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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 1010 Research Studies Displayed
Ko H, Pelt CE, Martin BI
Patient-reported outcomes following cemented versus cementless primary total knee arthroplasty: a comparative analysis based on propensity score matching.
The purpose of this study was to compare baseline and early post-operative global and condition-specific patient reported outcomes (PROs) between patients undergoing cemented versus cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The researchers prospectively collected PROs through the Comparative Effectiveness Pulmonary Embolism Prevention After Hip and Knee Replacement (PEPPER) trial using the short-form of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS-Jr.), the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Physical Health (PROMIS-PH), and the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). Pre- and post-operative outcomes in 5,961 patients undergoing primary TKA between December 2016 and August 2021 were examined. The study found that significant pre to- post-operative were observed in both groups. The researchers concluded that patients with cemented TKA reported early benefit in KOOS-Jr. over those with cementless TKA.
Citation: Ko H, Pelt CE, Martin BI . Patient-reported outcomes following cemented versus cementless primary total knee arthroplasty: a comparative analysis based on propensity score matching. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Oct 27;23(1):934. doi: 10.1186/s12891-022-05899-1..
Keywords: Orthopedics, Surgery, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Kuzel AJ, Cuellar A, Nichols L
The EvidenceNOW practice support initiative: the Heart of Virginia Healthcare.
The purpose of this study was for The Heart of Virginia Health care (HVH) collaborative (one of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ) Evidence Now project’s 7 collaboratives) to test different ways to improve performance and outcomes on ABCS clinical quality measures (appropriate Aspirin use, Blood pressure control, Cholesterol control, and Smoking cessation counseling) within small primary care practices. The researchers recruited 264 eligible practices and randomized them to 3 cohorts in a stepped wedge design, with 173, utilizing 16 different EHRs, participated through the entire initiative. Trained coaches delivered the practice support curriculum to improve performance on the ABCS measures. The program included an initial kickoff meeting, 3 months of focused support, 9 months of continued support, and access to online materials and faculty. The intervention phase was shortened due to difficulty in recruiting a sufficient number of practices. The study found that the short HVH intervention had a small but statistically significant positive average effects on appropriate use of aspirin and other anti-thrombotics, small negative effects on blood pressure control, except for those practices which did not attend the kickoff, and small negative effects on smoking cessation counseling. The researchers concluded that the truncation of the intervention contributed to the lack of substantial improvements in the ABCS.
Citation: Kuzel AJ, Cuellar A, Nichols L . The EvidenceNOW practice support initiative: the Heart of Virginia Healthcare. J Am Board Fam Med 2022 Oct 18;35(5):979-89. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2022.05.210021..
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Evidence-Based Practice, Primary Care, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Healthcare Delivery
Graber J, Kittelson A, Juarez-Colunga E
Comparing "people-like-me" and linear mixed model predictions of functional recovery following knee arthroplasty.
This study compared the relative strengths and weaknesses of 2 prediction model approaches for predicting functional recovery after knee arthroplasty: a neighbors-based "people-like-me" (PLM) approach and a linear mixed model (LMM) approach. The authors used 2 distinct datasets to train and then test PLM and LMM prediction approaches. They used the Timed Up and Go (TUG)-a common test of mobility-to operationalize physical function. Both approaches use patient characteristics and baseline postoperative TUG values to predict TUG recovery from days 1-425 following surgery. They then compared the accuracy and precision of the two approaches. A total of 317 patient records with 1379 TUG observations were used to train approaches, and 456 patient records with 1244 TUG observations were used to test the predictions. Both approaches performed similarly in terms of mean squared error and bias, but the PLM approach provided more accurate and precise estimates of prediction uncertainty.
Citation: Graber J, Kittelson A, Juarez-Colunga E . Comparing "people-like-me" and linear mixed model predictions of functional recovery following knee arthroplasty. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2022 Oct 7;29(11):1899-907. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocac123..
Keywords: Orthopedics, Surgery, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes
Lozano PM, Lane-Fall M, Franklin PD
AHRQ Author: Chesley FD
Training the next generation of learning health system scientists.
The purpose of this paper was to describe the approaches developed by 11 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)- and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute- funded Centers of Excellence (COEs) to grow the number of learning health systems (LHS) scientists. Program directors for each COE have provided descriptive program data since 2018. The authors found that since the program began, the 11 COEs have partnered with health systems to train 110 scholars. Nine programs partner with a Veterans Affairs health system and 9 partner with safety net providers. Clinically trained scholars include 70 physicians and 17 scholars in other clinical disciplines. Non-clinicians represent diverse fields, with most representing population health sciences. Challenges include guiding scholars through issues that can disrupt or delay projects during already-limited program time, such as delays in accessing data, organizational changes, pandemic impacts and others. The researchers concluded that the program documentation provides evidence of scholars' academic accomplishments and career-trajectory achievements.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; HS026369; HS026370; HS026372; HS026379; HS026383; HS026385; HS026390; HS026393; HS026395; HS026396; HS026407
Citation: Lozano PM, Lane-Fall M, Franklin PD . Training the next generation of learning health system scientists. Learn Health Syst 2022 Oct;6(4):e10342. doi: 10.1002/lrh2.10342..
Keywords: Learning Health Systems, Health Systems, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice, Training, Workforce
Oatis CA, Konnyu KJ, Franklin PD
Generating consistent longitudinal real-world data to support research: lessons from physical therapists.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether clinicians can generate consistent and standardized real-world data (RWD) to enhance data quality in the course of routine patient care. The researchers collaborated with PT clinicians and experts to generate a web-based comprehensive system to quantify the total dose of PT interventions with type of modality, quantity, intensity, and progressions over time. The system was designed to be implemented in outpatient PT clinics capable of residing alongside or within a clinic’s existing EHR. The study goal was to collect routine clinical data in a format useable by the general population of outpatient physical therapists treating patients post Total Knee Replacement (TKR) and in a structure that would allow easy quantification and analysis across patients, therapists, and sites. Uniform and efficient documentation of real-world PT practice following TKR is essential for the necessary comparative effectiveness research demanded by the currently unexplained practice variation. Over a period of 2 years, physical therapists and PT assistants located in three US states entered data for a total of 161 patients post TKR with 2615 patient visits. No technical problems with the data capture system were reported, and physical therapists noted that data entry was efficient and simple. The researchers concluded that the results demonstrate that routine PT interventions can be captured thoroughly in an efficient, systematic, and consistent manner across real-world therapists and sites.
Citation: Oatis CA, Konnyu KJ, Franklin PD . Generating consistent longitudinal real-world data to support research: lessons from physical therapists. ACR Open Rheumatol 2022 Sep;4(9):771-74. doi: 10.1002/acr2.11465..
Keywords: Research Methodologies, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Wernli KJ, Smith RE, Henderson LM
Decision quality and regret with treatment decisions in women with breast cancer: pre-operative breast MRI and breast density.
The authors evaluated self-report of decision quality and regret with breast cancer surgical treatment by pre-operative breast MRI use in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. They found that breast MRI use in the diagnostic work-up of breast cancer does not negatively alter women's perceptions of surgical treatment decisions in early survivorship.
Citation: Wernli KJ, Smith RE, Henderson LM . Decision quality and regret with treatment decisions in women with breast cancer: pre-operative breast MRI and breast density. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2022 Aug;194(3):607-16. doi: 10.1007/s10549-022-06648-7..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Decision Making, Women, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Israni AK, Schladt D, Bruin MJ
Deconstructing silos of knowledge around lung transplantation to support patients: a patient-specific search of scientific registry of transplant recipients data.
This article describes the development of the web site www.transplantcentersearch.org intended to support lung transplant patients by providing program-level data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) on each program in the United States. There is a high level of variation in selection criteria and although nearly half of recipients reside within 50 miles of their transplant program, >30% travel 100 miles or more. The web site allows patients to search for programs in the area of their choosing and receive information on the number of transplants and program factors that are most predictive of recipient survival after listing. Patients can also review information on recipients and donors at each program to further differentiate program options. This feature is patient-specific, allowing the patient to enter information about their clinical background and indicate general preferences for their treatment before receiving counts on recipients and donors matching their entries. The development of the site involved 2 phases. In Phase I the authors examined variations between programs using data on waitlist and transplant outcomes from the SRTR. Phase II involved interviews and focus groups with transplant candidates, recipients, and family members to gain insight into the decision-making process, barriers, and knowledge groups. In the future randomized trials will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the web site.
Citation: Israni AK, Schladt D, Bruin MJ . Deconstructing silos of knowledge around lung transplantation to support patients: a patient-specific search of scientific registry of transplant recipients data. Transplantation 2022 Aug;106(8):1517-19. doi: 10.1097/tp.0000000000004051..
Keywords: Transplantation, Registries, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Kumamaru H, Jalbert JJ, Nguyen LL
Utility of automated data-adaptive propensity score method for confounding by indication in comparative effectiveness study in real world Medicare and registry data.
The authors assessed the utility of an automated data-adaptive analytic approach for confounding adjustment when both claims and clinical registry data are available. Using a comparative study example of carotid artery stenting vs. carotid endarterectomy with strong confounding by indication, they found that the automated data-adaptive propensity score performed better than the investigator-specified propensity score in general, but both claims and registry data were needed to adequately control for bias.
Citation: Kumamaru H, Jalbert JJ, Nguyen LL . Utility of automated data-adaptive propensity score method for confounding by indication in comparative effectiveness study in real world Medicare and registry data. PLoS One 2022 Aug;17(8):e0272975. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0272975..
Keywords: Registries, Comparative Effectiveness, Research Methodologies, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Salloum RG, Bilello L, Bian J
Study protocol for a type III hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial to evaluate scaling interoperable clinical decision support for patient-centered chronic pain management in primary care.
The objective of this 3-year project is to study the adaptation and implementation of an existing interoperable clinical decision support (CDS) tool for pain treatment shared decision making, with tailored implementation support, in new clinical settings in the OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium. The evaluation will be organized by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, with an adaptation and tailoring of PainManager, an open source interoperable CDS tool. It is anticipated that this evaluation will establish the feasibility and obtain preliminary data in preparation for a multi-site pragmatic trial targeting the effectiveness of PainManager and tailored implementation support on shared decision making and patient-reported pain and physical function.
AHRQ-funded; R18 HS028584.
Citation: Salloum RG, Bilello L, Bian J . Study protocol for a type III hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial to evaluate scaling interoperable clinical decision support for patient-centered chronic pain management in primary care. Implement Sci 2022 Jul 15;17(1):44. doi: 10.1186/s13012-022-01217-4..
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Pain, Chronic Conditions, Primary Care, Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Patient-Centered Healthcare
Korthuis PT, Cook RR, Lum PJ
HIV clinic-based extended-release naltrexone versus treatment as usual for people with HIV and opioid use disorder: a non-blinded, randomized non-inferiority trial.
Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) treatment medications can improve outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and also reduce opioid use. The purpose of the study was to determine if outpatient naltrexone treatment could also reduce opioid use and improve outcomes for HIV. The researchers reported that enrollment was stopped early because of slower than expected recruitment, resulting in 114 final participants with untreated OUD and HIV, with 62% positive for fentanyl, 60% positive for cocaine, and 47% positive for other opioids at the baseline. The intervention compared treatment as usual (TAU) of methadone or buprenorphine with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) on group differences in viral suppression at 24 weeks and past 30-day use of opioids at 24 weeks. The study reported that at 24 weeks the outcome of viral suppression was similar for TAU and XR-NTX, and that fewer XR-NTX participants initiated medication than TAU participants. The outcome of previous 30-day use of opioids was similar for TAU as compared to XR-NTX. Of those participants who did initiate medication, those administered XR-NTX experienced less days of opioid use when compared with TAU in the prior 30 days. The researchers reported that the study evidence was not conclusive but did support that XR-NTX is not inferior to TAU for HIV viral suppression, and that study participants who started XR-NTX used less opioids at 24 weeks than participants who were administered TAU.
Citation: Korthuis PT, Cook RR, Lum PJ . HIV clinic-based extended-release naltrexone versus treatment as usual for people with HIV and opioid use disorder: a non-blinded, randomized non-inferiority trial. Addiction 2022 Jul;117(7):1961-71. doi: 10.1111/add.15836..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Opioids, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Medication, Treatments, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice
Ivlev I, Beil TL, Haynes JS
Rapid evidence review of digital cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents with depression.
This rapid evidence review was conducted to explore the benefits and harms of digital cognitive-behavioral therapy (dCBT) and the barriers to and facilitators of implementing dCBT for adolescents. An extensive literature review was done through December 6, 2021 for controlled trials conducted in settings highly applicable to the US. Additionally, the authors searched relevant systematic reviews for eligible studies. They identified 12 trials that examined the effects of nine dCBT programs. Overall, dCBT was slightly superior to other therapies in improving depression symptoms immediately, but not at a longer follow-up. There did not appear to be an increased risk for suicidal attempts or ideation with dCBT, however the number of events was very small. Potential barriers to implementing and maintaining dCBT included challenges engaging/retaining patients, developing infrastructure, and training therapists to facilitate dCBT. No data on harms or unintended negative consequences were reported in the included studies.
Citation: Ivlev I, Beil TL, Haynes JS . Rapid evidence review of digital cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents with depression. J Adolesc Health 2022 Jul;71(1):14-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.01.220..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Depression, Behavioral Health, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Saldanha IJ, Cao W, Bhuma MR
Systematic reviews can guide clinical practice and new research on primary headaches in pregnancy: an editorial on the 2022 American Headache Society Members' Choice Award paper.
This article describes the systematic review paper that was done on management of primary headaches during pregnancy, postpartum, and breastfeeding, which won the 2021 American Headache Society’s Member’s Choice Award. The findings are summarized in this paper, which discusses different pharmacologic interventions and their possible effects on the fetus/child and mother. Evidence was summarized for prevention and treatment of primary headache. The authors did not find a lot of evidence for harms or benefits but called for more studies to be done.
Citation: Saldanha IJ, Cao W, Bhuma MR . Systematic reviews can guide clinical practice and new research on primary headaches in pregnancy: an editorial on the 2022 American Headache Society Members' Choice Award paper. Headache 2022 Jul;62(7):774-76. doi: 10.1111/head.14332..
Keywords: Neurological Disorders, Pregnancy, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Dullabh P, Sandberg SF, Heaney-Huls K
AHRQ Author: Berliner E, Dymek C, Harrison MI, Swiger J
Challenges and opportunities for advancing patient-centered clinical decision support: findings from a horizon scan.
This AHRQ-authored horizon scan identified challenges and opportunities for advancing patient-centered clinical decision support (PC CDS) and future directions for PC CDS. The authors engaged a technical expert panel, conducted a scoping literature review, and interviewed key informants. They quantitatively analyzed literature and interview transcripts and mapped the findings to the 4 phases translating evidence into PC CDS interventions (Prioritizing, Authoring, Implementing, and Measuring) and to external factors. Twelve challenges were identified for PC CDS development with lack of patient input identified as a critical challenge. Lack of patient-centered terminology standards was viewed as a challenge in authoring PC CDS. They also found a dearth of CDS studies that measured clinical outcomes, creating significant gaps in the understanding of PC CDS’ impact.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 233201500023I.
Citation: Dullabh P, Sandberg SF, Heaney-Huls K . Challenges and opportunities for advancing patient-centered clinical decision support: findings from a horizon scan. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2022 Jun 14;29(7):1233-43. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocac059.
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Patient-Centered Healthcare, Health Information Technology (HIT), Decision Making, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Dullabh P, Heaney-Huls K, Hovey L
The technology landscape of patient-centered clinical decision support - where are we and what is needed?
This paper explores the technology landscape for patient-centered clinical decision support (PC CDS) and what has come out of Patient Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) and health care delivery system transformation efforts. The authors explore what is needed to make it more shareable, standards-based, and publicly available with the goal of improving patient care and clinical outcomes. Three sources of information were used: (1) a 22-member technical expert panel; (2) a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature; and (3) key informant interviews with PC CDS stakeholders. Ten salient technical considerations that span all phases of PC CDS development were identified. Although significant progress has been made, challenges remain.
Citation: Dullabh P, Heaney-Huls K, Hovey L . The technology landscape of patient-centered clinical decision support - where are we and what is needed? Stud Health Technol Inform 2022 Jun 6;290:350-53. doi: 10.3233/shti220094..
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Decision Making
Loo S, Mullikin K, Robbins C
Patient navigator team perceptions on the implementation of a citywide breast cancer patient navigation protocol: a qualitative study.
This study’s goal was to assess the implementation of the 2018 Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP), an evidence-based patient navigation intervention aimed at addressing breast cancer care disparities, across six Boston hospitals. Patient navigator team member perspectives regarding implementation barriers and facilitators one-year post-study implementation were assessed. Seventeen interviews were conducted with patient navigators, patient navigator supervisors, and designated clinical champions. The following benefits were identified by participants: 1) increased networking and connections for navigators across clinical sites (Cosmopolitanism), 2) formalization of the patient navigation process (Goals and Purpose, Access to Knowledge and Information, and Relative Advantage), and 3) flexibility within the TRIP intervention that allowed for diversity in implementation and use of TRIP components across sites (Adaptability). Barriers included documentation requirements and the structured patient follow up guidelines that did not always align with the timeline of existing site navigation processes.
Citation: Loo S, Mullikin K, Robbins C . Patient navigator team perceptions on the implementation of a citywide breast cancer patient navigation protocol: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res 2022 May 21;22(1):683. doi: 10.1186/s12913-022-08090-3..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Capone CA, Emerson B, Sweberg T
Intubation practice and outcomes among pediatric emergency departments: a report from National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS).
The purpose of this study was to describe Tracheal Intubation (TI) practice and outcomes in pediatric Emergency Departments as compared to those in intensive care units (ICUs) and use the resulting data to identify targets for quality improvement. The researchers analyzed consecutive TI encounters from pediatric EDs and ICUs in the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) database from 2015 to 2018. The study found a total of 12,512 TIs in 51 pediatric/cardiac ICUs, and 756 TIs in 13 pediatric EDs and were reported. Proportion of TIs for shock (26% ED vs. 14% ICU), respiratory decompensation (52% vs. 64%), and neurologic deterioration (30% vs. 11%) also differed by location. Limited neck mobility was reported more often in the ED (16% vs. 6%). TIs in the ED were performed more often via video laryngoscopy (64% vs. 29%). Oxygen desaturation was less commonly reported in ED TIs (13.6%) than ICU TIs (17%). Among ED TIs, shock as an indication and limited mouth opening were independently associated with adverse TI-associated events (TIAEs). The study concluded that TI characteristics vary between pediatric EDs and ICUs, yet outcomes are similar.
Citation: Capone CA, Emerson B, Sweberg T . Intubation practice and outcomes among pediatric emergency departments: a report from National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS). Acad Emerg Med 2022 Apr;29(4):406-14. doi: 10.1111/acem.14431..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Registries, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Chu DK, Abrams EM, Golden BK
Risk of second allergic reaction to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of case studies and case reports was to assess the risk of severe immediate allergic reactions to a second dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in people who experienced an immediate allergic reaction to the first dose. The researchers evaluated the World Health Organization Global Coronavirus database, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and Embase from the date of inception through October 4th, 2021. The main outcomes and measures were a risk of severe immediate allergic reaction and repeated severe immediate allergic reactions with a second vaccine dose. The study found that among 22 studies of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, 1366 individuals had immediate allergic reactions to their first vaccination. Of these, 87.8% were women with a mean age of 46.1 years. Six patients developed severe immediate allergic reactions after their second vaccination, 232 developed mild symptoms, and 1360 tolerated the dose. Among 78 persons with severe immediate allergic reactions to their first SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, 4 people had a second severe immediate reaction, and 15 had non-severe symptoms. There were no deaths. The study concluded that in a supervised setting equipped to manage severe allergic reactions, revaccination of individuals with an immediate allergic reaction to a first SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose can be safe.
Citation: Chu DK, Abrams EM, Golden BK . Risk of second allergic reaction to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med 2022 Apr;182(4):376-85. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.8515..
Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccination, Risk, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
D'Orazio B, Ramachandran J, Khalida C
Stakeholder engagement in a comparative effectiveness/implementation study to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection recurrence: CA-MRSA Project (CAMP2).
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence and participation of a stakeholder committee would positively impact the effectiveness of the design and execution of a home-based Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection prevention intervention. The trial utilized community health workers to implement infection prevention protocols in participant’s homes, including home visits, sampling household surfaces at baseline and then three months, and obtaining surveillance cultures from index patients and household members. The study assembled and convened The Clinician and Patient Stakeholder Advisory Committee (CPSAC), comprised of New York-based federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and community health emergency departments, laboratory and clinical researchers, clinicians, and patient stakeholders. The CPSAC was tasked with trial oversight and shared decision-making and troubleshooting, and convened both in person and remotely. The researchers concluded that the inclusion and engagement of the CPSAC during the trial design and implementation was highly effective in addressing and resolving challenges in both participant recruitment and home visits.
Citation: D'Orazio B, Ramachandran J, Khalida C . Stakeholder engagement in a comparative effectiveness/implementation study to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection recurrence: CA-MRSA Project (CAMP2). Prog Community Health Partnersh 2022;16(1):45-60. doi: 10.1353/cpr.2022.0005..
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Community-Acquired Infections, Infectious Diseases, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Evidence-Based Practice
Bergman ZR, Usher M, Olson A
Comparison of outcomes and process of care for patients treated at hospitals dedicated for COVID-19 care vs other hospitals.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the mortality rate and complications associated with treatment at the COVID-19-dedicated hospitals. Findings showed that, in this cohort study, COVID-19-dedicated hospitals in Minnesota had multiple benefits, including providing high-volume repetitive treatment and isolating patients with the infection. This experience suggests improved in-hospital mortality for patients treated at dedicated hospitals.
AHRQ-funded; HS026732; HS026379.
Citation: Bergman ZR, Usher M, Olson A . Comparison of outcomes and process of care for patients treated at hospitals dedicated for COVID-19 care vs other hospitals. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Mar;5(3):e220873. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.0873..
Keywords: COVID-19, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice, Outcomes, Healthcare Delivery, Hospitals
Lin E, Uhler LM, Finley EP
Incorporating patient-reported outcomes into shared decision-making in the management of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study protocol.
This article describes a US-based 2-year, two-site hybrid type 1 study to assess clinical effectiveness and implementation of a machine learning-based patient decision aid integrating patient-reported outcomes and clinical variables to support shared decision-making for patients with knee osteoarthritis considering total knee replacement. Study results will be disseminated through conference presentations, publications and professional societies.
Citation: Lin E, Uhler LM, Finley EP . Incorporating patient-reported outcomes into shared decision-making in the management of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study protocol. BMJ Open 2022 Feb 21;12(2):e055933. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055933..
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Decision Making, Arthritis, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Orthopedics, Health Information Technology (HIT), Evidence-Based Practice
Wallis CJD, Huang LC, Zhao Z
Association between pelvic nodal radiotherapy and patient-reported functional outcomes through 5 years among men undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: an assessment of the Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (C
In this study, the investigators sought to compare functional outcomes for men receiving prostate and pelvic versus prostate-only radiotherapy, longitudinally over 5 years. The investigators concluded that there were no clinically important differences in disease-specific or general health-related quality of life with the addition of pelvic irradiation to prostate radiotherapy, supporting the use of pelvic radiotherapy when it may be of clinical benefit, such as men with increased risk of nodal involvement.
AHRQ-funded; HS022640; HS019356.
Citation: Wallis CJD, Huang LC, Zhao Z . Association between pelvic nodal radiotherapy and patient-reported functional outcomes through 5 years among men undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: an assessment of the Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (C Urol Oncol 2022 Feb;40(2):56.e1-56.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.04.035..
Keywords: Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Cancer, Men's Health, Comparative Effectiveness, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Quality of Life
Aronson PL, Fleischer E, Schaeffer P
Development of a parent-reported outcome measure for febrile infants ≤60 days old.
This study’s aim was to develop a patient-reported outcome measure for febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated in the emergency department. This 3-part study included: 1) individual, semistructured interviews with parents of febrile infants 60 days or younger to generate potential items for the measure; 2) expert review with pediatric emergency medicine physicians and member checking with parents, and 3) cognitive interviews with a new sample of parents who gave feedback and rated the measure’s ease of use on a 4-point scale. In part 1 24 parents of 21 infants were interviewed. The interviews revealed several themes: parents' experiences with medical care, communication, and decision making; parents' emotions, particularly worry, fear, and stress; the infant's outcomes valued by parents; and the impact of the infant's illness on the family, from which 22 potential items for inclusion were identified. In part 2, 10 items were revised for clarity based on feedback from physicians and parents. In part 3, the authors further revised the measure for clarity and added an item. The final measure included 23 items.
Citation: Aronson PL, Fleischer E, Schaeffer P . Development of a parent-reported outcome measure for febrile infants ≤60 days old. Pediatr Emerg Care 2022 Feb;38(2):e821-e27. doi: 10.1097/pec.0000000000002378.
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes
Wallis CJD, Zhao Z, Huang LC
Association of treatment modality, functional outcomes, and baseline characteristics with treatment-related regret among men with localized prostate cancer.
Treatment-related regret is an integrative, patient-centered measure that accounts for morbidity, oncologic outcomes, and anxiety associated with prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the association between treatment approach, functional outcomes, and patient expectations and treatment-related regret among patients with localized prostate cancer. The investigators concluded that the findings of their cohort study suggested that more than 1 in 10 patients with localized prostate cancer experienced treatment-related regret.
AHRQ-funded; HS019356; HS022640.
Citation: Wallis CJD, Zhao Z, Huang LC . Association of treatment modality, functional outcomes, and baseline characteristics with treatment-related regret among men with localized prostate cancer. JAMA Oncol 2022 Jan;8(1):50-59. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.5160..
Keywords: Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Cancer, Men's Health, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Bhalala US, Gist KM, Tripathi S
Characterization and outcomes of hospitalized children with coronavirus disease 2019: a report from a multicenter, viral infection and respiratory illness universal study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry.
The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine data from the Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry and describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes in children hospitalized with COVID-19. The study included 874 children under the age of 18 hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at 51 participating hospital centers from February 2020 to January 2021. The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. The researchers found that the median age was 8 years, with 62.9% non-Hispanic and a boy to girl ratio of 1:2. A total of 28.2% of the children met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 46.2% were admitted to the ICU. A child’s age, the presence of a fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. The rate of hospital mortality for this group was 1.8%. The median duration of ICU stay was 3.9 days and the median duration of hospital stay was 4 days. For those patients with 28-day data, the survival rate was 86.3%. The researchers concluded that in this study, older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently related with ICU admission.
AHRQ-funded; HS026393; HS026485.
Citation: Bhalala US, Gist KM, Tripathi S . Characterization and outcomes of hospitalized children with coronavirus disease 2019: a report from a multicenter, viral infection and respiratory illness universal study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. Crit Care Med 2022 Jan;50(1):e40-e51. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000005232..
Keywords: COVID-19, Children/Adolescents, Registries, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice, Inpatient Care
Douthit BJ, Walden RL, Cato K
Data science trends relevant to nursing practice: a rapid review of the 2020 literature.
This study’s objective was to summarize the latest research and applications of nursing-relevant patient outcomes and clinical processes in the data science literature. Numerous contemporary data science methods were represented in the literature including the use of machine learning, neural networks, and natural language processing. This review provides an overview of the data science trends that were relevant to nursing practice in 2020.
Citation: Douthit BJ, Walden RL, Cato K . Data science trends relevant to nursing practice: a rapid review of the 2020 literature. Appl Clin Inform 2022 Jan;13(1):161-79. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1742218..
Keywords: Nursing, Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient-Centered Outcomes Research