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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 25 of 286 Research Studies Displayed
Eddelbuettel JCP, Barry CL, Kennedy-Hendricks A
High-deductible health plans and nonfatal opioid overdose.
This study examined whether an employer offering a high-deductible health plan (HDHP) had an impact on nonfatal opioid overdose among commercially insured individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) in the United States. The authors used deidentified insurance claims data from 2007 to 2017 with 97,788 person-years. They estimated the change in the probability of a nonfatal opioid overdose among enrollees with OUD whose employers began offering an HDHP insurance option during the study period compared with the change among those whose employer never offered an HDHP. Across both groups, 2% of the sample experienced a nonfatal opioid overdose during the study period. They found no association of HDHP with an observed increase in the probability of nonfatal opioid overdose among commercially insured person-years with OUD.
Citation: Eddelbuettel JCP, Barry CL, Kennedy-Hendricks A . High-deductible health plans and nonfatal opioid overdose. Med Care 2023 Sep; 61(9):601-04. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001886..
Keywords: Healthcare Costs, Health Insurance, Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health
Somohano VC, Smith CL, Saha S
Patient-provider shared decision-making, trust, and opioid misuse among US veterans prescribed long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain.
This article examined the role that trust in a prescribing provider has on shared decision-making and opioid misuse in opioid-specific pain management. A secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study was conducted of US Veterans (N = 1273) prescribed long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) for chronic non-cancer pain. Patient-provider shared decision-making had a total significant effect on opioid misuse, in the absence of the mediator, such that higher levels of shared decision-making were associated with lower levels of reported opioid misuse. When trust in provider was added to the mediation model, the indirect effect of shared decision-making on opioid misuse through trust in provider remained significant.
Citation: Somohano VC, Smith CL, Saha S . Patient-provider shared decision-making, trust, and opioid misuse among US veterans prescribed long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain. J Gen Intern Med 2023 Sep; 38(12):2755-60. doi: 10.1007/s11606-023-08212-5..
Keywords: Decision Making, Opioids, Medication, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Pain, Chronic Conditions
Wurcel AG, Zubiago J, Reyes J
Surgeons' perspectives on valve surgery in people with drug use-associated infective endocarditis.
Hospitalizations for drug-use associated infective endocarditis (DUA-IE) have contributed to increasing surgical consultations for valve replacement. Little is known about cardiothoracic surgeons' perspectives on the decision-making process around operations for people with DUA-IE. The purpose of this semiqualitative, multisite study was to collect the perspectives of cardiothoracic surgeons on initial and repeat valve surgery for people with DUA-IE. The researchers conducted purposeful sampling of surgeons at 7 hospitals: University of Alabama, Boston Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Rhode Island Hospital-Brown University, Tufts Medical Center, and Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Nineteen cardiothoracic surgeons (53% acceptance) were interviewed. The study found that perceptions of the drivers of addiction varied as did the approaches to repeat valve operations. There were mixed perspectives on multidisciplinary meetings, although many surgeons indicated interest in more efficient meetings and more intensive postoperative and posthospitalization multidisciplinary care.
Citation: Wurcel AG, Zubiago J, Reyes J . Surgeons' perspectives on valve surgery in people with drug use-associated infective endocarditis. Ann Thorac Surg 2023 Sep; 116(3):492-98. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.12.068..
Keywords: Surgery, Provider: Physician, Substance Abuse
Miller-Rosales C, Busch SH, Meara ER
Internal and environmental predictors of physician practice use of screening and medications for opioid use disorders.
This study examined the extent of screening for opioid use and availability of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in a national cross-section of multi-physician primary care and multispecialty practices. The authors found that a total of 26.2% of practices offered MOUD, while 69.4% of practices screened for opioid use. Offering of MOUD in a practice was associated with having advanced HIT functionality, while access to on-site behavioral clinicians was positively associated with offering MOUD in adjusted models.
Citation: Miller-Rosales C, Busch SH, Meara ER . Internal and environmental predictors of physician practice use of screening and medications for opioid use disorders. Med Care Res Rev 2023 Aug; 80(4):410-22. doi: 10.1177/10775587231162681..
Keywords: Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Screening, Medication, Practice Patterns
Bunting AM, Schwartz RP, Wu LT
A brief screening and assessment tool for opioid use in adults: results from a validation study of the Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription Medication, and Other Substances Tool.
The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate opioid-specific validation results of the Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription Medication, and Other Substances (TAPS) tool for screening in primary care The findings showed that TAPS opioid items could be used in primary care settings for a spectrum of unhealthy opioid use; however, self-disclosure remains an issue in primary care settings. The researchers noted that further testing in a larger population sample might be warranted, given the brevity, simplicity, and accuracy of self-administration.
Citation: Bunting AM, Schwartz RP, Wu LT . A brief screening and assessment tool for opioid use in adults: results from a validation study of the Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription Medication, and Other Substances Tool. J Addict Med 2023 Jul-Aug; 17(4):471-73. doi: 10.1097/adm.0000000000001139..
Keywords: Opioids, Screening, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Primary Care
Levander XA, Carmody T, Cook RR
A gender-based secondary analysis of the ADAPT-2 combination naltrexone and bupropion treatment for methamphetamine use disorder trial.
This study’s objective was to determine if there were gender-based differences in treatment for methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) in general comparing treatment with placebo and due to use of a hormonal method of contraception (HMC). This research was a secondary analysis of ADAPT-2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, two-stage sequential parallel comparison design trial. This cohort study comprised 126 women (403 total participants); average age of 40.1 years with moderate to severe MUD. At baseline, women used methamphetamine intravenously fewer days than men [15.4 versus 23.1% days] and more women than men had anxiety (59.5 versus 47.6%). Of the 113 women capable of becoming pregnant, 31 used HMC. Treatment response for women was 29% in Stage 1 and 5.6% in Stage 2 compared with 3.2% and 0% on placebo, respectively. A treatment effect was found independently for females and males; with no between-gender treatment effect (0.144 females versus 0.100 males). Treatment effect did not differ by HMC use (0.156 HMC versus 0.128 none).
Citation: Levander XA, Carmody T, Cook RR . A gender-based secondary analysis of the ADAPT-2 combination naltrexone and bupropion treatment for methamphetamine use disorder trial. Addiction 2023 Jul; 118(7):1320-28. doi: 10.1111/add.16163..
Keywords: Substance Abuse, Medication, Behavioral Health, Sex Factors
Thakrar AP, Faude S, Perrone J
Association of urine fentanyl concentration with severity of opioid withdrawal among patients presenting to the emergency department.
This study’s aim was to determine whether urine fentanyl concentration is associated with severity of opioid withdrawal. The study was conducted in 3 emergency departments in an urban, academic health system from January 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021. It included patients with opioid use disorder, detectable urine fentanyl or norfentanyl, and Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) recorded within 6 hours of urine drug testing. Primary exposure measured was urine fentanyl concentration stratified as high (>400 ng/mL), medium (40-399 ng/mL), or low (<40 ng/mL). COWS was used to measure opioid withdrawal severity within 6 hours before or after urine specimen collection. A total of 1127 patients were included in the sample, with a mean age (SD) of 40.0 (10.7), 384 (34.1%) identified as female, 332 (29.5%) reported their race/ethnicity as non-Hispanic Black, and 658 (58.4%) reported their race/ethnicity as non-Hispanic White. For patients with high urine fentanyl concentrations, the adjusted mean COWS was 4.4 (3.9-4.8) compared with 5.5 (5.1-6.0) among those with medium and 7.7 (6.8-8.7) among those with low fentanyl concentrations.
Citation: Thakrar AP, Faude S, Perrone J . Association of urine fentanyl concentration with severity of opioid withdrawal among patients presenting to the emergency department. J Addict Med 2023 Jul-Aug; 17(4):447-53. doi: 10.1097/adm.0000000000001155..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Emergency Department, Substance Abuse
Weiner SG, Lo YC, Carroll AD
The incidence and disparities in use of stigmatizing language in clinical notes for patients with substance use disorder.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of stigmatizing language in clinical notes related to patients with substance use disorders and to detect patient- and provider-level differences. Results showed that the majority of patients with substance-related diagnoses had at least one note containing stigmatizing language. There were also several patient characteristic disparities associated with patients who had stigmatizing language in their notes. The author concluded that more clinician interventions about use of stigmatizing language are needed.
Citation: Weiner SG, Lo YC, Carroll AD . The incidence and disparities in use of stigmatizing language in clinical notes for patients with substance use disorder. J Addict Med 2023 Jul-Aug; 17(4):424-30. doi: 10.1097/adm.0000000000001145..
Keywords: Disparities, Cultural Competence, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Racial and Ethnic Minorities
King C, Beetham T, Smith N
Treatments Used Among Adolescent Residential Addiction Treatment Facilities in the US, 2022.
This study is a survey of US adolescent residential addiction treatment facilities to assess treatments used for adolescents younger than 18 years seeking treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). The authors posed as an aunt or uncle of a 16-year-old with a recent non-fatal fentanyl overdose to make calls to treatment facilities more plausible if they did not have all requested information about an adolescent. Four investigators called facilities included in the SAMHSA Treatment Indicator in random order and asked to speak with someone about residential treatment. They asked specific questions about buprenorphine use and open-ended questions about other available treatments. They identified 354 facilities, reached 327, and confirmed that 160 provided residential treatment to patients younger than 18 years. Of the 160 facilities identified 39 (24.4%) offered buprenorphine, including through partnerships with outside clinicians. Rates varied by US region (18% in the West to 40% in the Northeast). Among the 121 facilities that did not offer buprenorphine or were unsure, 57 indicated that adolescents who were prescribed buprenorphine by their own clinician could continue receiving it, at least temporarily, although some facilities indicated that would discontinue it before discharged, and 22.3% required adolescents to not be receiving it at admission. Of 160 facilities, 140 had someone available who could prescribe medications for psychiatric comorbidities. Overall, 124 facilities had naloxone, 24 did not, and 11 were unsure. Over half of the facilities included family members in adolescent treatment. Leading approaches for adolescent treatment included mutual help frameworks (eg, 12-step program, n = 59), cognitive behavior therapy (n = 52), community reinforcement/adolescent community approach (n = 44), art therapy (n = 40), and equine therapy (n = 40).
Citation: King C, Beetham T, Smith N . Treatments Used Among Adolescent Residential Addiction Treatment Facilities in the US, 2022. JAMA 2023 Jun 13; 329(22):1983-85. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.6266..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health
Isbell LM, Chimowitz H, Huff NR
A qualitative study of emergency physicians' and nurses' experiences caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or substance use disorders.
This study’s aim was to develop a comprehensive data-driven model of the complex challenges and unique dynamics associated with caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or substance use disorders (SUDs) in the emergency department (ED), as well as the effect on patient care quality. The authors conducted a preplanned topical analysis of grounded theory data obtained from semistructured interviews with 86 ED physicians and nurses from 8 hospitals in the Northeastern USA. Participants described in detail their experiences and challenges in caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or SUDs. The authors identified themes inductively using constant comparative analysis and developed a grounded model of physicians' and nurses' perceptions of challenges, biases, and effects on patient care. Challenges identified were emotional, diagnostic, and logistical. These challenges magnified existing health care system issues and social structures, which fuel and reinforce negative attitudes, expectations, and biases. This creates a cyclical process whereby challenges and biases associated with patients with psychiatric conditions and/or SUDs can reciprocally threaten patient care quality.
Citation: Isbell LM, Chimowitz H, Huff NR . A qualitative study of emergency physicians' and nurses' experiences caring for patients with psychiatric conditions and/or substance use disorders. Ann Emerg Med 2023 Jun; 81(6):715-27. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2022.10.014..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Substance Abuse, Emergency Department, Provider: Nurse, Provider: Physician
Stiles-Shields C, Archer J, Zhang J
A scoping review of associations between cannabis use and anxiety in adolescents and young adults.
This review sought to examine the association between anxiety and cannabis in adolescents and young adults. Forty-seven studies were identified that examined the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use via a database search; 23 studies found a positive association that greater anxiety was associated with greater cannabis use and 7 found a negative association. The remainder found no clear association. The authors concluded that further research is needed to understand the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use.
Citation: Stiles-Shields C, Archer J, Zhang J . A scoping review of associations between cannabis use and anxiety in adolescents and young adults. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2023 Jun; 54(3):639-58. doi: 10.1007/s10578-021-01280-w..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Anxiety, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health
Short VL, Abatemarco DJ, Sood E
The Child Healthcare at MATER Pediatric Study (CHAMPS): a 2-arm cluster randomized control trial of group well child care for mothers in treatment for opioid use disorder and their children.
Group-based well child care is a shared medical appointment where families join as a group to receive pediatric primary care. Prior research indicates that this method of receiving care increases patient-reported satisfaction and adherence to recommended care. There is little evidence supporting the use of group well child care for mothers with opioid use disorder. The purpose of the Child Healthcare at MATER Pediatric Study (CHAMPS) is to assess a group model of well child care for mothers with opioid use disorder and their children to determine if a group well child care offered on-site at an opioid treatment program for pregnant and parenting women is beneficial over individual well child care. A total of 108 mother-child dyads will be enrolled into the study. In the intervention branch, group well child care will be provided on-site at a maternal substance use disorder treatment program. Mother-child dyads in the control branch will receive individual well child care from one nearby pediatric primary care clinic. Dyads in both study branches will be followed for 18 months, and their resulting data will be compared. Primary outcomes will include well child care quality and utilization, child health knowledge, and parenting quality.
Citation: Short VL, Abatemarco DJ, Sood E . The Child Healthcare at MATER Pediatric Study (CHAMPS): a 2-arm cluster randomized control trial of group well child care for mothers in treatment for opioid use disorder and their children. Trials 2023 May 17; 24(1):333. doi: 10.1186/s13063-023-07357-2..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health
Raffa BJ, Schilling S, Henry MK
Ingestion of illicit substances by young children before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The objectives of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to assess changes in overall illicit substance ingestion rates among children less than 6 years old before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to examine changes by substance type. Results showed an immediate and sustained increase in illicit substance ingestions during the pandemic; no association between medicinal or recreational cannabis legalization and the rate of cannabis ingestion encounters was found. The authors concluded that additional studies were needed to contextualize these findings in the setting of pandemic-related stress and to identify interventions to prevent accidental ingestions.
Citation: Raffa BJ, Schilling S, Henry MK . Ingestion of illicit substances by young children before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Netw Open 2023 Apr 3; 6(4):e239549. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.9549..
Keywords: COVID-19, Children/Adolescents, Substance Abuse
Sibley AL, Baker R, Levander XA
"I am not a junkie": social categorization and differentiation among people who use drugs.
The purpose of this qualitative study, framed by Social Identity Theory/Self-Categorization Theory, was to investigate strategies of within-group categorization and differentiation among people who use drugs (PWUD) and the roles these social categories play in shaping intragroup attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors. Data were taken from the Rural Opioid Initiative. Through interviews with participating PWUDs, researchers identified several facets of identity, behavioral and demographic, along which PWUDs perceived salient social boundaries. Patterns of categorization and differentiation revealed negative intragroup attitudes, including stigma, that may hinder collective action in this marginalized group.
Citation: Sibley AL, Baker R, Levander XA . "I am not a junkie": social categorization and differentiation among people who use drugs. Int J Drug Policy 2023 Apr;114:103999. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2023.103999.
Keywords: Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Social Stigma
Sun EC, Rishel CA, Waljee JF
Association between state limits on opioid prescribing and the incidence of persistent postoperative opioid use among surgical patients.
The objective of this study was to examine whether laws limiting opioid prescribing were associated with reductions in the incidence of persistent postoperative opioid use. Over identified 950,000 privately insured patients who had undergone one of 10 procedures were identified; researchers then estimated the association between persistent postoperative opioid use and whether state opioid prescribing limits were in effect on the day of surgery. The findings suggested that laws limiting opioid prescriptions were not associated with subsequent reductions in persistent postoperative opioid use.
Citation: Sun EC, Rishel CA, Waljee JF . Association between state limits on opioid prescribing and the incidence of persistent postoperative opioid use among surgical patients. Ann Surg 2023 Apr;277(4):e759-e65. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000005283.
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Surgery, Substance Abuse, Practice Patterns
Lee AK, Bobb JF, Richards JE
Integrating alcohol-related prevention and treatment into primary care: a cluster randomized implementation trial.
This study’s goal was to evaluate an implementation intervention to increase (1) population-based alcohol-related prevention with brief interventions and (2) treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in primary care implemented with a broader program of behavioral health integration. This stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial called the Sustained Patient-Centered Alcohol-Related Care (SPARC) trial included 22 primary care practices in an integrated health system in Washington state. Participants consisted of all adult patients 18 years or older with primary care visits from January 2015 to July 2018. The study included 7 waves, with practices randomly assigned launch dates. A total of 333,596 patients visited primary care (mean age, 48 years; 193,583 [58%] female; 234,764 [70%] White individuals). The proportion of patients with brief intervention was higher during SPARC intervention than usual care periods (57 vs 11 per 10,000 patients per month). The proportion with AUD treatment engagement did not differ during intervention and usual care. However, it did increase intermediate outcomes: screening (83.2% vs 20.8%), new AUD diagnosis (33.8 vs 28.8 per 10,000), and treatment initiation (7.8 vs 6.2 per 10,000).
Citation: Lee AK, Bobb JF, Richards JE . Integrating alcohol-related prevention and treatment into primary care: a cluster randomized implementation trial. JAMA Intern Med 2023 Apr;183(4):319-28. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.7083.
Keywords: Alcohol Use, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Primary Care, Patient-Centered Healthcare
Short VL, Gannon M, Sood E
Opportunities to increase well-child care engagement for families affected by maternal opioid use disorder: perceptions of mothers and clinicians.
The objectives of this qualitative study were to gather in-depth information regarding maternal and clinician-reported factors that facilitate or hinder well-child care (WCC) engagement as well as information from mothers' experiences during WCC visits. Thirty mothers in treatment for parental opioid use disorder (OUD) and 13 clinicians working at a pediatric primary care clinic participated by completing one telephone session which involved a brief questionnaire followed by a semi-structured interview. Facilitators identified by mothers and clinicians, included continuity of care, addressing material needs, and clinician OUD training and knowledge. Barriers to WCC included: stigma toward mothers with OUD, gaps in basic parenting knowledge, competing specialized health care needs, and insufficient time to address concerns.
Citation: Short VL, Gannon M, Sood E . Opportunities to increase well-child care engagement for families affected by maternal opioid use disorder: perceptions of mothers and clinicians. Acad Pediatr 2023 Mar;23(2):425-33. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2022.07.013.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Family Health and History, Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Caregiving, Patient and Family Engagement
Cook RR, Foot C, Arah OA
Estimating the impact of stimulant use on initiation of buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone in two clinical trials and real-world populations.
The co-use of stimulants and opioids is increasing rapidly. Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) have demonstrated efficacy in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), but stimulant use may decrease the likelihood of initiating MOUD treatment. Moreover, trial participants may not represent "real-world" populations who would benefit from treatment. The study analyses included 673 clinical trial participants, 139 NSDUH respondents (weighted to represent 661,650 people), 71,751 TEDS treatment episodes, and 1,933 ROI participants. The study found that in RCTs, stimulant use reduced the likelihood of MOUD initiation by 32%. Stimulant use associations were slightly attenuated and non-significant among housed adults needing treatment and adults entering OUD treatment. The association was more pronounced, but still non-significant among rural people injecting drugs. Stimulant use had a larger negative impact on XR-NTX initiation compared to buprenorphine, especially in the rural population. The researchers concluded that stimulant use is a barrier to buprenorphine or XR-NTX initiation in clinical trials and real-world populations that would benefit from OUD treatment. Interventions to address stimulant use among patients with OUD are urgently needed, particularly among rural people injecting drugs, who already face limited access to MOUD.
Citation: Cook RR, Foot C, Arah OA . Estimating the impact of stimulant use on initiation of buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone in two clinical trials and real-world populations. Addict Sci Clin Pract 2023 Feb 14; 18(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s13722-023-00364-3..
Keywords: Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Opioids, Medication
Alexandre W, Muhammad H, Agbalajobi O
Alcohol treatment discussions and clinical outcomes among patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between medical dialogues concerning alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment, AUD treatment engagement, and mortality rates. The retrospective cohort study encompassed all patients diagnosed with cirrhosis and AUD receiving hepatology care within a single healthcare system in 2015. Baseline data on demographics, medical history, liver disease, and AUD treatment were examined. Information on AUD treatment discussions, initiation, alcohol cessation, and the subsequent 5-year mortality rates was gathered. Out of 436 patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis, 15% received AUD treatment at baseline, with 11% undergoing behavioral therapy, 2% receiving pharmacotherapy, and 1% obtaining both. Within the first year after the initial hepatology visit, 37 patients had AUD treatment, 51 remained in treatment, and 14 discontinued. Hepatology-documented AUD treatment recommendations were provided to 30% of patients, while 26% received primary care-documented recommendations. The majority of hepatology (86%) and primary care (88%) recommendations focused on behavioral therapy. Among patients with persistent alcohol use at baseline, AUD treatment after one year was significantly and independently associated with hepatology or primary care treatment discussions, and negatively associated with Medicaid insurance. When treatment discussions occurred in both settings, high treatment rates followed. Over five years, 35% of patients died. Ongoing alcohol use, age, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma significantly contributed to mortality in the final survival model. In patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis, AUD treatment discussions were documented in fewer than half of hepatology and primary care encounters; however, such discussions were significantly correlated with AUD treatment receipt.
Citation: Alexandre W, Muhammad H, Agbalajobi O . Alcohol treatment discussions and clinical outcomes among patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis. BMC Gastroenterol 2023 Feb 2; 23(1):29. doi: 10.1186/s12876-023-02656-z..
Keywords: Alcohol Use, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication
Ali MM, McClellan C, Mutter R
AHRQ Author: McClellan C
Recreational marijuana laws and the misuse of prescription opioids: evidence from National Survey on Drug Use and Health microdata.
Using micro data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, researchers examined the relationship between recreational marijuana laws (RMLs) and the misuse of prescription opioids. They found that RML adoption reduced the likelihood of misusing prescription opioids; however, this initial effect appeared to dissipate 2 or 3 years after RML adoption, when the relationship to the likelihood of misusing prescription opioids became positive.
Citation: Ali MM, McClellan C, Mutter R . Recreational marijuana laws and the misuse of prescription opioids: evidence from National Survey on Drug Use and Health microdata. Health Econ 2023 Feb; 32(2):277-301. doi: 10.1002/hec.4620..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Policy
Maclean JC, McClellan C, Pesko MF
AHRQ Author: McClellan C
Medicaid reimbursement rates for primary care services and behavioral health outcomes.
This AHRQ-authored research studied the effects of changing Medicaid reimbursement rates for primary care services on behavioral health outcomes-defined here as mental illness and substance use disorders. The authors applied two-way fixed-effects regressions to survey data specifically designed to measure behavioral health outcomes over the period 2010-2016. They found that higher primary care reimbursement rates reduce mental illness and substance use disorders among non-elderly adult Medicaid enrollees, although they interpreted findings for substance use disorders with some caution as they may be vulnerable to differential pre-trends. Overall, their findings suggest positive spillovers from a policy designed to target primary care services to behavioral health outcomes.
Citation: Maclean JC, McClellan C, Pesko MF . Medicaid reimbursement rates for primary care services and behavioral health outcomes. Health Econ 2023 Jan 6;32(4):873-909. doi: 10.1002/hec.4646.
Keywords: Medicaid, Payment, Primary Care, Behavioral Health, Outcomes, Access to Care, Substance Abuse, Health Insurance
Toseef MU, Durfee J, Podewils LJ
Total cost of care associated with opioid use disorder treatment.
Researchers conducted a retrospective study among adult patients diagnosed with opioid use disorder (OUD) and who had a clinical encounter at a safety-net institution in Denver in 2020 to investigate the association of medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) treatment initiation and ongoing care on overall healthcare costs of Medicaid Fee-for-Service patients. Results indicated that patients with OUD who initiated MOUD treatment but were not linked to ongoing care had the highest healthcare cost, while those who were linked to ongoing MOUD treatment had the lowest cost. The researchers concluded that MOUD treatment was not only effective at addressing the morbidity and mortality burden of OUD, but also associated with decreased financial costs. They noted that additional policy and care delivery changes will be needed to focus efforts for improve linkage to ongoing treatment
Citation: Toseef MU, Durfee J, Podewils LJ . Total cost of care associated with opioid use disorder treatment. Prev Med 2023 Jan;166:107345. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.107345.
Keywords: Opioids, Healthcare Costs, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Medication
Carlile N, Fuller TE, Benneyan JC
Lessons learned in implementing a chronic opioid therapy management system.
This article describes a research collaborative of health service researchers, systems engineers, and clinicians that sought to improve processes for safer chronic opioid therapy management in an academic primary care center. The authors present implementation results and lessons learned along with an intervention toolkit that others may consider using within their organization. They designed, tested, and implemented two key safe opioid use process metrics-percent for patients with recent opioid treatment agreements and urine drug tests. Focus groups were conducted after the conclusion of the implementation. They found a general lack of knowledge regarding resources available to patients and prescribers in the primary care clinic. In addition, 69% of clinicians reported largely “inheriting” (rather than initiating) their chronic opioid therapy patients. They also tracked 68 patients over a 4-year period and found although process measures improved, full adherence was not achieved for the entire population. Barriers identified included team structure, the evolving opioid environment, and surveillance challenges, along with disruptions resulting from the 2019 novel coronavirus.
Citation: Carlile N, Fuller TE, Benneyan JC . Lessons learned in implementing a chronic opioid therapy management system. J Patient Saf 2022 Dec 1;18(8):e1142-e49. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000001039..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Pain, Chronic Conditions, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Practice Patterns
Grove LR, Rao N, Domino ME
Are North Carolina clinicians delivering opioid use disorder treatment to Medicaid beneficiaries?
This study’s goal was to inform efforts to increase prescriptions of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) among Medicaid beneficiaries. A retrospective study of North Carolina licensed physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners was conducted to estimate Medicaid participation prevalence among clinicians authorized to prescribe buprenorphine and to estimate the association between clinician characteristics and OUD care delivery to Medicaid beneficiaries. Outcomes looked for were indicators of any Medicaid professional claims and Medicaid claims data for buprenorphine and naltrexone. Licensure data from 2018 was merged with 2019 US Drug Enforcement Administration to identify clinicians who used the DEA waiver required to prescribe buprenorphine (n = 1714). Services by waivered clinicians to Medicare beneficiaries ranged from 67% of behavioral health clinicians to 82.9% of specialist physicians. Prevalence of prescribing buprenorphine to Medicaid beneficiaries ranged from 30.3% among specialist physicians to 51.6% among behavioral health clinicians.
Citation: Grove LR, Rao N, Domino ME . Are North Carolina clinicians delivering opioid use disorder treatment to Medicaid beneficiaries? Addiction 2022 Nov;117(11):2855-63. doi: 10.1111/add.15854..
Keywords: Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Vulnerable Populations, Medication, Access to Care, Medicaid
Rich KM, Zubiago J, Murphy M
The association of gender with receptive and distributive needle sharing among individuals who inject drugs.
The authors sought to assess the relationship between gender and needle sharing with injection drug use. Using data from the 2010-2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) datasets, they found that women were more likely in comparison with men to share needles both through receptive and distributive means. They concluded that expansion of interventions, including syringe service programs, to increase access to sterile injection equipment, is of great importance.
Citation: Rich KM, Zubiago J, Murphy M . The association of gender with receptive and distributive needle sharing among individuals who inject drugs. Harm Reduct J 2022 Sep 30;19(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s12954-022-00689-3..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Sex Factors