centers be a path for intervention?
This study’s objective was to determine the incidence and characteristics of and risk factors for trauma patients suffering death by unintentional drug overdose. This retrospective chart review was conducted on all admitted trauma patients 18 years or older at the only level-1 trauma center in the San Francisco area from 2012 to 2012, matched with unintentional overdose decedents from the California death registry. Of 9,860 patients residing in San Francisco at the time of their trauma during the study period 1,418 died, 107 (0.3/100 person-years) from unintentional overdose. Overdose decedents were 84% male, 50% white, with a mean age of 48 years. Twenty percent of deaths occurred within 3 months of hospitalization, and 40% were attributed to a prescription opioid.
AHRQ-funded; HS026383; 233201500020I.
Citation: Bongiovanni T, Hernandez S, Ledesma Y . Surviving traumatic injury, only to die of acute drug poisoning: should trauma centers be a path for intervention? Surgery 2021 Oct;170(4):1249-54. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2021.03.003.
AHRQ-funded; HS026383; 233201500020I..
AHRQ-funded; HS026383; 233201500020I..
Keywords: Medication, Risk, Mortality
Bradbury KR, Williams C, Leonard S
Emotional aspects of pediatric post-intensive care syndrome following traumatic brain injury.
This study assessed parent-reported emotional functioning in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and identified risk factors for emotional sequelae in the acute recovery phase. Results from logistic regression indicated that only elevated parent PTSD symptoms were a significant predictor for child anxiety and depressive symptoms. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were prevalent in the acute recovery phase of TBI. Consistent with previous research, elevations in anxiety and depressive symptoms were more related to psychosocial factors than to injury severity.
Citation: Bradbury KR, Williams C, Leonard S . Emotional aspects of pediatric post-intensive care syndrome following traumatic brain injury. J Child Adolesc Trauma 2021 Jun;14(2):177-87. doi: 10.1007/s40653-020-00332-y..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Brain Injury, Neurological Disorders
Anderson MC, Evans E, Zonfrillo MR
Rural/urban differences in discharge from rehabilitation in older adults with traumatic brain injury.
This study compared differences in outcomes for older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rural and urban settings by 1) comparing the rates of successful community discharge; and 2) reasons for not achieving successful discharge. This retrospective national cohort study looked at skilled nursing facility (SNF) patients aged 66 and older using Medicare inpatient claims with Minimum Data Set assessments. A total of 11,771 SNFs were identified with a total population of 61,021 Medicare beneficiaries discharged to a SNF following hospitalization for TBI between 2011 and 2015. Patients in rural settings had lower rates of successful discharge compared with patients in urban settings (52.1% vs 58.5%). Reasons for unsuccessful discharge differed between rural and urban settings with rural patients less likely to discharged from SNF within 100 days although they were less likely to be rehospitalized within 30 days of SNF discharge.
Citation: Anderson MC, Evans E, Zonfrillo MR . Rural/urban differences in discharge from rehabilitation in older adults with traumatic brain injury. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jun;69(6):1601-08. doi: 10.1111/jgs.17065..
Keywords: Elderly, Brain Injury, Rural Health, Urban Health, Rehabilitation, Nursing Homes
Piantino JA, Lin A, Luther M
Simultaneous heart rate variability and electroencephalographic monitoring in children in the emergency department.
This study’s objective was to determine the clinical value of using changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalographic (EEG) background in children with acute trauma seen in the Emergency Department (ED) as early predictors of outcome. A novel wireless monitoring device was piloted in 17 patients with 15 patients having EEG data rated as appropriate for clinical interpretation. This was compared to EEG and HRV data successfully collected in 167 subjects. Results showed recording early HRV and EEG is feasible in children with acute injury. This new tool may offer an early, non-invasive marker for injury stratification and prognosis in children.
Citation: Piantino JA, Lin A, Luther M . Simultaneous heart rate variability and electroencephalographic monitoring in children in the emergency department. J Child Adolesc Trauma 2021 Jun;14(2):165-75. doi: 10.1007/s40653-020-00313-1..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Outcomes
Rosenman ED, Misisco A, Olenick J
Does team leader gender matter? A Bayesian reconciliation of leadership and patient care during trauma resuscitations.
This study assessed and compared team leadership and patient care in trauma resuscitations led by male and female physicians. A secondary analysis of data from a larger randomized controlled trial using video recordings of resuscitations at a Level 1 trauma center from April 2016 to December 2017 was conducted. A total of 60 participants and 120 video observations were included in the analysis. There was a weak positive effect for female leaders for both patient care and team leadership. Gender-based advantages to team leadership and clinical care were not conclusive with the exception of rejecting a strong male advantage to team leadership.
Citation: Rosenman ED, Misisco A, Olenick J . Does team leader gender matter? A Bayesian reconciliation of leadership and patient care during trauma resuscitations. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2021 Feb;2(1):e12348. doi: 10.1002/emp2.12348..
Keywords: Teams, Critical Care, Provider: Physician, Provider
Azadani EN, Townsend J, Peng J
The association between traumatic dental and brain injuries in American children.
This study examined the association between dento-alveolar trauma (DAT) and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among children ages 0-18 years. The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), an HCUP dataset, was analyzed using ICD-9-CM codes for the 2010-2014 NEDS data. Out of 6,281,658 emergency department (ED) visits, DAT was recorded in 93,408 (1.5%) visits and TBI was recorded in 996,334 (15.9%) visits. Of the DAT-positive encounters, 7.5% had codes associated with TBI. Patients with DAT had 0.20 odds of having TBI compared with patients who did not DAT when all confounding variables were kept constant. Multiple injuries, being involved in motor vehicle crashes, and injuries due to assault were associated with higher odds of concomitant TBI in patients who sustained DAT.
Citation: Azadani EN, Townsend J, Peng J . The association between traumatic dental and brain injuries in American children. Dent Traumatol 2021 Feb;37(1):114-22. doi: 10.1111/edt.12611..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Neurological Disorders, Dental and Oral Health
Luther M, Poppert Cordts KM, Williams CN
Sleep disturbances after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and association with recovery.
This is a systematic review to quantify sleep wake disturbances (SWD) after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). These SWD can place children at risk for worse outcomes since sleep is needed for brain development and healing after injury. They also evaluated interventions for SWD and the association between SWD and other post-traumatic outcomes. Literature was searched from 1999-2019 evaluating sleep or fatigue in children hospitalized for TBI. Two independent reviewers assessed quality of the studies using the Newcastle-Ottowa Score for observational studies. Out of 966 identified articles, 126 full text articles were reviewed and 24 studies were included. Studies showed at least 20% of children with TBI had some degree of SWD including trouble falling or staying asleep, fatigue, daytime fatigue, and nightmares. SWD was negatively correlated with cognitive, behavioral, and quality of life outcomes. There was moderate-high risk of bias for all studies due to small sample size and lack of validated or objective SWD measures.
Citation: Luther M, Poppert Cordts KM, Williams CN . Sleep disturbances after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and association with recovery. Sleep 2020 Oct;43(10):zsaa083. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsaa083..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Sleep Problems, Brain Injury, Neurological Disorders, Risk, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Quality of Life, Evidence-Based Practice
Otto L, Wang A, Wheeler K
Comparison of manual and computer assigned injury severity scores.
The study objective was to compare the ISS manually assigned by hospital personnel and those generated by the ICDPIC software for value agreement and predictive power of length of stay (LOS) and mortality. The investigators found that the LOS and mortality predictive power were significantly higher for manually assigned ISS when compared with computer assigned ISS in both PTC and NTDB data sets. They indicated that hospitals should be cautious about transitioning to computer assigned ISS, specifically for patients who are critically injured.
Citation: Otto L, Wang A, Wheeler K . Comparison of manual and computer assigned injury severity scores. Inj Prev 2020 Aug;26(4):330-33. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043224..
Keywords: Health Information Technology (HIT), Injuries and Wounds, Hospitals
Johnson BN, Lumley MA, Cheavens JS
Exploring the links among borderline personality disorder symptoms, trauma, and pain in patients with chronic pain disorders.
The authors compared study participants high or low on borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms on patterns of pain experience and types of child and adult traumas. They found that BPD symptoms were associated with increased clinical severity among patients with chronic pain as well as a unique manifestation of pain experiencing. Childhood trauma of all types is associated with chronic pain and BPD co-occurrence. They recommended that researchers and clinicians assess for BPD in people with chronic pain to enhance conceptual models of the transaction between these disorders and to improve clinical care.
Citation: Johnson BN, Lumley MA, Cheavens JS . Exploring the links among borderline personality disorder symptoms, trauma, and pain in patients with chronic pain disorders. J Psychosom Res 2020 Aug;135:110164. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110164..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Pain, Chronic Conditions
Darling KE, Ranzenhofer LM, Hadley W
Negative childhood experiences and disordered eating in adolescents in a weight management program: the role of depressive symptoms.
This cross-sectional study examined the association between stressful life events and weight-related outcomes including weight status, disordered eating behaviors, and insulin sensitivity in treatment-seeking adolescents with overweight and obesity. The authors were also looking at the potential mediating role of depression. The study included 170 adolescents (mean age 14.8, 62% female) enrolled in an interdisciplinary weight management program. Findings were that stressful childhood experiences were significantly related to weight status and disordered eating but not insulin sensitivity. Depressive symptoms were related to stressful experiences and disordered eating patterns but not weight status or insulin sensitivity.
Citation: Darling KE, Ranzenhofer LM, Hadley W . Negative childhood experiences and disordered eating in adolescents in a weight management program: the role of depressive symptoms. Eat Behav 2020 Aug;38:101402. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2020.101402..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Obesity: Weight Management, Obesity, Stress, Depression, Behavioral Health
Porter A, Brown CC, Tilford JM
Association of insurance status with treatment and outcomes in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
This study’s objective was to determine if a health insurance disparity exists among pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury using data from the National Trauma Data Bank. The Bank contains data from more than 800 trauma centers in the United States. Isolated traumatic brain injury was defined as patients with a head Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 3+. Procedure codes were used to identify four primary treatment approaches combined into 2 classifications: craniotomy or craniectomy and external or intracranial ventricular draining. Condition at admission was defined including hypotension, Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanism and intent of injury, and Injury Severity Scale. Among the cohort of 12,449 patients, 91% had insurance and 9% were uninsured. Children without insurance had worse condition at admission with higher rates of hypotension and higher Injury Severity Score when compared with publicly and privately insured patients. Having insurance was associated with a 32% increase in the odds of cranial procedures, and 54% increase in the odds of monitor placement. Insurance coverage was associated 25% lower odds of inpatient mortality. Further study is needed to determine what factors lead to worse condition at admission.
Citation: Porter A, Brown CC, Tilford JM . Association of insurance status with treatment and outcomes in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med 2020 Jul;48(7):e584-e91. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000004398..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Brain Injury, Health Insurance, Access to Care, Uninsured, Outcomes
Morris RS, Davis NJ, Koestner A
Redefining the trauma triage matrix: the role of emergent interventions.
In this retrospective study, researchers compared the effectiveness of the need for an emergent intervention within 6 h (NEI-6) with existing definitions. Using data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program, they found that NEI-6 performs better than trauma triage matrix, need for trauma intervention, and secondary triage assessment tool in terms of under-triage, mortality and need for resource utilization. Other methods resulted in significantly more full-tiered trauma team activations than NEI-6 without identifying patients at risk for early mortality. They concluded that NEI-6 represents a novel tool to determine trauma activation appropriateness.
Citation: Morris RS, Davis NJ, Koestner A . Redefining the trauma triage matrix: the role of emergent interventions. J Surg Res 2020 Jul;251:195-201. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2019.11.011..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Healthcare Delivery